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ordinary defence of party spirit,—that party organization is necessary in order to give ascendency to principles which we believe important,-is wholly untenable. He shows, conclusively, from instances in abundance, that men do not form parties to establish principles, but that they adopt principles in order to invigorate party; in other words, that the great and permanent division of parties is into the ins and the outs; and that men are in the habit of adopting those principles which will either conduct them to office or retain them in it. That such is the melancholy fact, in spite of all the newspaper slang, we think no reflecting man can doubt; and yet we see the people of this country and Great Britain toiling in the warfare of party, at the beck of their leaders, as though, innocent souls,-their very lives depended upon it. And what is the result? Why, one half of the ablest men, and just as good as any other men, are, upon system, excluded from every office of honor or emolument. But this is by far the least evil. The ablest men in the nation, instead of spending their strength in advancing the common weal are occupied in no higher calling than merely that of thwarting each other. In the course of this protracted struggle, every evil passion is engendered or fostered. The moral principles of the combatants succumb beneath a pressure too great for ordinary human virtue, and truth; honor, faith and patriotism are greedily sacrificed to the love of place. The infection spreads from the leaders to their subordinates; and thus it comes to pass that the infamous maxim, “ all is fair in politics," has been practically adopted by men who would scorn to do wrong in any other case. Nor is this all. The moral ulcer, commencing in that part of the character that takes cognizance of our political relations, too often diffuses its poison throughout the system. Men cannot be reckless of obligation in one respect and conscientious in every other. The principle, that the end sanctifies the means, or more plainly, that that means is to be chosen which will best accomplish our purposes, obtains ascendency in other things as well as in politics. Hence arise the terrible moral dangers of politicians. We might easily refer to instances; but the subject is too painful. We gladly dismiss it.
Another reflection, irresistibly forced upon us, by the
reading of these volumes, is, that very few things are more overrated in this world than politics and even statesmanship. We have in the work before us an estimate, not only of the personal character, but also of the services, of as splendid a collection of men as any country could glory in. But, as statesmen, what have they done for the human race? What great measures do we find to have been carried, or even attempted by these men in their places, in either House of Parliament. The blessings which they have conferred on man may be easily summed up. Wilberforce carried the bill for the abolition of the traffic in slaves. Fox carried his and Erskine's libel act, to which we have already alluded. Here, be believe, we must stop. These are really all that we recollect. Besides these, it will be difficult to mention any act performed by them as statesmen which shows them to have been in advance of their age. We do not, of course, consider successful warfare or skilful negotiation to be entitled to this character. The fact is, statesmen are generally, and almost of necessity, merely indices that point out the course of public opinion, the bubbling ripple that shows the height to which the tide of human feeling has risen. If we move the people, statesmen move of course. If the people do not stir, the leaders have a marvellous alacrity at standing still. And, if such be the character of statesmen, what shall we say of politicians, whose only object is to sustain and advance the interests of a party. They have their reward.
What we would say in a word is this. It seems to us a great oversight for men who desire to produce a wide or a beneficial effect upon the human race, to attempt it through the means of politics or parliamentary statesmanship. They had better move those that move statesmen. They had better labor to enlighten and improve the people, and then legislation will take care of itself. It is of but little consequence who make the laws, so long as the lawmakers are obliged to make them well. When, however, we say this, we beg leave not to be numbered among the class of agjiators. They are merely politicians in another form. They have hold of the same lever as the legislative politicians, but they take hold of it by the right end. We refer to a very different mode of operating upon the people,--to an honest, patriotic effort to teach
VOL. IV.-NO. XV.
them how to do well, and to urge them onward to do it. In accomplishing this work, the press is open to every one. Nor is this all. Every man may find ways of raising the intellectual and moral tone of his community, if he be so disposed. Where is the individual among us who is doing so much towards securing to us our liberties, and rendering permanent every thing valuable around us, and sweeping away from before us every thing hurtful, as that distinguished individual, who has, of late, given so great an impulse to the improvement of the educational system of this State. Would that more of our men of talents would go and do likewise.
