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BUREAU OF THE CENSUS

WASHINGTON 25. D. C.

OFFICIAL BUSINESS

STANFORD UNIVERSITY LIBRARY CA

DOCUMENT DIVISION

STANFORD UNIVERSITY

CALIF

ZP-0198-1

1-2-3-5

Postage and Fees Paid
U. S. Department of Commerce

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(Additional data on school enrollment are contained in Series P-50, No. 71, "Employment of Students:

October 1956")

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14 to 34 years old.. 2,883,000 1,932,000 951,000 Married, spouse present. 692,000 582,000 110,000 Percent married, spouse present.....

24.0 30.1 11.6 14 to 17 years old.. 167,000 77,000 90,000

18 and 19 years old. 934,000 512,000 422,000 Married, spouse present. 13,000 5,000 8,000 Percent married, spouse present....

1.4

1.0 1.9 20 to 34 years old.. 1,782,000|| 1,343,000| 439,000 Married, spouse present. 677,000 576,000 101,000 Percent married, spouse present...

38.0

42.9 23.0

Nearly all of the married college students had passed their teen ages. Thus, only 1 percent of the students 18 and 19 years old were married, as compared with 38 percent of the students 20 to 34 years old (table A). In the latter age group, 43 percent of the college men and 23 percent of the college women were married and living with their spouse. An additional 4 percent of the college were, or had been, married but were not living with their husbands (table 7).

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women

Although these figures show a relatively large proportion married

among the college students, the proportion married was far higher among persons of comparable ages who were not enrolled in college. According to estimates not shown in the accompanying tables, close to one-tenth of the young civilian men in their late teens (18 and 19 years old) and one-third of the young Women in this age range were

About 40.3 million persons in the United States were attending school in October 1956. of these, 1.8 million were in kindergarten, 26.2 million were in elementary school, 8.5 million were in high school, 2.9 million were in college or professional school, and 900,000 were in special (trade and business) schools.

Enrollment rates between 1950 and 1956.

at all age levels rose

Thus, at ages 5 to 13

For sale by the Bureau of the Census

Price 10 cents

years, the percent enrolled went up from 92.8 percent to 94.0 percent; at ages 14 to 17, it increased from 83.3 percent to 88.2 percent; and at ages 18 to 24, it rose from 14.6 percent

Table B.--PERCENT OF THE CIVILIAN NONINSTITUTIONAL POPULATION 5 TO 29 YEARS OLD FNROLLED IN SCHOOL, BY AGE, FOR THE UNITED STATES: OCTOBER 1947 TO 1956

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Year (October) and color

White:

Total, 5 to 29

years1

Total, 5 years old: 1956.....

1954.

61.9

60.4

59.7

58.3

56.0

1956.

1954.

Nonwhite:

54.4

52.7

52.1

51.2

50.3

1 Includes children enrolled in kindergarten.

2

Revised.

1956... 1954..

5

6

years1 years1

The number of persons 5 to 34 years old enrolled in school increased 30 percent between 1950 and 1956, whereas the population 5 to 34 years old increased only 10 percent.

The number in school 5 to 13 creased 33.0 percent between whereas the population in this age group increased 31.3 percent. At ages 14 to 17, the number enrolled went up 21.0 percent, or half again as rapidly as the population (14.3 percent). At ages 18 to 34, the number of students rose 30.3 percent even though the population in this age group declined by 1.4 million, or 3.8 percent.

Percent in kinder

garten

58.9

58.1

45.1

40.7

57.7

58.4

57.8

Children 5 years old attending kindergarten numbered 1.7 million and constituted almost half (45.1 percent) of the 5-year-old

46.2

42.5

53.8

51.8

38.4

29.4

55.1

55.0

53.4

97.0

98.2

96.8

97.7

96.8

years old in1950 and 1956,

96.0

97.0

96.2

96.2

96.2

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to 19.5 percent (table 1). These advances in enrollment rates represent continuations of generally upward trends during the past

decade (table B).

