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fpend in sleep! forgetting that“ The sleep- tens: remember, that " The cat in gloves ing fox catches no poultry, and that there catches no mice,” as Poor Richard says. It will be fleeping enough in the grave,” as is true, there is much to be done, and, perPoor Richard says:
haps, you are weak-handed; but stick to it “ If time be of all things the most pre- steadily, and you will see great effects; for cious, wasting time must be," as Poor Rich- “ Constant dropping wears away stones : ard says, “the greatest prodigality;' since, and by diligence and patience the mouse as he elsewhere tells us, “ Lost time is ne- ate in two the cable; and little strokes fell ver found again; and what we call time great oaks.” enough always proves little enough." Let • Methinks I hear some of you say, us then up and be doing, and doing to the “ Must a man afford himself no leisure ?" purpose : so by diligence shall we do more I will tell thee, my friend, what Poor Richwith less perplexity: “ Sloth makes all ard says; “ Employ thy time well, if thou things difficult, but industry all easy; and meaneit to gain leisure; and, since thou art he that riseth late, must trot all day, and not sure of a minute, throw not away an shall scarce overtake his business at night; hour.” Leisure is time for doing somewhile laziness travels so flowly, that po- thing useful; this leisure the diligent man verty foon overtakes him. Drive thy bu. will obtain, but the lazy man never; for, finels, let not that drive thee; and early « A life of leisure and a life of laziness are to bed, and early to rise, makes a man two things. Many, without labour, would healthy, wealthy, and wife,” as Poor Rich- live by their wits only, but they break for ard says.
want of stock;" whereas industry gives • So what signifies wishing and hoping comfort, and plenty, and respect. for better times? We may make thele pleasures, and they will follow you. The times better, if we beftir ourselves. “ In- diligent spinner has a large shift; and now duftry need not wish, and he that lives up. I have a iheep and a cow, every body bids on hope will die fasting. There are no me good-morrow." gains without pains; then help hands, for II. “But with our industry we must like. I have no lands," or, if I have, they are wise be steady, settled, and careful, and smartly taxed. “He that hath a trade, oversee our own affairs with our own eyes, hath an estate; and he that hath a calling, and not trust too much to others; for, as hath an office of profit and honour,” as Poor Richard says, Poor Richard says; but then the trade must be worked at, and the calling well
“ I never saw an oft-removed tree, followed, or neither the estate nor the office
Nor yet an oft-removed family,
That throve lo well as those that settled be." will enable us to pay our taxes.-If we are industrious we shall never starve ; for, “ at • And again, “ Three removes is as bad as the working man's house hunger looks in, a fire:" and again, “ Keep thy shop, and but dares not enter.” Nor will the bailiff thy ihop will keep thee :” and again, " If or the constable enter, for “ industry pays you would have your business done, go; if debts, while despair encreaseth them.” not, send.” And again, What though you have found no treasure, nor has any rich relation left you a legacy,
“ He that by the plough would thrive,
Himself muft either hold or drive.” “ Diligence is the mother of good luck, and God gives all things to industry. Then And again, “ The eye of the master will plow deep, while fluggards sleep, and you do more work than both his hands :" and Thall have corn to sell and to keep.” Work again, “ Want of care does us more dawhile it is called to-day, for you know not mage than want of knowledge:” and again, how much you may
be hindered to-morrow. “ Not to oversee workmen, is to leave them “ One to-day is worth two to-morrows," as your purse open.” Trufting too much to Poor Richard says; and farther, “ Never others care is the ruin of many; for, “ In leave that till to-morrow, which you can do the affairs of this world, men are saved, not to-day."'-If you were
servant, would by faith, but by the want of it :" but a you not be ashamed that a good master man's own care is profitable; for, “ If you should catch you idle ? Are you then your would have a faithful servant, and one that own master be ashamed to catch yourself you like,-serve yourself. A little neglect idle, when there is so much to be done for may breed great mischief; for want of a yourself, your family, your country, and nail the shoe was lott; for want of a shoe your king. Handle your tools without mit- the horse was loft; and for want of a horse
FOURTH. the rider was lost,” being overtaken and a purchase of repentance;" and yet this sain by the enemy; all for want of a little folly is practised every day at auctions, for care about a horse-fhoe nail.
