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virtually set aside. It might be practised, or not, in infancy or adult years, in one way or any other, just as suited the views of each individual, and the church, by its fundamental principle, could not take any notice of it. This seems to have been a favorite scheme of Gifford : and he renewed his entreaty to the church in his dying valedictory, that they would steadfastly adhere to it. It will not seem strange, under these circumstances, that Bunyan, though a decided Baptist in his own practice, should have been led to regard with favor, and even to defend, in some of his treatises, this constitution of his own church. His peculiar situation, the fact, that almost all the world were opposing and persecuting him, would naturally incline him to favor the peculiarities of that church where he found a peaceful home,—where a shelter from the pitiless storm was always ready to welcome him. In this respect, only, does his practice or his faith seem to differ from the great body of Baptists in this country. Still, Bunyan was not a sectarian. He loved all good men: he lived not for his own denomination alone, but for the cause of God's truth in that darkened generation. And he wrote for the generations to come, of every name, and class, and age. The good providence, which raised him up and qualified him for this great work, looked with an eye too widely opened, and a heart too generously enlarged, upon the world, to magnify unduly any narrow section of it.
He preached frequently in London, where a single day's notice would give him thousands of eager hearers. When King Charles II upbraided Dr. Owen for going to hear “an illiterate tinker prate," his noble answer was, “Please your Majesty, could I possess that tinker's abilities for preaching, I would most gladly relinquish all my learning." His writings were, also, published in London, and extend to no less than sixty books,* which was just
* We insert here a catalogue of Bunyan's books and their succession in publishing, according to his own reckoning, because the American and most of the English edi. tions, dignified with the title of " The Works of Bunyan,” are so very far from being complete. 1. Gospel Truths Opened, 1656.-2. A Vindication of that, 1657.-3. Sights from Hell-4. The Two Covenants, Law and Grace.-5. I will pray with the Spirit, 1663.-6. A Map of Salvation, etc.-7. The Four Last Things.-8. Mount Ebel and Gerizim.-9. Prison Meditations.-10. The Holy City, etc., 1665.--11. The Resurrection, etc., 1665.-12. Grace abonnding, etc.-13. Justification by Jesus Christ, 1671. 14. Confession of Faith, etc., 1672.-15. Difference in Judginent, etc., 1673.-16. Peaceable Principles, etc., 1674.-17. Election and Reprobation, etc.-18. Light for them in Darkness.-19. Christian Behaviour.-20. Instructions for the Ignorant, 1675.--21. VOL. IV.—NO. XV.
the number of the years of his life. They form two large folio volumes. The first edition of Pilgrim's Progress was probably issued in 1677, but not a single copy is now known to be extant in England. Mr. Philip suggests that if any are in existence, they will most likely be found in America, brought hither by some of the pious emigrants in the latter part of the seventeenth century. We hope such may be the fact, and that some curious specimen of this kind may yet be discovered among us. The earliest American edition we have seen, was the sixteenth, and is now nearly a century old. It was “printed by John Draper for CHARLES HARRISON over against the Brazen Head in Cornhil BOSTON N. E. MDCCXLIV.” It is adorned with wood cuts, which, though rude, are expressive.
Bunyan died as he had lived, a martyr to the cause of benevolence, for his last act was a labor of love and charity. “A young gentleman, a neighbor of his, falling under his father's displeasure, and being much troubled in mind on that account, and, also, from hearing it was his father's design to disinherit him, or otherwise deprive him of what he had to leave, he pitched upon Bunyan as a fit man to make way for his submission, and prepare his mind 10 receive him; which he, being willing to undertake any good office, readily engaged in, and went to Reading, in Bedfordshire, for that purpose. There he so successfully accomplished his design, by using such pressing arguiments and reasons against anger and passion, and, also, for love and reconciliation, that the father's heart was softened, and his bowels yearned over his son. After Mr.
Saved by Grace.-22. The Strait Gate, 1676.-23. The Pilgrim's Progress.-24. The Fear of God, 1679.–25. Come and Welcome to Jesus Christ.–26. The Holy War, 1682. 27. The Barren Fig. Tree.-28. The Greatness of the Soul, etc.-29. A Case of Conscience of Prayer.-30. Advice to Sutterers, 1684.-31. The Second Pait Pilgrim's Progress.--32. Life and Death of Mr. Radman.-33. Holy Life, the Beauty of Chustianity.--34. The Pharisee and Publican, 1685.-35. A Caution against Sin.-36. Meditation on seventy-four Things.--37. The First-day Sabbath, 1685.-38. The Jerusaleia Sinner Saved, 1688.-39 Jesus Christ an Advocate, 1688.-40. The llouse of God, 1088.41. The Water of Life, 1688.-42. Solomon's Temple Spiritualized.-43. The Excellence of a Broken Heart.--44. His Last Sermon at London, 1688,--Twelve Manuscripts part of the First Folio.-45. Exposition on Ten first Chapters of Genesis.46. Justvication by imputed Righteousness.-47. Paul's Departure and Crown, 1492. -48. Of the Trinity and a Christian.--49. Of the Law and a Christian.-50. Israrl's Hope Encouraged, -51. Desires of the Righteous Granted.-52. The Unsearchable Riches of Christ.--53. Christ a Compleat Saviour in 's Intercession.-54. Saint's Knowledge of Christ's Love.-55. House of the Forest of Lebanon.-56. A Description of Antichrist, 1692.-Four manuscripts yet unprinted,-57. A Christian Dialogue.58. The Heavenly Footman.-59. ^ Pocket Concordance.-60. An Account of his Imprisonment.