5.5

7.6

2.3

5.7

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Table C.--PERCENT OF CHILDREN 5 YEARS OLD ENROLLED IN KINDERGARTEN, BY COLOR, RESIDENCE, AND TYPE OF CONTROL, FOR THE UNITED STATES: OCTOBER 1956 AND 1954

14 and 15

years

Urban:

96.9

95.9

95.8

96.5

96.2

94.8

94.7

93.5

92.7

91.6

16 and 18 and 17 19

years

years

Year (October) and residence

1956...

1954...

Rural nonfarm:

1956...

1954...

Rural farm:

1956...

1954..

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20 to

24 years

children in October 1956 (tables C and 4). In 1954, the corresponding proportion was 40.7 percent. Increases in kindergarten enrollment rates have occurred in recent years among the various color and residence groups. Especially noteworthy is the increase in the kindergarten enrollment rate for 5-year-old nonwhites from 29.4 percent in 1954 to 38.4 percent in 1956 and the increase for urban areas from 54.0 percent to 59.3 percent in this 2-year period.

59.3

54.0

12.8

11.1

11.2

11.1

9.5

A growing proportion of the kindergarten pupils are going to public schools and a declining proportion are going to private schools (tables C and D). In the last five years, both the number and the proportion of kindergarten pupils in private schools has

33.5

30.1

8.3

9.0

9.2

9.7

10.2

13.8

10.7

25 to

29 years

51.4

44.5

5.1

4.2

4.1

2.9

2.6

31.5

23.3

2.5

3.0

3.8

13.6

10.7

2.6

3.0

Percent Percent in in public private kinder- kinder

garten

garten

7.9

9.5

2.0

6.8

0.2

...

dergarten pupils were in private schools and, in 1956, about 11 percent. Evidently the number of public schools that provide kindergarten training is increasing. Half of the urban children 5 years old were attending public kindergartens last fall, as compared with only a third of those in rural-nonfarm areas and one-seventh of those on farms.

Table D.--PERCENT OF PUPILS ENROLLED IN PRIVATE SCHOOLS, BY LEVEL OF SCHOOL, FOR THE UNITED STATES: 1948 TO 1956

OCTOBER

Year (October)

1956...

1955.

1954..

1953.

1952...

........

1951.....

Percent in private schools

Elemen

tary school

Kindergarten

10.9

16.2

18.2

19.2

17.8

20.7

16.3

14.1

13.3

12.3

12.6

11.9

11.7

11.8

High school

10.2

9.8

8.8

9.2

9.3

9.0

8.1

College

36.7

36.3

40.3

56.1

51.4

42.4

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1950....

1949.

1948.

1 Not available.

13.4

16.8

11.7

10.1

8.9
7.6

At the elementary and high school levels,
however, growing proportions of the pupils are
attending private schools. This development
covers the entire period during which the Bu-
reau of the Census has collected separate data
on public and private school enrollment, back
to 1948. Thus, the proportion of elementary
pupils in private schools has gone up from
10.1 percent in 1948 to 14.1 percent in 1956,
and the proportion of high school pupils
(grades 9 to 12) in private schools has gone
up from
7.6 percent to 10.2 percent. Among
college students, the proportion in private
schools has fluctuated in recent years between
roughly a third and a half.

The enrollment rate of high school age children has increased by one-tenth since 1940 and the proportion of high school age children enrolled in high school has increased by onethird since 1940 (table E). Between 1940 and 1956, the proportion of children 14 to 17 years old enrolled in school (at all levels) rose from 79.3 percent to 88.2 percent. During the same period, the proportion of children 14 to 17 years old enrolled in high school (grades 9 to 12) rose from 57.0 percent to 75.4 percent.

ROLLED IN HIGH SCHOOL, FOR PERSONS 14 TO 17 YEARS
OLD, BY COLOR AND SEX, FOR THE UNITED STATES: OC-
TOBER 1956 AND 1950 AND APRIL 1940

Date and sex

PERCENT ENROLLED
(All school levels)

Total

1956 (October)
1950 (October)
1940 (April)1)

Male

1956 (October)..
1950 (October),
1940 (April)..

