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July
28. Mint, water, 233.6. Mentha aquatica, F.

Willow herb, 311.6. Epilobium paluftre, F.
7'histle tree sow, 163.7. Sonchus arvens, F.
Burdock, 197.2. Arctium lappa, f.
Saxifrage, burnet, 213.1,2. Pimpinella, faxifraga, F.

Devil's BIT, 191.3. Scabiosa fuccisa, f.
32. Nightshade, common, 288.4. Solanum nigrum, P.

DOVE, RING, 62.9. Columba palumbus, codes

VIII. Μ Ο Ν Τ Η.
Auguft
1. Melilot, 331.1. Trifolium officinale, F.

Rue, 874.1. Ruta graveolens, F.
Soapwort, 339.6. Saponaria officinalis, F.
Bedstraw, white lady's, 224.2. Galium paluftre, P.
Parsnep, water, 300. Sisymbrium nafturt. F.

Oats almost fit to cut.
3. Barley cut.
5. Tansey, 188.1. Tanacetum vulgare, F.

Onion, 1115. H. Allium cepa, F.
7. Horehound, 239. Marrubium vulgare, F.

Mint, water, 233.6. Mentha aquat. F.
Nettle, 139. Urtica dioica, F.
Orpine, 269.1. Sedum telephium, F.

NÚTHATCH, 47. Sitta Europea, cbatters.
8. Tbermom. 20. Lowest to the 27th of this month.
9. Mint, red, 232.5. Mentha gentilis, F.

Wormwood, 188.1. Artemisia absinthium, F.
12. Horehound, water, 236.1. Lycopus Europeus, F.

Thistle, lady's, 195.12. Carduus marianus, F.
Burdock, 196. Arctium lappu, F.

ROOKS come to the neft trees in the evening, but do not root there. 14. Clary, wild, 237.1. Salvia verbenaca, F.

STONE CURLEW, 108. Charadrius oedicnemus, wbiffles at night. 15. Mallow, vervain, 252. Malva alcea, F.

GOAT SUCKER, 26.1. Caprimulgus Europæus, makes a noise in the evening,

and young owls. 16. * Thermom. 35. The highest to the 27th of this month. 17. Orach, wild, 154.1. Chenopodiumn album.

ROOKS root on their neft trees.

GOAT SUCKER, no longer beard. 21. Peas and wheat cut.

Devil's bit, yellow, 164.1. Leontodon, autumnal. F. 26. ROBIN RED BREAST, 78.3. Motacilla rubecula, fings.

Goule, 443. Myrica gale, F.R.

Golden rod, marsh, 176.2. Senecio paludojus, F. 29. Smallage, 214. Apium graveolens, F.

Teasel, 192.2. Dipsacus fullenum, F.
Vipers come out of their holes ftill.

* From the 27th of this month to the roth of September I was from home, and therefore canzo be sure that I law the first blow of the plants during that interval.

IX. MONTH, IX. Μ Ο Ν Τ Η. September 2. WILLOW HERB, yellow, 282.1. Lysimachia vulgaris, F.

Traveller's joy, 258. Clematis vitalba, F. 5. Grafs of Parnaffus, 355. Parnassiapaluftris. io. Catkins of the hasel formed.

Thermom. 17. The lowest from the 10th to the end of this month. 11. Catkins of the bircb formed.

Leaves of the Scotch fir fall.
Bramble still in blow, though some of the fruit has been ripe some time ; fo that there

are green, red, and black berries on the same individual plant at the fame time.

Ivy, 459. Hedera belix, f.
14. Leaves of the Sycomore, birch, lime, mountain ajh, elm, begin to change.
16. Furze, 475. Ulex Europaus, F.

Catkins of the alder formed.
Thermom. 36.75. The highest from the roth to the end of this month.

CHAFFINCH, 88. Fringilla cælebs, chirps.
17. Herrings.
20. Fern, FEMALE, 124.1. Pteris aquilina, turned brown.

Alh, mountain, 452.2. Sorbus aucuparia, F. R.
Laurel 1549. H. Prunus laurocerasus, f. r.

Hops, humulus lupulus, 137.1, f. 1.
21. SWALLOWS gone. Full moon.
23. Autumnal æquinox.
25. WOOD LARK, 69.2. Alauda arborea, fings.

