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“ dead? No, but in great danger."! How Thus far we should be provided against are you concerned in those rumours ? Sup- those sudden excursions from his own kingpole he should meet some fatal (troke: you dom to Thermopylæ, to the Chersonesus, would soon raise up another Philip, if your to Olynthus, to whatever places he thinks interests are thus regarded. For it is not proper. For of this he should necessarily to his own singth that he so much owes be persuaded, that possibly you may break his elevation, as to our supineness. And out from this immoderate indolence, and Tould some accident affect him ; should Ay to some scene of action : as you did to fortune, who hath ever been more care Eubea, and formerly, as we are told, to ful of the state than we ourselves, now re- Haliartus, and but now, to Thermopylæ. peat her favours (and may she thus crown But although we should not act with all them!) be assured of this, that by being this vigour, (which yet I must regard as on the spot, ready to take advantage of the our indispensable duty) still the measures confusion, you will every where be abso. I propose will have their use: as his fears lute mafiers; but in your present disposi- may keep him quiet, when he knows we tion, even if a favourable juncture should are prepared (and this he will know, for present you with Amphipolis, you could there are too too many among ourselves not take poíTefsion of it, while this suspence who inform him of every thing): or, if he prevails in your designs and in your coun- should despise our armament, his security cils.

may prove fatal to him; as it will be abAnd now, as to the necessity of a ge- solutely in our power, at the first favourneral vigour and alacrity; of this you must able juncture, to make a descent upon his be fully persuaded : this point therefore own coasts. I shall urge no further. But the nature These then are the resolutions I proof the armament, which, I think, will ex. pose; these the provisions it will become tricate you from the present difficulties, you to make. And I pronounce it ftill the numbers to be railed, the subsidies re farther necessary to raise some other forces quired for their support, and all the other which may harrafs him with perpetual innecessaries; how they may (in my opinion) cursions. Talk not of your ten thousands, be best and most expeditiously provided; or twenty thousands of foreigners; of those these things I shall endeavour to explain. armies which appear fo magnificent on But here I make this request, Athenians ! paper; but let them be the natural forces that you would not be precipitate, but of the state: and if you chufe a single persuspend your judgment till you have heard son, if a number, if this particular man, or me fully. And if, at first, I seem to pro- whomever you appoint as general, let them pose a new kind of armament, let it not be be entirely under his guidance and authothought that I am delaying your affairs. rity. I also move you that subsistence be For it is not they who cry out “ Instantly! provided for them. But as to the quality, “ This moment!” whose counsels suit the the numbers, the maintenance of this body: present juncture (as it is not posible to how are these points to be settled? I now repel violences already committed by any proceed to speak of each of them distinctly. occasional detachment) but he who will The body of infantry therefore-But few you of what kind that armament must here give me leave to warn you of an error be, how great, and how supported, which which hath often proved injurious to you, may subfilt until we yield to peace, or till Think not that you preparations never our enemies sink beneath our arms; for can be too magnificent: great and terrible thus only can we be secured from future in your decrees; in execution weak and dangers. These things, I think, I can point contemptible. Let your preparations, let out: not that I would prevent any other your supplies at first be moderate, and add person from declaring his opinion: thus to these if you find them not sufficient. I far am I engaged. How I can acquit fay then that the whole body of infantry myself, will immediately appear : to your should be two thousand; of these, that five judgments I appeal.

hundred should be Athenians, of such an First then, Athenians! I say that you age as you shall think proper; and with a should fit out fifty ships of war; and then stated time for service, not long, but such resolye, that on the first emergency you

as that others may have their turn of duty, will embark yourselves. To these I intist Let the rest be formed of foreigners. To that you must add transport, and other ne these you are to add two hundred horse, ceilary vessels sufficient for half our horse, fifty of them at least Athenians, to serve

in the same manner as the foot. For these not for service. My countrymen ! should you are to provide transports.

And now,

not all these generals have been chosen what farther preparations ? Ten light gal- from your own body; all these feveral lies. For as he hath a naval power, we officers from your own body, that our must be provided with light vessels, that force might be really Athenian? And yet, our troops may have a secure convoy. for an expedition in favour of Lemnos,

