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in 1560, Xenophon in 1561, Sextus Empiricus in 1562, Themistius in 1562, the treatise on the Abuse of the Greek Language in 1563, the Fragments of the Older Latin Poets in 1564, Thucydides in 1564, the Greek Anthology in 1566, Herodotus in 1566, the Defence of Herodotus in 1566, the Collection of the Greek Epic Poets in 1566, Polemon and Himerius in 1567, the Greek Physicians after the time of Hippocrates in 1567, Sophocles in 1568, the Fragments of the Greek Comic Poets in 1569, Diogenes Laertius in 1570, and the whole of Plutarch in 1572! These facts, and the character of his productions, testify more strongly than any thing else can do, to the amazing intellectual power with which he grasped and mastered his materials. * In his great work he cannot have had very much aid; he mentions only his father; that his disciple, Sylburg, contributed a considerable share, is well known; but the amount of his aid has been over-estimated by some of Stephen's opponents, particularly in Germany. The internal uniformity of character, that pervades the entire work, is the strongest evidence against these insinuations.

The learned are now beginning again to perceive what a treasure of learning they possess in that work. For it must be acknowledged, that later lexicographers, instead of following the path so admirably struck out, have receded farther and farther from it, and have neither carried out the better features of his plan, nor removed its defects; so that those who have departed least from Stephens, have furnished us with the best lexicons. But we think we are beginning to see better times, not merely because recent lexicographers manifest their sense of his worth, both in word and deed, but because his work itself is coming into new life. The great London edition (1816— 1828), the first since the original edition, cannot, indeed, be highly coinnended ; for notwithstanding the excellent new materials, especially those furnished by Schäfer, it sinks under the weight of its own burden. But two new editions, one at Leipsic, t and the other at Paris, undertaken with a noble emulation, betray an interest in the subject, such as has not existed for two hundred and fifty years; and though we can hardly expect that they will be executed entirely in the spirit of Stephens, there is no room to doubt that all the diligence and care will be exercised which we have a right to demand.

* These immense labors will appear the less incredible, if we consider that the collections for the Thesaurus could not be better made than in editing those Greek authors which it was necessary to examine.-Ep.

In October, 1829, C. Cnobloch, of Leipsic, issued proposals for a new and enlarged edition of Stephens's Thesaurus. It was, however, to be but a reprint of the London edition, with some additions. In the beginning of 1830, the Paris edition was advertised at 336 francs, about $64. As this last was to be much the most thoroughly revised edition, and was, at the same time, to cost 316 less than the other, the Leipsic publisher abandoned the enterprise. The price of the London edition was fifty guíneas. Of the Paris edition, not far from fifteen of the twenty-eight numbers have by this time appeared.- Ep.

The chief excellence of the Thesaurus of Stephens is twofold; first, the masterly selection of his materials, in regard to words, peculiarities and usage; secondly, the wise etymological arrangement, omitting obsolete or imaginary roots, and adopting only those which could be found by the student with ease. * We might add, as a third quality, the perspicacity manifested in the frequent correction of the text, which he made without intimating it to the reader. It not unfrequently happens, that modern editors think they make discoveries, which, in fact, were noticed in the Thesaurus long before by Stephens. The only real defect which peryades the whole work is the entire omission of the quantity of syllables. But the whole body of lexicographers, the London editors of the Thesaurus not excepted, have followed his example. It is only within a few years, that the necessity of adding the prosodial quantity, and the disgrace of omitting it, has been felt,t and we rejoice that this deficiency will be supplied in the Paris edition of Stephens.

The personal advantages derived by Stephens, during his life time, from his immortal production, were far from being what he deserved. As the profits of sale fell considerably short of the cost, poverty was the unavoidable consequence. He was grieved, most of all, by the disingenuousness of Scapula, who, with a wellplanned policy, diverted the pecuniary gain from Stephens to himself. This young man, an obscure German, was a scholar of Stephens at the time the Thesaurus was printed, and was entrusted with the correction of the press. He perceived that the limited sale of the work was owing to its being so voluminous and expensive. Without the knowledge of his teacher and employer, he prepared an abridgment, which, to every one's surprise, appeared in Basle, in 1579 (not in 1570, as Mattaire affirms), * and was received with great favor; and from that time down to this century, it has passed through many editions, and, for a long time, held the first rankt as a school lexicon. Although it is undeniable that Scapula performed his work with great skill and judgment, and in the etymological arrangement, improved upon the Thesaurus, far be it from us to justify so wanton an act, even though it should not prove to be a violation of the letter of the law. Stephens felt himself deeply injured, both as to his honor and as to his pecuniary interest; and this circumstance contributed, undoubtedly, not a little to the peevishness of his latter days. He expressed, in several of his writings, his grief and his anger at this dishonorable procedure. The learned world, it is now universally conceded, have been greatly benefited by this greatest of Stephens's works; but he was not even permitted to share the honor of such an acknowledgment; for it was not till long aster his death, that its merits were fully perceived.