FIELD FARE, 64.3. Turdus pilaris, appears.
Leaves of the plane tree, tawnyof the hajel, yellow of the oak, yellowish green-

of the lycomore, dirty brown of the maple, pale yellow of the ash, fine lemon
of the elm, orange of the hawihorn, tawny yellowanof the cherry, red of the

bornbeam, bright yellow of the willow, fill hoary. 27. BLACK BIRD sings. 29. THRUSH, 64.2. Turdus mufcus, fings. 30. Brainble, 467.1. Rubus fruticojus, F.

X. Μ Ο Ν Τ Η.
October
i. Bryony, black, 262. Tamus communis, F. R.

Elder, marsh, 46c.1. Viburnum opulus, F. R.
Elder, 461.1. Sambucus nigra, F. R.
Briar, 454.1. Rosa canina, F. R.
Alder, black, 465. Rhamnus frangula, F. R.
Holly, 466. Ilex aquifolium, F. R.
Barberry, 465. Berberis vulgaris, F. R.

Nighthade, woody, 265. Solanum dulcamara, F. R.
2. Thorn, black, 462.1. Prunus spinoja, F. R.

+ CROW, ROYSTON, 39-4. Corvus cornix, returns.
5. Catkins of fallows formed.
6. Leaves of up almojt all off-of chesnut, yellow of birch, gold-coloured.
Thermom. 26.50.

Highest this month.
7. BLACK BIRD, 65.1. Turdus merula, fings.

Wind bigh; rocks sport and dash about as in play, and repair their nefs,
9. Spindle tree, 468.1. Euvonymus Europeus, F.R.

Some ash trees quite firipped of their leaves.

Leaves of marjn elder of a beautifiel red, or rather pink colour. * Autumnal heat, according to Dr. Hales, at a medium, is 18.25.

+ Linnæus observes in the Syftema Natura, and the Fauna Sueca, that this bird is useful to the husbandnan, tho'll created by hiin.

10. WOOD

P E N D I X.
O&ober
10. WOOD LARK fings.

• RING DOVE cooes.
14.WOOD LARK fings.
Several plants still in flower, as pansy, white bebu, black norejuch, bawkaveed, bu.

gloss, gentian, small stitchwort, &c. in grounds not broken up. A great mist and perfect calm ; not so much as a leaf falls. Spiders zeebs innume

rable appear every where. Woodlark fings. Rooks do not ftir, but fit quietly on

their neft trees.
16. GEESE, WILD, 136.4. Anas, anser, leave the fens and go to the

rye

lands. 22. WOODCOCK, 104. Scolopax rufticola, returns.

Some ash-trees ftill green.
24. LARK, SKY, 69.1. Alauda arvensis, fings.

Privet, 465.1. Ligustrum vulgare, F. R.
26. Thermom. 7. Lowest this month.
Honeysuckle, 458.1,2. Lomicera periclymen, fill in flower in the bedges, and

mallow and feverfew.
WILD GEESE continue going to the rye

lands.

1

Now from the north
Of Norumbega, and the Samoeïd shore,
Bursting their brazen dungeons, arm’d with ice,
And snow, and hail, and formy gust, and flaw,
Boreas, and Cæcias, and Argestes loud,
And Thrascias rend the woods, and seas up-turn.

MILTON.

Here ends the Calendar, being interrupted by my going to London. During the

whole time it was kept, the barometer Auctuated between 29.1. and 29.9. except a few days, when it sunk to 28.6. and rose to 30.

N A T U R A L

HISTORY.

