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« such qualities, that you can resign your for the comfortable accommodation of a

sceptre to him with as mach fatisfaétion private gentleman, did Charles enter, with “ as I give up mine to you !"

twelve domeftics only. He buried there, As soon as Charles had finished this long in folitude and silence, his grandeur, his address to his subjects, and to their new so ambition, together with all those vast provereign, he sunk into the chair, exhausted, jects which, during half a century, had and ready to faint with the fatigue of such alarmed and agitated Europe, filling every an extraordinary effort. During his dif kingdon in it, by turns, with the terror of course, the whole audience melted into his arms, and the dread of being subjected tears; some, from admiration of his mag

to his power.

Robertfon. nanimity; others, softened by the expressions of tenderness towards his ton, and of

$.255. An Account of MULY Moluc. love to his people ; and all were affected When Don Sebastian, king of Portugal, with the deepest sorrow, at losing a sove- had invaded the territories of Muly Moreign, who had distinguished the Nether- luc, emperor of Morocco, in order to de. lands, his native country, with particular throne him, and set his crown upon the head marks of his regard and attachment. of his nephew, Moluc was wearing away

A few weeks afterwards, Charles, in an with a diitemper which he himself knew assembly no less splendid, and with a cere was incurable. However, he prepared for monial equally pompous, resigned to his the reception of so formidable an enemy. fon the crowns of Spain, with all the ter- He was indeed so far spent with his fickritories depending on them, both in the ness, that he did not expect to live out the Old and in the New World. Of all these whole day, when the last decisive battle vait poffeffions he reserved nothing to was given; but knowing the fatal consehimself, but an annnal pension of a hun- quences that would happen to his children dred thousand crowns, to defray the char- and people, in case he should die before he ges of his family, and to afford him a put an end to that war, he commanded his Imall sum for acts of beneficence and cha- principal officers, that if he died during rity.

the engagement, they fhould conceal his The place he had chosen for his retreat, death from the army, and that they should was the monastery of St. Juftus, in the ride up to the litter in which his corpse province of Eftramadura. It was seated was carried, under pretence of receiving in a vale of no great extent, watered by orders from him as usual. Before the a small brook, and surrounded by rising battle begun, he was carried through all grounds, covered with lofty trees. From the ranks of his in an open litter, as the nature of the soil, as well as the tem they stood drawn up in array, encouraging perature of the climate, it was esteemed them to fight valiantly in defence of their the most healthful and delicious situation religion and country. Finding afterwards in Spain. Some months before his re the battle to go against him, though he fignatio, he had sent an architect thither, was very near his last agonies, he threw to add a new apartment to the monastery, himself out of his litter, rallied his army, for his accommodation ; but he gave itriet and led them on to the charge; which orders, that the style of the building should afterwards ended in a complete victory on be such as suited his present situation ra

the side of the Moors. He had no sooner ther than his former dignity. It consisted brought his men to the engagement, but only of fix rooms; four of them in the finding himself utterly spent, he was again form of friars' cells, with naked walls; replaced in his litter, where laying his the other two, each twenty fect square, finger on his mouth, to enjoin secrecy to were hung with brown cloth, and furnished his officers, who stood about him, he died in the most simple manner. They were a few moments after in that posture. all on a level with the ground; with a

pectator. door on one side, into a garden, of which Charles himself had given the plan, and $256. " An Account of VALENTINE and which he had filled with various plants,

UNNION. intending to cultivate them with his own At the fiege of Namur by the allies, hands. On the other side, they communi. there were in the ranks of the company cated with the chapel of the monastery, in commanded by captain Pincent, in colonel which he was to perform his devotions. Frederic Hamilton's regiment, one Un. Into this humble retreat, hardly fufficient nion, a corporal, and one Valentine, a pri