Female

1956 (October).

1950 (October).

1940 (April)...

PERCENT ENROLLED
IN HIGH SCHOOL

1956 (October)..
1950 (October)..
1940 (April)....

Total,
14 to 17
years old

88.2
83.4

79.3

89.1

84.4

78.9

87.3

82.3

79.7

75.4

68.6

57.0

White

89.2
84.4

80.7

90.1

85.0

80.5

SPECIAL SCHOOLS

88.2

83.7

80.9

78.0

71.6

60.8

Nonwhite

81.2

75.5

68.2

81.3

79.3

65.9

81.1

71.9

70.4

57.6

45.6

27.6

1 The figures for April 1940 relate persons near the end of the school year, for October 1950 and 1956 relate to the ages of persons near the beginning of the school year.

to the ages of whereas those

In 1956, the enrollment rate of boys 14 to 17 years old was slightly above that of girls of the same age, whereas in 1940 the reverse was true. The increase during this 16year period in the enrollment rate of boys of high school age was greater for nonwhites than for whites.

Even though the proportion of nonwhite children of high school age who were attending high school showed a greater increase between 1940 and 1956 than did that of white children of similar age, the proportion for nonwhite children in 1956 was still below that for white children in 1940.

Results of the October 1956 survey show that a total of 923,000 persons 5 to 34 years old were enrolled in "special" schools. Most of these schools provide instruction outside the regular school system in the field of

trade or business. About 546,000 of these persons, or 59 percent, were males. Fluctuations in the number of persons in special schools during the last eight years are shown in table F. The figures for different years are affected somewhat by differences in the age range for which the data are available.

on

cities, standard metropolitan areas, States, regions, and the United States

appear in Vol. ume II of the 1950 Census of Population. Detailed statistics school enrollment and educational attainment by age and socio-economic characteristics for regions and the United States are presented in a special report of the 1950 Census entitled "Education."

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Figures on school enrollment from the October Current Population Surveys differ from 1950 Census data for reasons in addition to the difference in the dates. In the first place, the survey data exclude the institutional population and members of the Armed Forces. These two groups were included in the 1950 Census.

Second,

there were differences in field work. The small group

of Current Population Survey enumerators were more experienced and had more intensive training and supervision than the large number of temporary census enumerators and may have more often obtained more accurate answers from respondents. Third, the census was taken in April and relates to enrollment since February 1, whereas the surveys were taken in October and relate to enrollment in the current term. This difference in months of the year affects not only the extent of school enrollment (through "drop outs" during the school year, etc.) but also the level of school in which persons of given age are enrolled.

RELATED REPORTS

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NO.

Additional statistics on school enrollment for 1956 are presented in

Series P-50, No. 71, "Employment of Students: October 1956." Statistics on school enrollment for October of years prior to 1956 have been published in the following reports in Series P-20:

66 (1955), No. 54 (1954), No. 52 (1953), No. 45 (1952), No. 40 (1951), No. 34 (1950), No. 30 (1949), No. 24 (1948), No. 19 (1947), and No. 1 (1946); and in Series P-S, No. 9 (1945). Enrollment data for April 1947 were published in Series P-20, No. 12. Data on educational attainment and illiteracy for persons 14 years old and over in October 1952 were published in Series P-20, No. 45.

Data from school systems.--Information on school enrollment and educational attainment is also collected and published by Federal, State, and local governmental agencies, and by independent research organizations. This in formation is obtained from reports of school systems and institutions of higher learning, and from other surveys and censuses. These data are only roughly comparable with data collected by the Bureau of the Census by household interviews, however,

because of differences in definitions, subject matter covered, time references, and enumeration methods. TO illustrate, for comparable grades, the enrollment figures of the Bureau of the Census tend to be lower than those in the Biennial Survey of Education conducted by the United Stutes Office of Education, largely because the census data refer to shorter time periods and count a person only once, although he may have attended more than one school during the reporting period. In the biennial survey, some persons are included in the enrollment figures more than once, such as those enrolled in both public and private schools and, generally,

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