want of minding the Almanack. Many a III. So much for industry, my friends, onc, for the sake of finery on the back, have and attention to one's own business; but to gone with a hungry belly, and half starved these we must add frugality, if we would their families; “Silks and fattins, scarlet make our industry more certainly fuccef- and velvets, put out the kitchen-fire,” as ful. A man may, if he knows not how to Poor Richard says. These are not the nefave as he gets, “ keep his nose all his life cessaries of life; they can fcarcely be called to the grindstone, and die not worth a groat the conveniences: and yet only because at last. A fat kitchen makes a lean will;" they look pretty, how many want to have and,
them?-By there, and other extravagan
cies, the genteel are reduced to poverty, “Many estates are spent in the getting, Since women for tea forsook spinning and and forced to borrow of those whom they knitting,
formerly despised, but who, through inAnd men for punch forsook hewing and split- dustry and frugality, have maintained their ting."
standing; in which case it appears plainly, « Ifyou would be wealthy, think of saving, than a gentleman on his knees,” as Poor
that "A ploughman on his legs is higher as well as of getting. The Indies have not Richard says. Perhaps they have had a made Spain rich, because her out-goes are
small estate left them, which they knew not greater than her in-comes."
Away, then, with your expensive fol- the getting of; they think “ It is day, and lies, and you will not then have so much
will never be night:" that a little to be cause to complain of hard times, heavy tax- but « Always taking out of the meal-tub,
spent out of so much is not worth minding; cs, and chargeable families; for
and never putting in, soon comes to the “Women and wine, game and deceit, bottom,” as Poor Richard says; and then,
Make the wealth small, and the want great.” “ When the well is dry, they know the And farther, “What maintains one vice, worth of water.” But this they might would bring up two children.” You may
have known before, if they had taken his think, perhaps, that a little tea, or a little advice. “If you would know the value of punch now and then, diet a little more cott- money, go and try to borrow some; for he ly, cloaths a little finer, and a little enter
that goes a borrowing, goes a forrowing," tainment now and then, can be no great
as Poor Richard says; and, indeed, so does matter; but remember, “Many a little
he that lends to such people, when he goes makes a mickle.” Beware of little ex
to get it in again. Poor Dick farther advi
ses, and says, pences; " A small leak will sink a great Thip,” as Poor Richard says; and again, “ Fond pride of dress is sure a very curse, “ Who dainties love, shall beggars prove;”.
Ere fancy you consult, cousult your purse." and moreover, “ Fools make feaits, and And again, “Pride is as loud a beggar as wise men eat them.” Here you are all Want, and a great deal more faucy.” When got together to this sale of fineries and you have bought one fine thing, you must nick-nacks. You call them goods; but, buy ten more, that your appearance may if you do not take care, they will prove be all of a piece; but Poor Dick says, “ It evils to some of you. You expect they is easier to fuppress the first defire, than will be sold cheap, and, perhaps, they may to satisfy all that follow it,” And it is as for less than they colt; but, if you have truly folly for the poor to ape the rich, as no occasion for them, they must be dear to for the frog to swell, in order to equal you. Remember what Poor Richard says, the ox. “ Buy what thou hast no need of, and ere
“Vessels large may venture more, long thou shalt sell thy necessaries.” And
But little boats should keep near thore.** again, “ At a great pennyworth pause a while :” he means, that perhaps the cheap. It is, however, a folly soon punished; for, ness is apparent only, and not real; or the as Poor Richard says, “ Pride that dines bargain, by ftraitening thee in thy business, on vanity, sups on contempt; Pride breakmay do thee more harm than good. For fasted with Plenty, dined with Poverty, in another place he says, “ Many have been and fupped with Infamy.” And, after ruined by buying good pennyworths.” all, of what use is this pride of appearance, Again, It is toolish to lay out money in for which so much is riked, lo much is
suffered ? It cannot promote health, nor bear a little extravagance without injury;
“ For age and want save while you my, But what madness it must be to run in No morning-sun lasts a whole day." debt for these superfluities? We are offer
