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words Cicero puts into his mouth) upon affairs, and to accommodate their differ• the strict union which subfilted between

It was with this view that three Scipio and him. “ As for me," says Læ- illustrious persons, P. Scipio Africanus, lius, « of all the gifts of nature or fortune, Sp. Mummius, and L. Metellus, were fent " there are none, I think, comparable to into Egypt, where Ptolemy Physcon then “ the happiness of having Scipio for my reigned, the most cruel tyrant mentioned “ friend. I found in our friendihip a per- in history. They had orders to go from “ fect conformity of sentiments in reípect thence to Syria, which the indolence, and " to public affairs; an inexhaustible fund afterwards the captivity of Demetrius Ni“ of counsels and supports in private life; canor amongst the Parthians, made a prey “ with a tranquillity and delight not to be to troubles, factions, and revolts. They expressed.

I never gave Scipio the were next to visit Asia Minor, and Greece; « least offence, to my knowledge, nor to inspect into the affairs of those countries;

ever heard a word escape him that did to inquire in what manner the treaties “ not please me. We had but one house, made with the Romans were observed; " and one table at our common expence, and to remedy, as far as poflible, all the " the frugality of which was equally the disorders that should come to their know“ taste of both. In war, in travelling, in ledge. They acquitted themselves with “ the country, we were always together. fo much equity, wisdom, and ability, and “ I do not mention our studies, and the did such great services to those to whom « attention of us both always to learn they were sent, in re-establishing order • something; this was the employment of amongit them, and in accommodating “ all our leisure hours, removed from the their differences, that, when they returned “ fight and commerce of the world.” to Rome, ambassadors arrived there from

Is there any thing comparable to a all the parts in which they had been, to friendship like that which Lælius has just thank the senate for having fent persons of described ? What a consolation is it to such great merit to them, whole wisdom have a second self, to whom we have no- and goodness they could not fufficiently thing secret, and in whose heart we may commend. pour out our own with perfect effufion! The first place to which they went, acCould we taste prosperity so sensibly, if we cording to their instructions, was Alexanhad no one to share in our joy with us ? dria. The king received them with greas And what a relief is it in adversity, and magnificence. As for them, they affected the accidents of life, to have a friend ftill it fo little, that at their entry, Scipio, who more affected with them than ourselves! was the riched and most powerful person What highly exalts the value of the friend of Rome, had only one friend, the philosothip we Ipeak of, was its not being found. pher Panætius, with him, and five domes. ed ac all upon interest, but solely upon tics. His victories, says an ancient writer, esteem for each other's virtues. « What and not his attendants, were considered; “ occasion,” fays Lælius, “could Scipio and his personal virtues and qualities were “ have of me? Undoubtedly none; nor I esteemed in him, and not the glitter of gold “ of him. But my attachment to him was and silver. “ the effect of my high efteem and admira Though, during their whole stay in “ tion of his virtues ; and his to me arose Egypt, the king caused their table to be a from the favourable idea of my character covered with the most exquisite provisions “ and manners. This friendship increased of every kind, they never touched any but “ afterwards upon both sides, by habit and the moit simple and common, despising all « commerce, We both, indeed, derived the rest, which only ferve to soften the “ great advantages from it; but those mind and enervate the body.But, on were not our view, when we began to such occasions, ought not the ambassadors “ love each other."

of so powerful a state as Rome to have I cannot place the famous embassy of fustained its reputation of majetty in a Scipio Africanus into the East and Egypt, foreign nation, by appearing in public better than here; we shall see the lame with a numerous train and magnificent laite of fimplicity and modesty, as we have equipages ? This was not the taste of the just been representing in his private life, Romans, that is, of the people that, among Thine out in it. It was a maxim with the all the nations of the earth, thought the Romans, frequently to send ambassadors moft juftly of true greatnefs and folid ro ubrir allic , io cake cognizance of theis glory,


chief con

as the most obvious and remarkable : the § 263. On Punctuation.

Period, Colon, Semicolon, and ComPun&tuation is the art of marking in ma, writing the several pauses, or refts, be The Period is the whole sentence, comtween

sentences and the parts of sentences, plete in itself, wanting nothing to make a according to their proper quantity or pro- full and perfect sense, and not connected in portion, as they are expresied in a juft and construction with a subsequent sentence. accurate prounciation.