But whence are these forces to be sub- the general must be a citizen, while troops, fifted : This I shall explain, when I have engaged in defence of our own territories, first given my reasons why I think such are commanded by Menelaus. I say not numbers fufficient, and why I have ad- this to detract from his merir; but to vised that we should serve in person. As whomsoever this command hath been into the numbers, Athenians! my reason is trufted, surely he thould have derived it this : it is not at present in our power to from your voices. provide a force able to meet him in the Perhaps you are fully fenfible of these open field; but we must harrass him by truths; but would rather hear me upon depredations: thus the war mut be car another point; that of the fupplies; what ried on at first. We therefore cannot we are to raise, and from what funds. To think of raising a prodigious army (for this I now proceed. The sum therefore such we have neither pay nor provisions), necessary for the maintenance of these nor must our forces be absolutely mean. forces, that the soldiers may be supplied And I have proposed, that citizens should with grain, is somewhat above ninety tajoin in the service, and help to man our lents. To the ten gallies, forty talents, feet ; because I am informed, that some that each vessel may have a monthly altime since, the state maintained a body of lowance of twenty minæ. To the two auxiliaries at Corinth, which Polyftratus thousand foot the same fum, that each fola commanded, and Iphicrates, and Chabrias, dier may receive ten drachmæ a month and some others; that you yourselves served for corn. To the two hundred horse, for with them; and that the united efforts of a monthly allowance of thirty drachmä these auxiliary and domestic forces gained each, twelve talents. And let it not be a considerable victory over the Lacedemo thought a small convenience, that the sol.

But, ever fince our armies have diers are supplied with grain : for I am been formed of foreigners alone, their vic- clearly satisfied, that if such a provision tories have been over our allies and con be made, the war itself will supply them federates, while our enemies have arisen with every thing else, fo as to complete to an extravagance of power. And these their appointment, and this without an inarmies, with scarcely the flightest attention jury to the Greeks or alliesand I myself to the service of the state, tail off to fight am ready to fail with them, and to answer for Artabazus, or any other person ; and for the consequence with my life, should it their general follows them: nor should we prove otherwise. From what funds the wonder at it; for he cannot command, who lum which I propose may be fupplied, shall cannot pay his soldiers. What then do I now be explained. recommend! That you should take

away [Here the secretary of the assembly all pretences both from generals and from reads a scheme for raising the supsoldiers, by a regular payment of the army, plies, and proposes it to the people and by incorporating domestic forces with in form, in the name of the orator.] the auxiliaries, to be as it were inspectors These are the fupplies, Athenians ! in into the conduct of the commanders. For our power to raise. And, when you come at present our manner of acting is even to give your voices, determine upon some ridiculous. If a man should ask, “ Are effectual provision, that you may oppose

you at peace, Athenians ?" the answer Philip, not by decrees and letters only, would immediately be, “ By no means! but by actions. And, in my opinion, your

we are at war with Philip. Have not plan of operation, and every thing relat

we chosen the usual generals and officers ing to your armament, will be much more « both of horse and foot?” And of what happily adjusted, if the Stuation of the use are all these, except the Tingle person country, which is to be tue icene of action, whom you send to the field ? The reit at be taken into the account; and if you retend

your priests in their processions. So flect, that the winds and seasons have that

, as if you formed to many men of greatly contributed to the rapidity of Phiclay, you make your officers for shew, and lip’s conquests; that he watches the blow




ing of the Etesians, and the severity of the sure than is usually expended upon a whole winter, and forms his fieges when it is im- navy; and more numbers and greater preposible for us to bring up our forces. It parations, than any one perhaps ever cost) is your part then to consider this, and not while your expeditions have been all too to carry on the war by occasional detach- late, as that to Methonè, that to Pegasæ, ments, (they will ever arrive too late) but that to Potidæa. The reason is this : every by a regular army constantly kept up. And thing relating to the former is ascertained for winter-quarters you may command by law; and every one of you knows long Lemnos, and Thafsus, and Sciathus, and before, who is to conduct the several enthe adjacent islands; in which there are tertainments in each tribe ; what he is to ports and provisions, and all things necef- receive, when, and from whom, and what {ary for the soldiery in abundance. As to to perform. Not one of these things is left the season of the year, in which we may uncertain, not one undetermined. But in land our forces with the greatest ease, and affairs of war, and warlike preparations, be in no danger from the winds, either up- there is no order, no certainty, no regulaon the coast to which we are bound, or at tion. So that, when any accident alarms the entrance of those harbours where we us, first, we appoint our trierarchs; then may put in for provisions—this will be ea we allow them the exchange; then the fily discovered.