and uncered, by the terms of this sale, fix months tain ; but ever, while you live, expence is credit; and that, perhaps, has induced constant and certain; and “ It is easier to some of us to attend it, because we cannot
build two chimneys, than to keep one in spare the ready money, and hope now to fuel,” as Poor Richard says: So,« Rather be fine without it. But, ah! think what go to bed supperless, than rise in debt. you do when you run in debt; you give to another power over your liberty. If you
Get what you can, and what you get hold,
'Tis the stone that will turn all your lead into cannot pay at the time, you will be atham
gold." ed to see your creditor ; you will be in fear when you speak to him; you will make And when you have got the philosopoor pitiful sneaking excuses, and, by de- pher's stone, sure you will no longer comgrees, come to lose your veracity, and fink plain of bad times, or the difficulty of into base, downright lying; for, “ The se. paying taxes. cond vice is lying, the first is running in IV. • This doctrine, my friends, is readebt,” as Poor Richard says; and again, son and wisdom : but, after all, do not deto the same purpose, “ Lying rides upon pend too much upon your own industry, Debt's back:', whereas a free-born Eng- and frugality, and prudence, though exlishman ought not to be ashamed nor afraid cellent things ; for they may all be blafted to see or speak to any man living. But without the blessing of Heaven; and there. poverty often deprives a inan of all spirit fore, afk that blefling humbly, and be not and virtue. “It is hard for an empty bag uncharitable to those that at present seem to stand upright.”-What would you think to want it, but comfort and help them. of that prince, or of that government, who Remember, Job suffered, and was aftershould issue an edict forbidding you to dress wards prosperous. like a gentleman or gentlewoman, on pain * And now to conclude, Experience of imprisonment or servitude? Would you keeps a dear school, but fools will learn in not say that you were free, have a right to no other,”' as Poor Richard says, and scarce dress as you please, and that such an edi&t in that; for it is true, “We may give ad. would be a breach of your privileges, and vice, but we cannot give conduct." Howsuch a government tyrannical ? and yet ever, remember this, “ They that will not you are about to put yourself under that be counselled cannot be helped;” and fartyranny, when you run in debt for such ther, that “ If you will not hear Reason, dress !' Your creditor has authority, at his she will surely rap your knuckles," as Poor pleasure, to deprive you of your liberty, Richard says. by confining you in gaol for life, or by fel- Thus the old gentleman ended his haling you for a servant, if you lould not be 'rangue. The people heard it, and apable to pay him. When you have got your proved the doctrine, and immediately bargain, you may, perhaps, think little of practised the contrary, just as if it had payment; but, as Poor Richard says, “Cre- been a common sermon; for the auction ditors have better memories than debtors; opened, and they began to buy extrava. creditors are a superstitious sect, great ob- gantly. I found the good man had tho. servers of set days and times.” The day roughly fludied my Almanacks, and dicomes round before you are aware, and the gelted all I had dropt on those topics demand is made before you are prepared during the course of twenty-five years. to satisfy it; or, if you bear your debt in The frequent mention he made of me mind, the term, which at first seemed so must have tired any one else; but my va. long, will, as it leffens, appear extremely nity was wonderfully delighted with it, Tort: Time will seem to have added though I was conscious that not a tenth wings to his heels as well as his thoulders. part of the wisdom was my own, which he « Those have a fort Lent, who owe mo- afcribed to me; but rather the gleanings ney to be paid at Easter.” At present, that I had made of the sense of all ages perhaps, you may think yourselves in and nations. However, I resolved to be thriving circumstances, and that you can the better for the echo of it; and though
I had at firft determined to bay stuff for a practise it !-There is so rgament es new coa:, I went away, refcived to wear mctive, weich is at all fized to infuence a my old one a litile longer. Reader, if realo.abie mind, sich does not call us to thou wilt do the same, thy proít sill be this. One vistosas duponton of foal is as great as mine.--I am, as ever, thine to preferable to the greateå natural accom. Lerve thee. RICHARD SAUNDERS. pithments and abi.tes, ari of more va
lce than all the treasures of the world. If $-155. In Praise of Virtu.