The Colon, or Member, is As the several articulate sounds, the fyl- ftructive part, or greater division, of a senlables and words, of which sentences con tence. fift, are marked by letters; so the rests and The Semicolon, or Half-member, is a pauses, between sentences and their parts, less constructive part, or subdivision, of a are marked by Points.

fentence or member. But, though the several articulate sounds A sentence or member is again subdiare pretty fully and exactly marked by vided into Commas, or Segments; which letters of known and determinate power; are the least constructive parts of a sentence yet the several pauses, which are used in a or member, in this way of confidering it; just pronunciation of discourse, are very for the next subdivision would be the resoimperfectly expressed by Points.

lution of it into phrases and words. For the different degrees of connexion The Grammarians have followed this between the several parts of sentences, division of the Rhetoricians, and have

apand the different paufes in a just pronun- propriated to each of these distinctions its ciation, which express those degrees of mark, or point; which takes its name connexion according to their proper value, from the part of the sentence which it is admit of great variety; but the whole employed to distinguish; as follows: number of Points, which we have to ex The Period press this variety, amounts only to four. The Colon Hence it is, that we are under a neces The Semicolon

is thus marked fity of expreffing pauses of the same quan The Comma tity, on different occasions, by different The proportional quantity, or time, of Points; and more frequently, of expressing the points, with respect to one another, is pauses of different quantity by the same determined by the following general rule: Points.

The Period is a pause in quantity or duraSo that the doctrine of Punctuation tion double of the Colon : the Colon is must needs be very imperfect: few precise double of the Semicolon ; and the Semirules can be given which will hold with- colon is double of the Comsna. So that out exception in all cases; but much mut they are in the same proportion to one be left to the judgment and taite of the another, as the Semibref, the Minim, the writer.

Crotchet, and the Quaver, in music. The On the other hand, if a greater number precise quantity, or duration, of each pause of marks were invented to exprefs all the or note cannot be defined; for that varies poffible different pauses of pronunciation; with the time: and both in discourse and the doctrine of them would be very per- music the same composition may be replexed and difficult, and the use of them hearsed in a quicker or a flower time: but would rather embarrass than assist the rea in music the proportion between the notes der.

remains ever the same; and in discourse, It remains therefore, that we be content if the doctrine of Punctuation were exact, with the rules of Punctuation, laid down the proportion between the pauses would with as much exactness as the nature of be ever invariable. the subject will admit: such as may serve The Points then being designed to ex: for a general direction, to be accommo- press the pauses, which depend on the difdated to different occafions; and to be ferent degrees of connexion between senfupplied, where deficient, by the writer's tences, and between their principal construc, judgment.

tive parts; in order to understand the mean. The several degrees of connexion be. ing of the Points, and to know how to apply tween sentences, and between their prin- them properly, we must consider the nature cipal constructive parts, Rhetoricians have of a sentence, as divided into its principal confidered under the following distinctions, constructive parts, and the degrees of con

nexion between those parts upon which such mined by its adjunct of specification, as we division of it depends.

may call it; the passion for praise. So To begin with the least of these princi- likewise the verb is immediately connected pal constructive parts, the Comma. In with its object, excellent effects; and mediorder the more clearly to determine the ately, that is, by the intervention of the proper application of the Point which word effects, with women, the subject in marks it, we must distinguish between an which these effects are produced; which imperfect phrase, a simple sentence, and a again is connected with its adjunct of fpecompounded fentence,

cification; for it is not meaned of women An imperfect phrase contains no asser- in general, but of women of Jense only. tion, or does not amount to a proposition Lastly, it is to be observed, that the verb or sentence.

is connected with each of these several ad. A simple sentence has but one subject, juncts in a different manner; namely, with and one finite verb.

effects, as the object; with women, as the A compounded sentence has more than subject of them with sense, as the quality one subject, or one finite verb, either ex or characteristic of those women. The adpressed or underitood : or it consists of two juncts therefore are only so many imperor more simple sentences connected to fect phrases; the sentence is a simple fengether.

tence, and admits of no point, by which In a sentence, the subject and the verb it may be distinguished into parts. may be each of them accompanied with “ The passion for praise, which is so several adjuncts; as the object, the end, very vehement in the fair sex, produces exthe circumstances of time, place, manner, cellent effe&ts in women of sense.” Here and the like; and the subject or verb may a new verb is introduced, accompanied with be either immediately connected with them, adjuncts of its own; and the subject is reor mediately; that is, by being connected peated by the relative pronoun which. It with some thing, which is connected with now becomes a compounded sentence, fome other; and so on.


up of two simple sentences, one of If the several adjuncts affect the subject which is inserted in the middle of the or the verb in a different manner, they are other; it mult therefore be distinguished only so many imperfect phrases; and the into its component parts by a point placed fentence is simple.

on each side of the additional sentence. A simple sentence admits of no point, “ How many instances have we [in the by which it may be divided, or diftinguish. fair sex] of chastity, fidelity, devotion ! ed into parts.