:

Extra&s from Mr. PENNANT's British is an amazing instance of rapidity, his
Zoology.

speed having been more than once exerted

equal to 82 feet in a second, or near a § 1, The HORSE.

mile in a minute: the same horse has also *HE breed of horses in Great Britain run the round course at Newmarket (which

4 the frequent introduction of foreign horses minutes and forty seconds; in which cale has given us a variety, that no single coun- his fleetness is to that of the swiftelt Barb, try can boast of most other kingdoms as four to three; the former, according to produce only one kind, while ours, by a Doctor Mary's computation, covering af judicious mixture of the several species, every bound a space of ground equal is by the happy difference of our soils, and length to twenty-three feet royal, the latter by our superior kill in management, may only that of eighteen feet and a half royal. triumph over the rest of Europe, in having Horses of this kind, derive their origia brought each quality of this noble animal from Arabia; the seat of the pareft, and to the highest perfection.

molt generous breed. In the annals of Newmarket, may be The species used in hunting, is a happy found instances of horses tha: have literally combination of the former with others faout-stripped the wind, as the celebrated perior in strength, but inferior in point of M. Condamine bas lately shewn in his re- speed and lineage: an union of both is nemarks on those of Great Britain. Childers ceflary; for the fatigues of the chace mut

* Aristotle says, that this bird does not cooe in the winter, unless the weather happens to be mild.

be

be supported by the spirit of the one, as or for the draught, are an offspring of the well as by the vigour of the other. German or Flemith breed, meliorated by

No country can bring a parallel to the our foil, and a judicious culture. strength and size of our horses destined for The English were ever attentive to an the draught; or to the activity and strength exact culture of these animals; and in very unitd of those that form our cavalry. early times set a high value on their breed.

In our capital there are instances of fin- The etteem that our horses were held in gle horses that are able to draw on a plain, by foreigners so long ago as the reign of for a small space, the weight of three tons; Athelstan, may be collected from a law of but could with ease, and for a continuance that monarch prohibiting their exportation, draw half that weight. The pack-horses except they were designed as presents. of Yorkshire, employed in conveying tbe Thele must have been the native kind, or manufactures of that county to the most the prohibition would save been needless, remote parts of the kingdom, usually carry for our commerce was at that time too lia burden of 420 pounds; and that indiffe- mited to receive improvement from any rently over the highest hills of the north, but the German kind, to which country as well as the most level roads; but the their own breed could be of no value. most remarkable proof of the strength of But when our intercourse with the other our British horses, is to be drawn from that parts of Europe was enlarged, we soon laid of our mill-horses: some of these will carry hold of the advantages this gave of imat one load thirteen measures, which at a proving our breed. Roger de Belesme, moderate computation of 70 pounds each, Earl of Shrewsbury, is the first that is on will amount to 910; a weight superior to record: he introduced the Spanish stallions that which the lesser sort of camels will into his estate in Powisland, from which bear: this will appear less surprising, as that part of Wales was for many ages cethese horses are by degrees accustomed to lebrated' for a swift and generous race of the weight; and the distance they travel horses. Giraldus Cambrenfis, who lived no greater than to and from the adjacent in the reign of Henry II. takes notice of hamlets.

it; and Michael Drayton, cotemporary Our cavalry in the late campaigns (when with Shakespeare, sings their excellence in they had opportunity) thewed over those the sixth part of his Polyolbion. This kind of our allies, as well as of the French, a was probably destined to mount our galgreat superiority both of strength and ac- lant nobility, or courteous knights for feats tivity: the enemy was broken through by of chivalry, in the generous contests of the impetuous charge of our squadrons; the tilt-yard. From these sprung, to speak while the German horses, from their great the language of the times, the Flower of weight, and inactive make, were unable to Coursers, whose elegant form added charms second our efforts; though those troops to the rider; and whose activity and mawere actuated by the noblest ardour. naged dexterity gained him the palm in

The present cavalry of this island only that field of gallantry and romantic hosupports its ancient glory; it was eminent nour. in the earliest times : our scythed chariots, Notwithstanding my former supposition, and the activity and good discipline of our races were known in England in very early horses, even ftruck terror into Cælar's le- times. Fitz-Stephen, who wrote in the gions : and the Britains, as soon as they days of Henry II. mentions the great debecame civilized enough to coin, took care light that the citizens of London took in to represent on their money the animal for the diversion. But by his words, it apwhich they were so celebrated. It is now pears not to have been designed for the impossible to trace out this species; for purposes of gaming, but merely to have those which exist among the indigenæ of sprung from a generous emulation of thewe Great Britain, such as the little horses of ing a superior skill in horsemanship. Wales and Cornwall, the hobbies of Ire- Races appear to have been in vogue in land, and the shelties of Scotland, though the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and to have admirably well adapted to the uses of those been carried to such excess as to injure the countries, could never have been equal to fortunes of the nobility. The famous the work of war; bue probably we had George Earl of Cumberland is recorded even then a larger and ttronger breed in to have wasted more of his eftate than any the more fertile and luxuriant parts of the of his anceitors; and chiefly by his exisland. Those we employ for that purpose, treme love to horse-races, tiltings, and

