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spreading the opportunities and advantages of education in the various parts of the country, and among the different orders of the people, it shall be the duty of Legislatures and magistrates, in all future periods of this Commonwealth, to cherish the interests of literature and the sciences, and all seminaries of them, especially the University at Cambridge; public schools and grammar schools in the towns; to encourage private societies and public institutions ; rewards and immunities for the promotion of agriculture, arts, sciences, commerce, trades, manufactures, and a natural history of the country ; to countenance and inculcate the principles of humanity and general benevolence, public and private charity, industry, and frugality, honesty and punctuality in their dealings; sincerity, good humor and all social affections and generous sentiments among the people.

CHAPTER VI.

Oaths and Subscriptions ; Incompatibility of, and Exclusion

from offices ; Pecuniary Qualifications ; Commissions ; - Writs; Confirmation of Laws ; Habeas Corpus; The Enacting Style ; Continuance of Officers ; Provision for a future Revisal of the Constitution, &c.

ARTICLE I.

[Any person, chosen Governor, Lieutenant Governor, Counsellor, Senator, or Representative, and accepting the trust, shall, before he proceed to execute the duties of his place or office, make and subscribe the following declaration, viz. :See Amendment, Article VI.]

“I, A. B. do declare, that I believe the Christian religion, and have a firm persuasion of its truth; and that I am seized and possessed, in my own right, of the property required by the Constitution, as one qualification for the office or place to which I am elected."

And the Governor, Lieutenant Governor, and Counsellors, shall make and subscribe the said declaration, in the presence of the two Houses of Assembly; and the Senators and Representatives first elected under this. Constitution, before the President and five of the Council of the former Constitution ;

and, forever afterwards, before the Governor and Council for the time being.

And every person, chosen to either of the places or offices aforesaid, as also any person appointed or commissioned to any judicial, executive, military, or other office under the government, shall, before he enters on the discharge of the business of his place or office, take and subscribe the following declaration, and oaths or affirmations, viz. : 1

" I, A. B. do truly and sincerely acknowledge, profess, testify, and declare, that the Commonwealth of Massachusetts is, and of right ought to be, a Free, Sovereign and Independent State ; and I do swear, that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the said Commonwealth, and that I will defend the same against traitorous conspiracies, and all hostile attempts whatsoever : And that I do renounce and abjure all allegiance, subjection, and obedience to the King, Queen, or government of Great Britain, (as the case may be,) and every other foreign power whatsoever : And that no foreign prince, person, prelate, state or potentate, hath or ought to have, any jurisdiction, superiority, preeminence, authority, dispensing, or other power, in any matter, civil, ecclesiastical, or spiritual, within this Commonwealth ; except the authority and power which is or may be vested, by their constituents, in the Congress of the United States : And I do further testify and declare, that no man or body of men, hath or can have any right to absolve or discharge me from the obligation of this oath, declaration or affirmation ; and that I do make this acknowledgment, profession, testimony, declaration, denial, renunciation, and abjuration, heartily and truly, according to the common meaning and acceptation of the foregoing words, without any equivocation, mental evasion, or secret reservation whatsoever. So help me God.

I, A. B. do solemnly swear and affirm, that I will faithfully and impartially discharge and perform all the duties incumbent on me as.

according to the best of my abilities and understanding, agreeably to the rules and regulations of the Constitution, and the laws of this Commonwealth. So help me God..

Provided, always, that when any person chosen or appointed as aforesaid, shall be of the denomination of the people called Quakers, and shall decline taking the said oaths, he shall make his affirmation in the foregoing form, and subscribe the same, omitting the words, I do swear," "and abjure," " oath or," "and abjuration," in the first oath; and in the second

oath, the words,“ Swear and ;and in each of them the words, ** So help me God;" subjoining, instead thereof, This I do under the pains and penalties of perjury.

And the said oaths or affirmations shall be taken and subscribed, by the Governor, Lieutenant Governor, and Counsellors, before the President of the Senate, in the presence of the two Houses of Assembly; and by the Senators and Representatives first elected under this Constitution, before the President, and five of the Council, of the former Constitution; and forever afterwards, before the Governor and Council for the time being; and by the residue of the officers aforesaid, before such persons and in such manner, as from -time to time shall be prescribed by the Legislature.]

II.