How many ladies distinguish themselves by If the several adjuncts affect the subject the education of their children, care of or the verb in the same manner, they may their families, and love of their husbands; be resolved into so many simple sentences; which are the great qualities and archievethe sentence then becomes compounded, ments of woman-kind : as the making of and it must be divided into its parts by war, the carrying on of traffic, the adPoints.

ministration of justice, are those by which For, if there are several subjects belong- men grow famous, and get themselves a ing in the same manner to one verb, or se

name!Ibid. veral verbs belonging in the fame manner In the first of these two sentences, the to one subject, the subjects and verbs are adjuncts chastity, fidelity, devotion, are confill to be accounted equal in number: for nected with the verb by the word instances every verb must have its subject, and every in the same manner, and in effect make lo fubject its verb; and every one of the subo many diftinct sentences: “ how many injects, or verbs, should or may have its stances have we of chastity! how many point of distinction.

inftances have we of fidelity! how many Examples:

instances have we of devotion !” They « The passion for praise produces excel. mut therefore be separated from one anolent effects in women of sense." Addison, ther by a point. The same may be said of Spect. N° 73. In this sentence passion is the adjuncts, “ education of their children, the subject, and produces the verb: each of &c.” in the former part of the next fenwhich is accompanied and connected with tence: as likewise of the several subjects, its adjuncts. The subject is not paflion in “ the making of war, &c." in the latter general, but a particular passion deter- part; which have in effoct each their verb;


for each of these « is an atchievement by “ What is sweeter than honey? and what which men grow famous.”

is stronger than a lion ?” As sentences themselves are divided into simple and compounded, so the meinbers

A circumstance of importance, though of sentences may be divided likewife into no more than an imperfect phrase, may be fimple and coinpounded members: for whole set off with a Comma on each side, to give

it sentences, whether simple or compounded,


force and distinction. may become members of other sentences

Example: by means of some additional connexion. “ The principle may be defective or

Simple members of sentences closely faulty ; but the consequences it produces connected together in one compounded are so good, that, for the benefit of manmember, or sentence, are distinguithed or kind, it ought not to be extinguished.” separated by a Comma: as in the fore

Addison, ibid. going examples. So likewise, the case absolute; nouns in

A member of a sentence, whether fimoppofition, when consisting of many terms; ple or compounded, that requires a greater the participle with something depending on pause than a Comma, yet does not of itself it; are to be distinguished by the Comma: make a complete sentence, but is followed for they may be resolved into simple mem

by something closely depending on it, may bers.

be distinguished by a Semicolon. When an address is made to a person,

Example: the noun, answering to the vocative case “ But as this passion for admiration, in Latin, is distinguished by a Coinma. when it works according to reason, im

proves the beautiful part of our species in Examples:

every thing that is laudable; so nothing is « This faid, He form'd thee, Adam ; thee, O man,

more deitructive to them, when it is goDuit of the ground.”

verned by vanity and folly.”

Addison, ibid. “ Now morn, her rosy steps in th' eaftern clime Here the whole sentence is divided into Advancing, iow'd the earth wiih orient pearl.”

two parts by the Semicolon; each of which

parts is a compounded member, divided Two nouns, or two adjectives, con into its simple members by the Comma. nected by a single Copulative or Dif A member of a fentence, whether fimple junctive, are not separated by a point: but or compounded, which of itself would make when there are more than two, or where

a complete fentence, and so requires a the conjunction is understood, they must

greater pause than a Semicolon, yet is folbe distinguished by a Comma. Simple members connected by relatives, full and perfect senfe, may be distinguisla

lowed by an additional part making a more and comparatives, are for the most part ed by a Colon. distinguished by a Comma: but when the members are mort in comparative sen

Example: tences; and when two members are closely « Were all books reduced to their connected by a relative, restraining the ge- quintessence, many a bulky author would neral notion of the antecedent to a particular make his appearance in a penny paper : fenfe; the pause becomes almost insensible, there would be scarce any such thing in and the Comma is better omitted,

nature as a folio: the works of an age

would be contained on a few shelves: not Examples:

to mention millions of volumes that would “ Raptures, transports, and extases, are N. 124.

be utterly annihilated.”

Addison, Spea. the rewards which they confer: lighs and

Here the whole sentence is divided into tears, prayers and broken hearts, are the four parts by Colons: the firft and last of offerings which are paid to them.”

which are compounded members, each diAddijon, ibid.

vided by a Comma; the second and third “ Gods partial, changeful, passionate, unjust,

are simple members. Whose accributes were rage, revenge, or luft.”

When a Semicolon has preceded, and a Popi. greater pause is fill necessary; a Colon




may be employed, though the sentence be The Interrogation point,

7 thus incomplete.

The Exclamation point,

marked The Colon is also commonly used, when The Parenthesis, an example, or a speech, is introduced. When a sentence is so far perfectly finish

The Interrogation and Exclamation ed, as not to be connected in conitruction Points are sufficiently explained by their with the following sentence, it is marked names: they are indeterminate as to their with a Period.

quantity or time, and may be equivalent In all cases, the proportion of the seve. in that respect to a Semicolon, a Colon, or sal points in respect to one another is rather mark an elevation of the voice.

a Period, as the sense requires. They to be regarded, than their supposed pre mark an elevation of the voice. cise quantity, or proper office, when taken The Parenthesis incloses in the body of Separately.

a fentence a member inserted into it, which Besides the points which mark the pauses is neither necessary to the sense, nor at all in discourse, there are others which denote affects the construclion. It marks a mo. a different modulation of the voice in cor. derate depression of the voice, with a pause respondence with the sense. Thefe are

greater than a Comma. Lowth.




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