GERMANY. Personal news.- Julius Müller, the early friend of Tholuck and one of the characters, it is said, in his work entitled, Sin and the Redeemner, bas removed from Göttingen, where he was privatim docens, to the university of Marburg, where he has been made Professor of Theology.- Prof. Olshausen, formerly of Königsberg, now of Erlangen, so well known as a New Testament commentator, has been called to a professorship in Kiel. His acceptance had not, at the latest dates, been signified. Dr. Adolf Stahr, formerly professor in the royal Pädagogium, established by Francke, at Halle, and the author of a standard work, entitled, Aristotelia (a part of which, embracing the Life of Aristotle, is about to be translated by Professors Edwards and Park), has become Conrector (the highest office but one in a Gymnasium), at Oldenburg.- L. C. Zimmermann died at Darmstadt, Aug. 13, 1838, at the age of 55. He was a distinguished classical scholar, a graduate of the university of Giessen, and is best known as editor of the Darmstadt Classical Journal (Zeitschrift für die Alterthumswissenschaft). There are now, we believe, but two journals in Germany devoted exclusively or chiefly to classical literature, viz., Jabn's Annals (Jahrbücher für Philologie und Pädagogik), which is a quarterly periodical of the very highest character; and the one just named. Zimmermann commenced this semi-monthly journal in a newspaper form in 1854, and under his able management it has attained to a very high rank. As it does not, like Jahn's Jahrbücher, include the general subject of education in gymnasia and universities, but is limited strictly to classical literature, and is furthermore less voluminous and expensive (it comes at $4,75 a year), it may be recommended to the majority of American scholars as the best adapted to their wants of any publication of the kind. It is continued by ---Zimmermann, probably belonging to the same distinguished family, which
* We are obliged, for want of room, to postpone all our Literary Notices, and to abridge the Miscellaneous Intelligence.-ED.
established, also, the Universal Ecclesiastical Journal (Algemeine KirchenZeituny), still published at Darmstadt, with Bretschneider for an associate editor.- Prof. David Julius Poit died al Güllingen, Oct., 1838, aged 79. He was born 1760, in a small town in the kingdom of Hanover. He studied at Göttingen, and at the age of 26 was appointed professor of theology at Helmstedt. On the extinction of that university in 1809, he was removed to the university of Göttingen where he spent the remaining thirty years of his life. His best works, known to almost every student in theology, are his Sylloge Commentationum Theologicarum in eight volumes; and his Annotations on the Catholic Epistles, forming the ninth volume of Koppe's New Testament. Although both his philology and his theology are fast going out of date, he was justly regarded as one of the distinguished men of the last generation of critics and theologians. We once had the pleasure of passing an hour with hiin, and found hiin an accomplished, affable man. --Equally painful is it to record the death of another eminent scholar, Prof. A. T. Hartmann of Rostock, the well-known orientalist. His death occurred April 20, 1839. He was born at Dusseldorf in 1774. He studied theology at Göllingen, under Eichhorn; and on the death of Prof. Ziegler of Rostock in 1811, he was, opon the recommendation of Eichhorn, appointed to fill the vacancy, and from that time, for a period of nearly thirty years, he has distinguished himself by a series of interesting publications illustrating the Old Testament, from the treasures of Oriental and Rabbinical learning. In theology he belonged to the latitudinarian school, as did, also, Prof. Pott. An eulogy was pronounced at bis grave by Prof. Wiggers, the historian of the Pelagian controversy.
Bibliography.-C. F. Herele has published in one octavo volume, at Tubingen, a school edition of the Works of the Apostolic Fathers, with brief notes. This is exactly what the theological student needs for private use. The large and expensive work of Cotelerius he can consult occasionally in public libraries. H. T. Bruns has commenced a Bibliotheca Ecclesiastica, under the direction of Neander, the first volume of which has recently appeared at Berlin, in octavo, containing the Apostolic Canons and the Canong of the Councils. Of Prof. Tholuck's Miscellaneous Writings (Vermischte Schriften), the First Part has appeared and the Second Part is in press. Dr. K. F. W. Paniel, preacher al Heidelberg, is preparing in six volumes, a History of Christian Eloquence and Homiletics from ihe apostolic age to the present, with speciinens of pulpit oratory from original sources. The first volume is nearly out of press. If this work is well executed, it will supply a desideraturn in our theological literature. — of the Conversations Lexicon of the Present Time (2d supplement began in 1838), 16,000 copies of the first eight numbers from A to E have already been sold. At this rate, it will have an unprecedented sale, by the tine it shall have bad a fair trial in the market. A fourth volume of Friedemann's Paränesen (Persuasives and Aids to Classical Study, drawn chiefly from the writings of the most celebrated classical scholars), has been issued from the press. — A new translation of Cicero's complete works, in eight volumes, is in progress by Professors R. Klotz, F. Jacobs, Droyson, Westerinann, A. W. Zumpt and others. The union of so much taleni and learning cannot fail to produce a translation superior to any now in existence.