In what manner, and at supplies are considered. Thele points once what time our forces are to act, their gene- fettled, we resolve to man our fleet with ral will determine, according to the junc ftrangers and foreigners; then find it ne tures of affairs. What you are to perform, fary to supply their place ourselves. In the on your part, is contained in the decree I midst of these delays, what are we failing to have now proposed. And if you will be defend, the enemy is already master of: for persuaded, Athenians! firft, to raise these the time of action we spend in preparing : fupplies which I have recommended, then, and the junctures of affairs will not wait our to proceed to your other preparations, your flow and irresolute measures. These forces infantry, navy, and cavalry; and lastly to too, which we think may be depended on, confine your forces, by a law, to that ser until the new levies are raised, when put vice which is appointed to them; reserving to the proof plainly discover their infuffithe care and distribution of their money to ciency. By these means hath he arrived yourselves, and strictly examining into the to such a pitch of infolence, as to send a conduct of the general; then, your time letter to the Eubeans, conceived in such will be no longer waited in continual de- terms as these: bates upon the same subject, and scarcely to any purpose; then, you will deprive

* The LETTIR is read. him of the most considerable of his reve. nues. For his arms are now supported, What hath now been read, is for the by seizing and making prizes of those who most part true, Athenians! too true! but pass the icas.-- But is this all ?—No.—You perhaps not very

agreeable in the recital. Ahall also be secure from his attempts: not But if, by fupprefling things ungrateful to as when some time since he fell on Lem the ear, the things themselves could be prepos and Imbrus, and carried away your vented, then the sole concern of a public citizens in chains : not as when he sur fpeaker should be to please. If, on the conprized your vefsels at Gerastus, and spoiled trary, these unseasonably pleasing speeches them of an unspeakable quantity of riches: be really injurious, it is Thameful, Athenot as when lately he made a descent on nians, to deceive yourselves, and, by dethe coalt of Marathon, and carried off our ferring the confideration of every thing facred galley : while you could neither op disagreeable, never once to move until it pose these insults, nor detach your forces be too late ; and not to apprehend that at such junctures as were thought conve- they who conduct a war with prudence, nient.

are not to follow, but to direct events; And now, Athenians! what is the reason to direct them with the same absolute au(think ye) that the public festivals in ho- thority, with which a general leads on his nour of Minerva and of Bacchus aru al- forces that the course of affairs may be ways celebrated at the appointed time, whe- determined by them, and not determine ther the direction of them falls to the lot their measures. But you, Athenians, alof men of eminence, or of persons lefs di- though poffeffed of the greatest power of Linguihed: (festivals which cost more tsea all kinds, fhips, infantry, cavalry, and


treasure; yet, to this day, have never em tors; we cannot expect, no, not the least ployed any of them feasonably, but are success, in any one particular. Wherever a ever last in the field. Just as barbarians part of our city is detached, although the engage at boxing, so you make war with whole be not present, the favour of the Philip: for, when one of these receives a gods and the kindness of fortune attend to blow, that blow engages him : if struck ñght upon our fide; but when we send out in another part, to that part his hands are a general, and an insignificant decree, and fhifted: but to ward off the blow, or to the hopes of our speakers, misfortune and watch his antagonist for this, he hath

-for this, he hath disappointment must enfue. Such expedineither kill nor spirit. Even so, if you

tions are to our enemies sport, but îtrike hear that Philip is in the Chersonesus, you our allies with deadly apprehenfions. For resolve to send forces thither; if in Ther. it is not, it is not possible for any one man mopylæ, thither; if in any other place, to perform every thing you desire. He may you hurry up and down, you follow his promise, and harangue, and accuse this or standard.' But no useful scheme for car- that person : but to such proceedings we rying on the war, no wise provisions are owe the ruin of our affairs. For, when a ever thought of, until you hear of some general who commanded a wretched colenterprise in execution, or already crowned lection of unpaid foreigners, hath been dewith success. This might have forinerly feated; when there are persons here, who, been pardonable, but now is the very cri- in arraigning his conduct, dare to advance tiçal moment, when it can by no means be falsehoods, and when you lightly engage admitted.

in any determination, just from their sugIt seems to me, Athenians, that some gestions; what must be the consequence? divinity, who, from a regard to Athens, How then thall these abuses be removed ? looks down upon our conduct with indig. By offering yourselves, Athenians, to nation, hath inspired Philip with this reit execute the commands of your general, to less ambition. For were he to fit down be witnesses of his conduct in the field, in the quiet enjoyment of his conquests and his judges at your return: so as not and acquisitions, without proceeding to any only to hear how your affairs are transacted, new attempts, there are men among you, but to inspect them. But now, so Thamewho, I think, would be unmoved at those fully are we degenerated, that each of our transactions, which have branded our state commanders is twice or thrice called bewith the odious marks of infamy, cow fore you to answer for his life, though ardice, and all that is base. But as he not one of them dared to hazard that life, still pursues his conquests, as he is still by once engaging his enemy. No; they extending his ambitious views, poflibly, he chuse the death of robbers and pilferers, may at last call you forth, unless you have rather than to fall as becomes them. Such renounced the name of Athenians. To me malefactors should die by the sentence of it is astonishing, that none of you looks the law. Generals should meet their fate back to the beginning of this war, and bravely in the field. considers that we engaged in it to chastise Then, as to your own conducte some the insolence of Philip; but that now it wander about, crying, Philip hath joined is become a defensive war, to secure us with the Lacedemonians, and they are confrom his attempts. And that he will ever certing the destruction of Thebes, and be repeating there attempts is manifest, un the diffolution of some free states. Others less some power rises to oppose him. But, assure us he hath sent an embassy to the if we wait in expectation of this, if we king; others, that he is fortifying places send out armaments composed of empty in Illyria. Thus we all go about framing gallies, and those hopes with which some our several tales. I do believe indeed, Ipeaker may have fattered you; can you Athenians! he is intoxicated with his then think your interests well secured ? mall greatness, and does entertain his imaginawe not embark? Ihall we not fail, with at tion with many such visionary prospects, least a part of our domestic force, now, as he fees no power rising to oppose him, since we have not hitherto ?—But where and is elated with his success. But I canshall we make our descent -Let us but not be persuaded that he hath so taken his engage in the enterprise, and the war