** See Hermann's opinion, Opusc. II, 220, 221,-non modo vere Thesauri nomine dignum, sed plane divinum opus esse videtur.

† To Passow himself belongs chiefly the honor of introducing this improvement in Greek lexicography.-ED.

HIS PATRONS. The support which Stephens derived from Henry III was uncertain and transient. But Ulric Fugger, belonging to one of the distinguished mercantile families of the age, and himself one of the greatest patrons of learning, aided Henry Stephens with a yearly pension, amounting, according to Pithou, to fifty rix dollars. This he gratefully acknowledged, by styling himself on the title-page of many of the books which he printed between 1558 and 1570, “Printer to Ulric Fugger.” The patronage appears to have continued to the death of Fugger in 1584. He found a similar friend in Thomas von Rehdiger, also a man of great wealth, and a liberal patron of learning. But this support failed him on the death of his benefactor in 1576. In fact, Stephens's evil star always followed him,

• If Scapula's lexicon appeared in 1570, it was published two years before the Thesaurus, which would set his dishonesty in the clearest light ; for in that case he must have prepared his work from Stephens's manuscripts while the Thesaurus was going through the press. But, had this been so, Stephens would not have waited till 1580, before uttering his complaints. Besides, no scholar, whose testimony would be any authority, has ever seen the alleged edition of 1570. | Hermann gives it the first rank still.--Ep. VOL. IV.-NO. XVI.

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as no sources of pecuniary aid were open to him long, and as they generally failed him when they were most needed.

HIS CONNECTIONS WITH LITERARY MEN. In consequence of being long in active life, travelling in France, Holland, England, Germany and Italy, and appearing to great advantage in every social circle, as well as in general commerce with mankind, Stephens became personally acquainted with many of the great and the influential, as well as with most of the literary men of the age, whose studies stood in any connection with his. But his quick, excitable mind often becoming inconstant, and his conscious intellectual power often rendering him haughty and unyielding, and both of these weaknesses growing upon him with his misfortunes, it was a natural consequence that few of his connections should remain uninterrupted and harmonious, and that he should come into open hostility with some, as with Vavassor, Lipsius, Leunclav, and, in part, with Joseph Scaliger.

Frederic Sylburg, John Scapula and Isaac Casaubon are mentioned as his disciples, but as being at the same time in his employ. As he was never a professed teacher, and as these three men are known to have been employed in his establishment as correctors of the press, we can understand by their having been his disciples nothing but their residence with him in Geneva, which could not be otherwise than instructive.

Many evils in the life of Stephens would have been avoided, had he put suitable confidence in the firm and prudent Casaubon. The latter was always, with an exemplary filial respect, devoted to his interests; and often, without the knowledge of his father-in-law, averted from him impending evils; but he could not restrain Stephens from his ruinous course. Hence it was the lot of this great man, after a life of toil, to close his days alone and without a friend.

HIS LAST DAYS. For a series of years up to 1595, Germany seems to have had the strongest claim on him. But suddenly he was seized with an irresistible longing for his native land, as if he had a presentiment that this was to be his restingplace. He took up his residence, for a time, at Geneva,

but soon resorted to his wanderings again, which, however, took a new direction, to the south of France,—to Orleans, Lyons, Montpelier, Avignon, Marseilles, whence he returned to make a brief stay in Geneva again. The periods of his remaining at home grew shorter and shorter. Neither his age, nor his exhausted strength, nor the entreaties of his friends, nor the arguments of Casaubon, could overcome his ruling propensity. Journey after journey was made without satisfying him in the least degree, and tending to no other issue than to wear out his life. Thus in the winter of 1598, he went solitary, as usual, to Lyons. There, unknown and penniless, he was taken ill and carried to the hospital, where, according to vague report, under signs of total derangement, he closed his unhappy life, at the end of February or the beginning of March, at the age of seventy. No marble indicates the place of his repose, no work of art has preserved his form.

ARTICLE VI.

AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES.

An Inquiry into the Origin of the Antiquities of America.

By JOHN DELAFIELD, Jr. With an Appendix, containing Notes, and a View of the causes of the superiority of the men of the Northern over those of the Southern Hemisphere." By James Laker, M. Ď. Cincinnati. N. C. Burgess & Co. 1839.

A work like this, coming from such a quarter, may well be regarded with both admiration and surprise. Fifty years ago Cincinnati was a wilderness, and now it is putting out the most abstruse and elaborate disquisitions on difficult and intricate matters of science. The mere execution of the volume makes the phenomenon still more remarkable. Including the style of the maps and diagrams, it is got up in a manner that would be creditable in London or Paris, in both which places, by the way, we see it is published. Nothing which has been issued this season from our famous University Press,-the“ American Aldine," -has more than rivalled it, to say the least.

So much, in a general way, and without committ

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