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ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA

AND

REGISTER OF IMPORTANT EVENTS

OF THE YEAR

1882.

EMBRACING POLITICAL, CIVIL MILITARY, AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS; PUBLIC DOCU-
MENTS; BIOGRAPHY, STATISTICS, COMMERCE, FINANCE, LITERATURE,

SCIENCE, AGRICULTURE, AND MECHANICAL INDUSTRY.

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NEW YORK:
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY,

1, 3, AND 5 BOND STREET.

1885.
1303 12

COPYRIGIIT DY D. APPLETON AND COMPANY,

1883.

AGA 1882

PRE FACE.

The volume of this work for 1882 is the seventh of the new series and the twenty-second of the whole series. It has grown in size to meet the rapidly increasing activity in human affairs, and to present the interesting public questions and scientific developments which have arisen, and the discussions of their principles.

A special article is devoted to each State of the United States and generally to each country of the world, which contains a sketch of its history during the year, the administration of its government, and its legislation ; full and official information is given of its area, population, education, military and naval force, commerce, finances, productions, statistics, public men, and the public questions agitated, and reforms effected. No efforts are spared to secure the fullest information from all parts of the world, and it is considered that in its several departments the work may be safely consulted as the completest and most reliable book of reference. At the same time its record of progress in the various departments of science and useful practical knowledge will be found most valuable and unsurpassed.

In this volume are fully presented the details on the great question agitating the country, “ The Protection of American Industry,” in the “Debates of Congress"; the “Tariff Revision Commission"; an analysis of the “ Manufactures of the United States”; the “Occupations of the Various Classes of Population as shown by the Census”; the “Finances of the United States,” by Rafael A. Bayley, of the Treasury Department, read and approved by the Secretary, Hon. Charles J. Folger, contains important facts not before printed. Also the arti. cles “on the Commerce and Finances” of the country; the revival of “The Merchant Marine Service," with others valuable and important, bear upon the same subject.

The reports of the census, showing the marvelous strides of the country, are collated in articles on the “ Cereal and Coal Products"; the “Cotton Crop and its Special Manufactures"; the “Farms and Live-Stock” of the country; the vast extent of the “Fisheries of the Coast-line States"; "Forestry and the Question of the Conservation of the Forests"; the results of the “Investigation of the Lung-Plague in Cattle”; statistics of “Education and Illiteracy,” to which is added the educational measures in European nations ; “Details of the Criminal Jurisprudence of the States”; the “Railroads,” the “Telegraphs,” and the “ Telephones” of the United States; the “Indebtedness of the United States, “ National,” “State,” “County,” and “Municipal," and the “Public Debts of

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