itself, measures, that the weakest among us know Athenians, will thew us where he is weakest. what he is next to do: (for it is the weakest But if we fit at home, listening to the mu- among us who spread these rumours)--L.: qual invectives and accusations of our ora, us disregard them; let us be persuadea of




this, that he is our enemy, that he hath spoiled us of our dominions, that we have long been subject to his insolence, that whatever we expected to be done for us by others, hath proved against us, that all the resource left is in ourselves, that, if we are not inclined to carry our arms abroad, we may be forced to engage here—let usbe persuaded of this, and then we shall come to a proper determination, then shall we be freed from those idle tales. For we are not to be solicitous to know what particular events will happen; we need but be convinced nothing good can happen, unless you grant the due attention to affairs, and be ready to act as becomes Athenians.

I, on my part, have never upon any occafion chosen to court your favour, by speak. ing any thing but what I was convinced would serve you. And, on this occasion, I have freely declared my sentiments, without art, and without reserve. It would liave pleased me indeed, that, as it is for your advantage to have your true interest laid before you, so I might be assured that he who layeth it before you, would share the advantage: for then I had spoken with greater alacrity. However, uncertain as is the consequence with respect to me, I yet determined to speak, because I was convinced that these measures, if pursued, must have their use. And, of all those opinions which are offered to your acceptance, may that be chosen, which will best advance the general weal !


tions which he had long entertained

fecretly against the Olynthians. Olynthus (a city of Thrace poffefsed by

Greeks originally from Chalcis,-a town of Eubea and colony of Athens) commanded a large tract called the Chalcidian region, in which there were thirty-two cities. It had arisen by degrees to such a pitch of grandeur, as to have frequent and re. markable contests both with Athens and Lacedemon. Nor did the Olynthians fhew great regard to the friendship of Philip when he first came to the throne, and was taking all measures to secure the possession of it. For they did not scruple to receive two of his brothers by another mar. riage, who had fled to avoid the effects of his jealousy ; and endeavoured to conclude an alliance with Athens, against him, which he, by secret practices, found means to defeat. * But as he was yet scarcely secure upon his throne, instead of ex. prefling his resentment, he courted, or rather purchased, the alliance of the Olynthians, by the ceffion of Anthemus, a city which the kings of Macedon had long disputed with them, and afterwards, by that of Pydna and Potidæa; which their joint forces had besieged and taken from the Athenians. But the Olynthians could not be influenced by gratitude towards such a benefactor. The rapid progress of his arms, and his glaring acts of perfidy alarmed them exceedingly. He had already made some inroads on their territories, and now began to act against them with less reserve. They therefore difpatched ambassadors to Athens to propose an alliance, and request al. fiftance against a power which they

were equally concerned to oppose. Philip affected the highest resentment

at this step; alledged their mutual engagements to adhere to each other in war and peace; inveighed against their harbouring his brothers, whom he called the confpirators; and, under pretence of punising their infractions, pursued his hoftilities with double vigour, made himself master of some of their cities, and threatened

the capital with a fiege. In the mean time, the Olynthians pres

sed the Athenians for immediate suc

§ 2. The first Olynthiac Oration : pronounced four Years after the first Philippic, in the Archonship of Callimachus, tbe fourth Year of the Hundred and Seventh Olympiad, and the twelfth of Philip's Reign.

The former Oration doth not appear

to have had any considerable effect. Philip had his creatures in the Athe. nian assembly, who probably recommended less vigorous measures, and were but too favourably heard. In the mean time, this prince pursued his ambitious designs. When he found himself shut out of Greece, he turned his arms to such remote parts, as he might reduce without alarming the states of Greece. And, at the same time, he revenged himself upon the Athenians, by making himself master of some places which they laid claim to

At length his success emboldened him to declare those inten



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