- [No Governor, Lieutenant Governor or Judge of the Supreme Judicial Court, shall hold any other office, or place, under the authority of this Commonwealth, except such as by this Constitution they are admitted to hold, saving that the Judges of the said Court may hold the offices of Justices of the Peace throughout the State ; nor shall they hold any other place or office, or receive any pension or salary, from any other State, or government, or power, whatever.-See Amendment, Art. VIII.)

No person shall be capable of holding or exercising at the same time within this State, more than one of the following offices, viz. :- Judge of Probate ; Sheriff ; Register of Probate ; or Register of Deeds; and never more than any two offices which are to be held by appointment of the Governor, or the Governor and Council, or the Senate, or the House of Representatives, or by the election of the people of the State at large, or of the people of any county (military offices and the offices of Justices of the Peace excepted) shall be held by one person.

No person holding the office of Judge of the Supreme Judicial Court ; Secretary; Attorney General ; Solicitor General ; Treasurer or Receiver General; Judge of Probate; Commissary General; President, Professor or Instructor of Harvard College; Sheriff; Clerk of the House of Representatives ; Register of Probate; Register of Deeds; Clerk of the Supreme Judicial Court; Clerk of the Inferior Court of Common Pleas; or Officer of the Customs, (including in this description naval officers ;) shall at the same time have a seat in the Senate or House of Representatives ; but their

being chosen or appointed to, and accepting the same, shall operate as a resignation of their seat in the Senate or House of Representatives ; and the place so vacated, shall be filled up.

And the same rule shall take place, in case any Judge of the said Supreme Judicial Court, or Judge of Probate shall accept a seat in Council; or any Counsellor shall accept of either of those offices or places ]

And no person shall ever be admitted to hold a seat in the Legislature, or any office of trust or importance under the government of this Commonwealth, who shall, in the due course of law, have been convicted of bribery, or corruption, in obtaining an election or appointment.

III. In all cases, where sums of money are mentioned in this Constitution, the value thereof shall be computed in silver, at six shillings and eight pence per ounce; and it shall be in the power of the Legislature, from time to time, to increase such qualifications, as to property, of the persons to be elected to offices, as the circumstances of the Commonwealth shall require.

IV. All commissions shall be in the name of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, signed by the Governor, and attested by the Secretary, or his Deputy, and have the Great Seal of the Commonwealth affixed thereto.

V. All writs, issuing out of the Clerk's office, in any of the courts of law, shall be in the name of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts ; they shall be under the seal of the court from whence they issue ; they shall bear test of the first Justice of the Court, to which they shall be returnable, (who is not a party,) and be signed by the Clerk of such court.

VI.. All the laws, which have heretofore been adopted, used and approved in the Province, Colony or State of Massachusetts Bay, and usually practised on in the courts of law, shall stihl remain and be in full force, until altered or repealed by the Legislature ; such parts only excepted, as are repugnant to the rights and liberties contained in this Constitution.. . VII. The privilege and benefit of the writ of Habeas Corpus shall be enjoyed in this Commonwealth, in the most free, easy, cheap, expeditious and ample manner; and shall not be suspended by the Legislature, except upon the most urgent and pressing occasions, and for a limited time, not exceeding twelve months.

VIII. · The enacting style, in making and passing all acts, statutes, and laws, shall be, “ Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives, in General Court assembled, and by the authority of the same.",

IX. [To the end there may be no failure of justice, or danger arise to the Commonwealth, from a change of the form of government, all officers, civil and military, holding commissions under the government and people of Massachusetts Bay, in New England, and all other officers of the said government and people, at the time this Constitution shall take effect, shall have, hold, use, exercise, and enjoy, all the powers and authority to thém granted or committed, until other persons shall be 'appointed in their stead; and all courts of law, shall proceed in the execution of the business of their respective departments; and all the executive and legislative officers, bodies and powers, shall continue in full force in the enjoyment and exercise of all their trusts, employments, and authority, until the General Court, and the supreme and executive officers, under this Constitution, are designated and invested with their respective trusts, powers, and authority.

X. In order more effectually to adhere to the principles of the Constitution, and to correct those violations which by any means may be made therein, as well as to form such alterations as from experience shall be found necessary, the General Court, which shall be in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and ninety five, shall issue precepts to the Selectmen of the several towns, and to the Assessors of the unincorporated plantations, directing them to convene the qualified voters of their respective towns and plantations, for the purpose of collecting their sentiments, on the neces

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