Kk 4


vate centinel : there happened between And as their little state came to be imthese two men a dispute about an affair proved by additional numbers, by policy, of love, which, upon some aggravations, and by extent of territory, and seemed grew to an irreconcileable hatred. Un- likely to make a figure among the nations nion being the officer of Valentine, took according to the common course of things, all opportunities even to strike his rival, the appearance of prosperity drew upon and profess the spite and revenge which them the envy of the neighbouring states; moved him to it. The centinel bore it so that the princes and people who borwithout resistance; but frequently faid, he dered upon them, begun to seek occasions would die to be revenged of that tyrant. of quarrelling with them. The alliances They had spent whole months in this they could form were but few: for most manner, the one injuring, the other com- of the neighbouring states avoided em. plaining; when, in the midst of this rage broiling themselves on their account. The towards each other, they were commanded Romans, seeing that they had nothing to upon the attack of the castle, where the trust to but their own conduct, found it corporal received a shot in the thigh, and necessary to bestir themselves with great fell; the French presling on, and he ex- diligence, to make vigorous preparations, pecting to be trampled to death, called to excite one another to face their enemies out to his enemy, « Ah, Valentine ! can in the field, to hazard their lives in de you leave me here?” Valentine imme- fence of their liberty, their country, and diately ran back, and in the midst of a their families. And when, by their vathick 'fire of the French, took the corporal lour, they repulsed the enemy, they gave upon his back, and brought him through affistance to their allies, and gained friendall that danger as far as the abbey of Sal. thips by often giving, and seldom de. fine, where a cannon-ball took off his head: manding, favours of that fort. They had, his body fell under his enemy whom he by this time, established a regular form was carrying off. Unnion immediately of government, to wit, the monarchical. forgot his wound, rose up, tearing his hair, And a fenate, consisting of men adand then threw himself upon the bleeding vanced in years, and grown wise by excarcase, crying, “ Ah, Valentine ! was it perience, though infirm of body, confor me, who have so barbarously used thee, sulted with their kings upon all important that thou haft died? I will not live after matters, and, on account of their age, thee." He was not by any means to be and care of their country, were called fa. forced from the body, but was remaved thers. Afterwards, when kingly power, with it bleeding in his arms, and attended which was originally established for the with tears by all their comrades who knew preservation of liberty, and the advantage their enmity. When he was brought to a of the state, came to degenerate into lawtent, his wounds were dressed by force; less tyranny, they found it necessary to but the next day, still calling upon Valen- alter the form of government, and to put tine, and lamenting his cruelties to him, he the supreme power into the hands of two died in the pangs of remorse. Tatler, chief magistrates, to be held for one year § 257. An Example of Hifiorical Narra- only, hoping, by this contrivance, to pre

vent the bad effects naturally arising from tior i om SALLUST,

the exorbitant licentiousness of princesa T: T:00 (if we may believe tradi- and the indefeasible tenure by which they tica) were the ft founders of the Roman generally imagine they hold their sovecomo: sealt ; who, under the conduct reignty, &c. Sall. Bell, Catilinar. of ..., having made their escape from their ruined country, got to Italy, and

§ 258. The Story of D A MON ana theri :) u time lived a rambling and

PYTH I A S. unset ife, without any fixed place of Damon and Pythias, of the Pythago aboce,

Og the natives, an uncultivated rean sect in philosophy, lived in the time peo rio had neither law nor regular of Dionysius, the tyrant of Sicily. Their 80 ent, but were wholly free from all mutual friendship was so ftrong, that they rul preincant. This mixed multitude, were ready to die for one another. One horreus crovding together into one city, of the two (for it is not known which) though originally different in extraction, being condemned to death by the tyrant, language, and customs, united into one obtained leave to go into his own country, body, in a surprisingly fhort space of time. to settle his affairs, on condiţion that the


other should consent to be imprisoned in as he lay indulging himself in ftate, a glithis ttead, and put to death for him, if he tering sword hung by a single hair. The did not return before the day of execution. fight of destruction thus threatening him The attention of every one, and especially from on high, soon put a stop to his joy of the tyrant himself, was excited to the and revelling. The pomp of his attendhighest pitch; as every body was curious ance, and the glitter of the carved plate, to see what should be the event of so gave him no longer any, pleasure. He strange an affair. When the time was al- dreads to stretch forth his hand to the molt elapsed, and he who was gone did table. He throws off the chaplet of roses. not appear, the ralhness of the other, whose He hastens to remove from his dangerous fanguine friendship had put him upon run situation, and at last begs the king to rening to seemingly defperate a hazard, was store himn to his former humble condition, universally blamed. But he still declared, having no desire to enjoy any longer such that he had not the least shadow of doubt a dreadful kind of happiness. in his mind of his friend's fidelity. The