you are wise, then, ftudy virtue, and conVirtue is of intrinsic valne ard good temn every thing that can come in condesert, and of indispensable cbigation; petition with it. Remember, that nothing not the creature of will
, but necellary and elle deserves cae arious trought or with. immutable : nct local or temporary, but Remember, that this alone is hencor, glory, of equal extent and antiquity with the di- weals, and happiness. Secure mais, and vine mind; not a mode of sensation, but you secure every thing; lcie this, and ail everlasting truth; not dependent on power, is lot.
Price. but the guide of all power. Virtue is the foundation of honour and eleem, and the
$ 155. On Cruelty to inferior Animals. fource of all beauty, order, and happi. Man is that link of the chain of univer. ness, in nature. It is what confers value fal existence, by which spiritual and coron all the other endowments and qualities poreal beings are united as the pombers of a reasonable being, to which they ought and variety of the latter his inferiors are 10 be absolutely subservient, and without almoit infinite, so probably are those of the which the more eminent they are, the more former his superiors; and as we see that hideous deformities and the greater curses the lives and happiness of those below us they become. The use of it is not con- are dependant on our wills, we may reafined to any one stage of our existence, or sonably conclude, that our lives and hap. to any particular situation we can be in, pinels are equally dependant on the wills but reaches through all the periods and of those above us; accountable, like our. circumstances of our beings. Many of selves, for the use of this power, to the Su. the endowments and talents we now possess, preme Creator and Governor of all things. and of which we are too apt to be proud, Should this analogy be well founded, how will cease entirely with the present state; criminal will our account appear, when laid but this will be our ornament and dignity before that just and impartial Judge! How in every future state to which we may be will man, that sanguinary tyrant, be able semoved. Beauty and wit will die, learn- to excuse himself from the charge of these ing will vanish away, and all the arts of innumerable cruelties inflicted on his unlife be soon forgot; but virtue will remain offending subjects committed to his care, for ever. This unites us to the whole ra- formed for his benefit, and placed under bis tional creation, and fits us for conversing authority by their common Father? whose with any order of superior natures, and mercy is over all his works, and who exfor a place in any part of God's works. pects that his authority should be exerciso 1 It procures us the approbation and love of not only with tenderness and mercy, but all wife and good beings, and renders them in conformity to the laws of justice and our allies and friends.—But what is of un- gratitude. fpeakably greater consequence is, that it But to what horrid deviations from thefa makes God our friend, assimilates and benevolent intentions are we daily wit. unites our minds to his, and engages his nesses ! no small part of mankind derive almighty power in our defence. Superior their chief amusements from the deaths beings of all ranks are bound by it no less and sufferings of inferior animals ; a much than ourselves. It has the same authority greater, conlider them only as engines of in all worlds that it has in this. The further wood, or iron, useful in their several occuany being is advanced in excellence and per. pations. The carman drives his herse, fection, the greater is his attachment to it, and the carpenter his nail, by repeated and the more he is under its influence. To blows; and so long as these produce the say no more, 'tis the law of the whole uni. desired effect, and they boih go, they neiverse; it stands first in the estimation of the ther reflect or care whether either of them Deity; its original is his nature; and it is have any sense of feeling. The butcher the very object that makes him lovely. knocks down the stately ox, with no more
Such is the importance of virtue. --Of compassion than the blacksmith hammers what consequence, therefore, is it that we a horseshoe; and plunges his knife into
the throat of the innocent lamb, with as lefs animals intended for our fuftenance; little reluctance as the taylor sticks his and that they are so intended, the agreeneedle into the collar of a coat.