3 Q

other

other expensive diversions. It is probable well formed, and such as might be opposed that the parsimonious queen did not ap- to so formidable an enemy as was then exprove of it; for races are not among the pected: but such is their present increase, diversions exhibited at Kennelworth by her that in the late war, the number employed favourite Leicester. In the following reign, was 13,575; and such is our improvement were places allotted for the sport: Croy. in the breed of horses, that moit of those don in the South, and Garterly in York, which are used in our waggons and carrishire, were celebrated courses. Camden ages of different kinds, might be applied also says, that in 1607 there were races near to the same purpose: of those, our capital York, and the prize was a little golden alone employs near 22,000. bell.

The learned M. de Buffon has almost ex. Not that we deny this diversion to be hausted the subject of the natural history known in these kingdoms in earlier times ; of the horse, and the other domestic ani. we only assert a different mode of it, gen- mals; and left very little for after writers tlemen being then their own jockies, and to add. We may observe, that this most riding their own horses. Lord Herbert of noble and useful quadruped is endowed Cherbury enumerates it among the sports with every quality that can make it fubthat gallant philosopher thought unworthy fervient to the uses of mankind; and those of a man of honour. “ The exercise (fay's qualities appear in a more exalted, or in a

he) I do not approve of, is running of less degree, in proportion to our varioas " horses, there being much cheating in that necessities. « kind; neither do I see why a brave man Undaunted courage, added to a docility “ lhould delight in a creature whose chief half reasoning, is given to fome, which fits “ use is to help him to run away.them for military services. The spirit and

The increase of our inhabitants, and the emulation so apparent in others, furnith us extent of our manufactures, together with with that species, which is admirably adaptthe former neglect of internal navigation ed for the course; or, the more noble and to convey those manufactures, multiplied generous pleasure of the chace. the number of our horses: an excess of Patience and perseverance appear ftrong. wealth, before unknown in these islands, ly in that most useful kind destined to bear increased the luxury of carriages, and add the burdens we impose on them; or that ed to the necesity of an extraordinary cul- employed in the slavery of the draught. ture of these animals: their high reputa- l'hough endowed with vast strength, and tion abroad, has also made them a branch great powers, they very rarely exert either of commerce, and proved another cause of to their master's prejudice ; but on the their vast increase.

contrary, will endure fatigues, eren to As no kingdom can boast of parallel death, for our benefit. Providence has circumstances, so none can vie with us in implanted in them a benevolent disposition, the number of these noble quadrupeds; it and a fear of the human race, together would be extremely difficult to guess at the with a certain consciousness of the services exact amount of them, or to form a peri- we can render them. Most of the hoofed odical account of their increase : the num- quadrupeds are domestic, because peceffity ber seems very fluctuating: William Fitz- compels them to seek our protection : wild Stephen relates, that in the reign of king beasts are provided with feet and claws, Stephen, London alone poured out 20,000 adapted to the forming dens and retreats horiemen in the wars of those times: yet, from the inclemency of the weather; buz we find that in the beginning of Queen the former, destitute of these advantages, Elizabeth's reign, the whole kingdom are obliged to run to us for artificial theicould not supply 2000 horses to form our ter, and harvested provisions: as nature, cavalry: and even in the year 1588, when in these climates, does not throughout the the nation was in the most imminent dan. year supply them with necessary food. ger from the Spanish invasion, all the ca- But still, many of our tame animals mos valry which the nation could then furnish by accident endure the rigour of the teaamounted only to 3000: to account for són: to prevent which inconvenience, their this difference we must imagine, that the feet (for the extremities suffer firit by coid) number of horses which took the field in are protected by itrong hoofs of a horny Stephen's reign was no more than an un- substance. disciplined rabble; the few that appeared The tail too is guarded with long bohy under the banners of Elizabeth, a corps hair that protects it in both extremes of

weatser;

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