Statistics of several universities for 1839.—Bonn 876 students (we include in these statements not only matriculated students, but all who regularly altend public lectures); 190 in theology; increase of students the last year 123. Bresla 814; in theology 163; decrease 10. Freyburg 316; in theology 100; decrease 51. Giessen 438; in theology — ; increase 143. Halle 625; in theology 357; decrease 13. Heidelberg 654; in theology 22;
increase 186. Jena 416 - Marburg 245; in theology 67; decrease 40. Munich 1770; in theology 218; decrease 135. Tubingen 732 Berlin 2159; in theology 455; increase 59. Kiel 246; in theology 67; decrease 8. Vienna 2620; in theology 232
Leipsic 961; in theology 290; increase 71. Göttingen 656; in theology 157; decrease 253.
| JEREMIAH MURPHY, Cornwall, Vt., June 6. L. BAKER, Erie Co., Pa., April 3.
- MACPHERSON, Leroy, McLean Co., SAMUEL Brown, Norfolk,' Va., June 7, II, June 30. aged 54.
M. MADDOI, Elim Ch., Harrison Co., Va., DANIEL CHESSMAN, Barnstable, Mass., May April 14. 21, aged 52.
HANDELG. Nort, Fed. St., Boston, Mass., JESSE H. Goss, Clarksburg, Va., April 6, May 26. aged 70.
Isaac s. Parsons, Royalton, Niagara Co., ORANGE Green, Danby, Vt., May 27, aged V. Y., Nov. 7. 34.
E. R. Pinney, Greenville, Greene Co., N. ELIHU D. HUBBELL, Clifton Park, N. Y., Y., April 24. May 6, aged 45.
William D. POTTER, Hadley, Lapier Co., GEORGE HILDRETH, Green, Hamilton Co., Mich., May 29. Ohio, May 24, aged 56.
Erastus r.. SPEAR, Jackson, Steaben Co., SAMUEL MESSENGER, Clarion, Pa., March Ind., Feb. 28. 14, aged 72.
James R. STONE, Wickford, R. I., June 6. THOMAS MURRAY, Baileyville, Me., July 24, DAVID TERRY, Albion, N, Y., April 30. aged 27.
M. B. TREMAIN, New Baltimore, N. Y., William NORTHRUP, North Kingston, R. Jan. 9. I., May 31, aged 80.
JOHN Upton, Chester, N. H., April 10, NATHANIEL PAUL, Albany, N. Y., aged 46. | ELIPHALET H. VAUGHN, Saranac, Clinton Smith SHERWOOD, Portsmouth, Va., July
ly | Co., N, Y., Nay 29. 14, aged 50.
JOHN'P. Walter, Lower Merion, Mont
gomery Co., Pa., May 27. ORDINATIONS.
Lewis H. Williams, Matthews Co., Va.,
At Trivoli, Peoria Co., III., March 3.
At Sutton, So. Village, N. H., April 10. John Duncan, Cahoes, N. Y., May 2. | At Tecumseh, Mich., April 10,
Cedarville, N.Y., May 17. At Laporte, Ind., A Richard Furman, Cheraw, s. C., April 3. At Christosville, McHenry Co., Ill., May JONATHAN H. GREENE, Acworth, Vt., July 4.
At Cahoes, N. Y., May ». John Halliday, Willson, Niagara Co., N. | At Pine Plains, Dutchess Co., N. Y., May Y., Sept. 26.
At Parish, N. Y., June 4.
At Nantucket, Mass., June 9.
At Oconee River, Bradley Co., Tenn.,
At Rush, Northumberland Co., Pa., June INCREASE JONES, Pittsford, Vt., July 25
115. Eli KIMBERLY, Middlefield, Otsego C | At Jeffersonville, Ind., June 22. N. Y., July 2.
At Locust Creek, Howard Co., X. C., Lyman B. KING, Belvidere, Boone Co., II. | June 23. Warren KNOWLTON, Sarahsville, Monroe At Sealeysville, Morgan Co., Ohio, June Co., Ohio, June 20.
At Mount Moriah, N. C., June 30.