able flavour of their felh to our palates, If there are some few, who, formed in and the wholesome nutriment which it ada softer mould, view with picy the suffer- minifters to our fomachs, are sufficient ings of these defenceless creatures, there is proofs : these, as they are formed for our scarce one who entertains the lealt idea, use, propagated by our culture, and fed that jufice or gratitude can be due to their by our care, we have certainly a right to merits, or their services. The social and deprive of life, because it is given and friendly dog is hanged without remorse, if, preserved to them.on that condition ; but by barking in defence of his master's per- this hould always be performed with all Son and property, he happens unknowingly the tenderness and compaffion which so to difturb his reft: the generous horle, disagreeable an office will permit; and no who has carried his ungrateful matter for circumstances ought to be omitted, which many years with ease and safety, worn out can render their executions as quick and with age and infirmities, contracted in his easy as possible. For this, Providence has service, is by him cor.demned to end his widely and benevolently provided, by formmiserable days in a duft-cart, where the ing them in such a manner, that their flesh more he exerts his little remains of spirit, becomes rancid and unpalateable by a the more he is whipped to save his stupid painful and lingering death; and has thus driver the trouble of whipping some other compelled us to be merciful without comless obedient to the lath. Sometimes, have passion, and cautious of their suffering, for ing been taught the practice of many un
the sake of ourselves: but, if there are any natural and useless feats in a riding-house, whose tastes are so vitiated, and whole he is at last turned out, and consigned to hearts are so hardened, as to delight in the dominion of a hackney-coachman, by such inhuman sacrifices, and to partake of whom he is every day corrected for per- them without remorse, they ihould be forming those tricks, which he has learned looked upon as dæmons in human shapes, under so long and severe a discipline, and expect a retaliation of those tortures The fluggith bear, in contradiction to his which they have inflicted on the innocent, nature, is caught to dance, for the diver. for the gratification of their own depraved fion of a malignant m. b, by placing red- and unnatural appetites. hoc irons under his feet: and the majeslic
So violent are the passions of anger and bull is tortured by every mode which ma- revenge in the human breast, that it is noc lice can invent, for no offence, but that wonderful that men Thould persecute their he is gentle, and unwilling to affail his dia- real or imaginary enemies with cruelty and bolical cormentors. These, with innume- malevolence; but that there should exist in rable other acts of cruelty, injustice, and nature a being who can receive pleasure ingratitude, are every day committed, not from giving pain, would be totally increonly with impunity, but without censure, dible, if we were not convinced, by meand even without observation; but we may lancholy experience, that there be affured, that they cannot finally pass only many, but that this unaccountable away unnoticed and unretaliated.
disposition is in some manner inherent in The laws of self-defence undoubtedly the nature of man; for, as he cannot be justify us in destroying those animals who taught by example, nor led to it by temp. would destroy us, who injare our proper. tation, or prompted to it by intereft
, it ties, or annoy our persons; but not even muit be derived from his native constituthese, whenever their situation incapacitates tion; and is a remarkable confirmation of them from hurting us. I know of no right what revelation fo frequently inculcatesmo which we have to shoot a bear on an inace that he brings into the world with him an ceffible island of ice, or an eagle on the original depravity, the effects of a fallen and mountain's top; whose lives cannot injure degenerate state; in proof of which we need us, nor deaths
procure us any benefit. We only observe, that the nearer he approaches are unable to give life, and therefore ought to a state of nature, the more predominant not wantonly to take it away from the this disposition appears, and the more vio. meanest infect, without sufficient reason; lently it operates. We see children laugh. they all receive it from the same benevo. ing at the miseries which they inflict on leni hand as ourselves, and have therefore every unfortunate animal which comes an equal right to enjoy it.
within their power; all savages are ingeGod has been pleased to create number. nious in contriving, and happy in execut.