Bunyan had disposed every thing in the best manner to promote an accommodation, as he returned to London on horseback, he was overtaken with excessive rains; and coming to his lodgings extremely wet, he fell sick of a violent fever, which he bore with much constancy and patience; and expressed himself, as if he wished nothing more than to depart and to be with Christ, considering it as gain, and life only as a tedious delay of expected felicity.” After an illness of ten days, with unshaken confidence, he resigned his soul, on the 31st of August, 1688, being sixty years of age, into the hand of his most merci. ful Redeemer; following his Pilgrim from the City of Destruction to the New Jerusalem.
Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar, translated from the eleventh
German edition. By T. J. Conant, Professor of Hebrew in the Literary and Theological Institution at Hamilton, New York; with a course of Exercises in Hebrew Grammar, and a Hebrew Chrestomathy, prepared by the Translator. pp. 375. 8vo. Boston. Gould, Kendall and Lincoln. 1839.
In calling the attention of our readers to the work which Professor Conant has now presented to the theological student, we are happy in feeling no necessity and no disposition to assail the reputation of any who have toiled in the field of Hebrew philology. By the general voice of the learned world, Gesenius is acknowledged to be the most skilful Hebraist of the age. To say nothing of his other productions, his Hebrew and German Lexicon, in two octavo volumes; his abridgment of this, translated by Professor Gibbs; his Manual Hebrew Lexicon in Latin, translated by Professor Robinson; his Treasury of the Hebrew language, in Latin, to be published in a large quarto volume, several numbers of which have
already appeared; his History of the Hebrew Language and Writings; and his Lehrgebäude, or Grammatical and Critical System of the Hebrew Language, in a large octavo volume of nine hundred pages, all proclaim his eminent ability in this department of literature. He is distinguished alike for his erudition and for the lucid and philosophical arrangement of his materials. He has had the experience of more than thirty years, occupied in teaching the language and in surveying it critically, with all the helps that genius and diligence can command at a German university. Competitors, too, and most able competitors he has had ; and his works exhibit some of the important benefits which candor and wisdom can derive from a vigorous competition, and even from hostility itself. Amidst “the quarrels of authors," and the bitter contentions of their respective partisans, it is gratifying to find any approximation towards an exemplifying of that noble sentiment which he has adopted, as a motto, from the philosophic emperor, Marcus Aurelius Antoninus : If any one can refute me and show me that I am wrong, I will gladly change; for I seek the truth, by which no one was ever injured; but he is injured who perseveres in his own error and ignorance.*
Respecting the Grammar which now appears in English, as well as respecting the author's general ability in his chosen department of philology, it gives us pleasure to know that our views coincide with those of that eminent individual to whom biblical literature in our country owes more than to any other man. In an article in the Biblical Repository, for October, 1836, he says: “With such efforts,-.such unremitted, unwearied, energetic efforts,- what are we to expect from such a man as Gesenius? Has he talent, judgment, tact, as a philologist ? Read his work on Isaiah; compare his Hebrew Grammar with the other grammars of the Hebrew which Germany has yet produced ; read and compare any twenty or even ten articles on any of the difficult and important words in the Hebrew, with the same in Buxtorff, Cocceius, Stockins, Eichhorn's Simonis, Winer even (Parkhurst I cannot once name him); and then say whether Gesenius, as a Hebrew philologer, has talent, tact, and judgment. Nothing but rival feelings, or prejudice, or antipathy to his theological sentiments, can prevent a unity of answer.”
* E'l 115 vé they ful xal nupaoiñoai uol, oti oủx úpboş d.tohaufára ..., Súvarat, mulowy ustuoroouai (71o ydo iny ahi, Orlar, igns Ovdels non018 XB6Bn. Blúnetai dè &nuérov ini iîs éavioù arcτης και αγνοίας.
What are the grand requisites in a grammar of an ancient language ? Every one must admit that they are a correct, clear, systematic statement of all its forms of expression; and a happy illustration of those forms, sometimes by comparing one with another, sometimes by comparing them with analogous appearances in the kin dred languages, and sometimes by exhibiting them in the light that shines from those general principles which pervade all languages. We need not spend time in proving that these requisites will, in a very extraordinary degree, be found in Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar.
There is another consideration of no small weight. This is adverted to in the translator's preface. After mentioning the fact, that the author has, for many years, been prosecuting his researches in grammar and in lexicography simultaneously, “referring to each what properly belongs to it, in such a manner that his labors in neither can be fully understood or appreciated without a knowledge of what he has done in the other," it is added : “In his Manual Hebrew Lexicon, now in general use in this country, there are references, throughout, for grammatical forms and constructions, to the sections of this Grammar; and, on the other hand, the Grammar constantly refers to the Manual for whatever belongs to lexicography. To the student, therefore, who uses the author's Lexicon, a previous acquaintance with his Grammar is essential for the formation of a complete and symmetrical view of the philology of the Hebrew language.”
We rejoice in being able to find on every page abundant evidence of the care and skill with which the translator has performed his task. He has not only produced an excellent translation, but he has made the translation decidedly more correct and valuable than the original.
1. He has added a system of notation for expressing the Hebrew vowel sounds (pp. 28), and the pronunciation of Hebrew words, including the division into syllables, throughont the first part, and beyond it, whenever required. This is rarely done in the original, and the