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the child recovering perfectly, though slowly.-There is certainly no effectual reasoning against facts; but we confess we should not have expected much Bark to have got inwardly by this outward application of the gross powder, which should feen to act chiefly by its friction, and might corrugate or braci a little, when thus applied. We should imagine a general fomentation, with a strong decoction of the Bark, might have imparted more of it: and as a good deal of its efficacy has been thought to result from its conftringing the fihres like a styptic, perhaps it might prove no bad alternative, in this age of useful experiments, to souse an adult patient, under an ague, into a good tan vat. An unexpected plunge into the cold bath, is said to have succeeded in such circumstances.
The nineteenth, by Dr. Macaulay, may be added to many other powerful effects of the Sublimate ; and be also extend•ed to its safety, the Doctor having cured two pregnant women of some high venereal fymptoms by it.
The twentieth, is a letter from Dr. Bond of Philadelphia, to Dr. Fothergill, giving two instances of the success of the Bark in fcrophulous cafes. In the first it was compleat, by the lady's taking half a drachmn thrice a day, for near four months, after which she carried an hundred doses with her into the country, where the continues well. In the second it was less perfect, the tumours being only almost dissolved, after the girl had taken an hundred and fifty doses, joined to some steel. An omission of the Bark for some weeks caused the swellings to increase to near their former size; but Dr. Bond says, they have again yielded to the Bark and Steel, by which we do not suppose, they have been entirely subdued, as he calls this a less extraordinary instance than the first. Suppose he had added a Bark-quilted ftomacher or stays, (not to insist on such a quilted petticoat) on this obItinate occasion ?
We shall give an abstract of the remaining articles in our next,
Elements of Criticism. Concluded from page 24th of laft
T may be presumed, from the account given in the pre
ceding articles, that our Readers are become acquainted with the nature and scope of this ingenious work: therefore, without farther preface, we shall proceed to the third Volume, which opens with some very accurate and judicious Remarks on the subject of Comparisons.
Comparisons, says his Lordship, serve two different purposes. When addressed to the understanding, their purpose is to instruct; when to the heart, their aim is to give pleasure. An object of one sense cannot be compared to an object of another; for such objects are totally separated from each other, and have no circumstance in common to admit either resemblance or contrast. It has no good effect to compare things, by way of simile, that are of the same kind; nor to contrast things of different kinds. — Abstract terms can never be the subject of comparison, otherwise than by being personified.
His Lordship then proceeds to illustrate, by particular instances, the different means by which comparison can afford pleasure, beginning with those instances which are agreeable by suggesting some unusual resemblance or contrast:
Sweet are the uses of Adversity,
Wears yet a precious jewel in her head. The next effect of a comparison, is to place an object in a strong point of view.
She never told her love,
Smiling at Grief. As words convey but a faint and obscure notion of great numbers, a Poet to give a high notion of the object he describes with regard to number, does well to compare it to what is familiar and commonly known. Thus Homer compares the Grecian army, in point of number, to a swarm
Comparison Comparisons which aggrandize or elevate, make stronger imprefsions than any other.
Me hinks, King kichard and myself should meet
At meeting tears the cloudy cheeks of heav'n. It is difficult, his Lordship remarks, to lay down rules in what circumstances comparisons may be introduced, and in what circumstances they are out of place. - A man in his cool and fedate moments, is not disposed to poetical Alights ; nor to facrifice truth and reality to the delusive operations of the imagination : far less is he fo disposed, when oppressed with cares, or interested in fome important transaction that occupies him totally. In general, when any animating parfion, whether pleasant or painful, an impulse is given to the imagination, we are in that condition wonderiu!ly di/posed to every sort of figurative expression, and in particular to com-. parison. Love, for example, in its infancy, rousing the imagination, prompts the heart to display itself in figurative language, and in fimiles.
Come, gentle Night: come, loving black brow'd Night!
And pay no worship to the garith Sun. His Lordship, in the next place, proceeds to give examples where comparisons are improperly introduced : and very justly observes, that the fertility of Shakespear's vein betrays him frequently into this error. Rooted grief, deep anguish, terror, remorse, despair, and all the severe dispiriting palfions, are declared enemies, perhaps not to figurative language in general, but undoubtedly to the pomp and solem · nity of comparison. Upon this account, the simile' pronounced by young
Rutland under terror of death from an inveterate enemy, and praying mercy, is unnatural.
So looks the pent up lion o'er the wretch
And not with such a cruel threat'ning look.
properly introduced, but is, in itself, far from being apposite or well supported. Nothing can be more erroneous than to institute a
comparison too faint: York. My uncles both are Nain in rescuing me :
And all my followers, to the eager foe
Or lambs pursu'd by hunger starved wolves. The latter of the two fimiles is good. The former, because of the faintness of the resemblance, produces no good effect, and crowds the narration with an useless image.
In an epic poem, or any elevated subject, a Writer ought to avoid raising a simile upon a low image, which never fails to bring down the principal subject. An error opposite to the former is, the introducing a resembling image, so elevated or great, as to bear no proportion to the principal subject. The strongest objection that can be against a comparison, is, that it consists in words only, and not in sense.
The noble fister of Poplicola,
And hangs on Dian's temple. There is evidently, his Lordship remarks, no resemblance betwixt an isicle and a woman, chaste or unchaste. But chastity is cold in a metaphorical sense, and an ificle is cold in a proper sense; and this verbal resemblance, in the hurry and glow of composing, has been thought a sufficient foundation for the fimile. Where the subject is burlesque or ludicrous, such fimiles are far from being improper.
We confess, however, that we cannot be displeased with the foregoing simile: and, indeed, if we attend to the phyfical causes of chastity, the resemblance, with great deference to his Lordship, will appear to be more than verbal.
In the succeeding chapter his Lordship makes some very judicious remarks on the use and effect of figures, beginning with Personification, which, by a bold delusion, gives life to things inanimate, where that violent effect is necessary to gratify passion. Anion;. O pardon me thou bleeding piece of earth,
That I am meek and gentle with these butchers.
The example here cited by Lord Kaims, is by no means a strong illustration. For it was no “ bold delusion" of mind in Antony, to bestow sensibility on the dead body of Cæsar bleeding before him with recent wounds. The next example, indeed, is fully applicable to his Lordfhip's purpose, where Almeria bestows sensibility on the very ground on which she kneels. Aime. O Earth, behold I kneel upon thy bosom,
And bend my fowing eyes to stream upon
Of all thy race. Plaintive passions are extremely solicitous for vent. A Soliloquy commonly answers the purpose. But when a passion swells high, it is not satisfied with fo flight a gratification. Among the many principles that connect individuals in society, one is remarkable: it is that principle which makes us earnestly wish, that others should enter into our concerns, and think and feel as we do. This social passion, when inflamed by a plaintive passion, will, for want of a more compleat gratification, prompt the mind to give life even to things inanimate. Earl Rivers, carried to execution, says,
O Pomfret, Pomfret! O thou bloody prison,
We give to thee our guiltless blood to drink.
As when old Ocean roars, And heaves huge furges to the trembling shores. Joy, likewise, is naturally communicated to all objects around, animate or inanimate.
Our Author observes, that Personification is not always fo compleat as in the foregoing instances. In the following example, it does not come up to a conviction, even momentary, of life and intelligence.
But look, the moon, in russet mantle clad,