Cic. Tufc. Queft. event shewed how well he knew him. He came in due time, and surrendered himself § 260. A remarkable Inftance of filial to that fate, which he had no reason to

Duty. think he should escape; and which he did The prætor had given up to the triumnot desire to escape by leaving his friend vir a woman of some rank, condemned, to suffer it in his place. Such fidelity fof- for a capital crime, to be executed in the tened even the savage heart of Dionysius prison. He who had charge of the exehimself. He pard ned the condemned. cution, in consideration of her birth, did He gave the two friends to one another; not immediately put her to death. He and begged that they would take himself even vemtured to let her daughter have in for a third.

Val. Max. Cic. access to her in prison; carefully search.

ing her, however, as she went in, left the $ 259. The Story of DIONYSIUS the

should carry with her any sustenance; Tyrant.

concluding, that in a few days the mother Dionyfius, the tyrant of Sicily, shewed must of course perish for want, and that how far he was from being happy, even the severity of putting a woman of family whilst he abounded in riches, and all the to a violent death, by the hand of the pleasures which riches can procure. Da- executioner, might thus be avoided. Some mocles, one of his flatterers, was compli- days palling in this manner, the triumvir menting him upon his power, his treatures, began to wonder that the daughter ftill and the magnificence of his royal state, came to visit her mother, and could by no and affirming, that no monarch ever was means comprehend, how the latter should greater or happier than he.“ Have you live fo long. Watching, therefore, care* a mind, Damocles,” says the king, “ to fully, what passed in the interview between taste this happiness, and know, by ex- them, he found, to his great astonishment, “perience, what my enjoyments are, of that the life of the mother had been, all « which you have so high an idea ?” this while, supported by the milk of the Damocles gladly accepted the offer. Up- daughter, who came to the prison every on which the king ordered, that a royal day, to give her mother her breasts to fuck, banquet should be prepared, and a gilded The strange contrivance between them was couch placed for him, covered with rich represented to the judges, and procured a embroidery, and fideboards loaded with pardon for the mother. Nor was it thought gold and silver plate of immense value. lufficient to give to so dutiful a daughter Pages of extraordinary beauty were or. the forfeited life of her condemned modered to wait on him at table; and to ther, but they were both maintained afterobey his commands with the greatest rea wards by a pension settled on them for life, diness, and the most profound submision, And the ground upon which the prison Neither ointments, chaplets of flowers, stood was consecrated, and a temple to filial nor rich perfumes were wanting. The piety built upon it. table was loaded with the most exquisite What will not filial duty contrive, or delicacies of every kind. Damocles fan- what hazards will it not run, if it will put cied himself amongst the gods. In the a daughter upon venturing, at the peril of midst of all his happiness, he sees, let her own life, to maintain her imprisoned down from the roof exactly over his neck and condemned mother in so unusual a



manner! For what was ever heard of « universe, whom you ought less to desire more strange, than a mother sucking the “ to be an enemy, or inore a friend, to breasts of her own daughter ? It might

you or yours. The youth, covered even seem to unnatural as to render it with blushes, and full of joy, embraced doubtful whether it might not be, in fome Scipio's hands, praying the immortal gods fort, wrong, if it were not that duty to to reward him, as he himnself was not parents is the first law of nature.

capable to do it in the degree he himself

Val. Max. Plin. desired, or he deserved. Then the pa§ 261. The Continence of Scipio Afri- called. They had brought a great fum

rents and relations of the virgin were

of money to ransom her. But seeing her The foldiers, after the taking of New restored without it, they began to beg Carthage, brought before Scipio a young Scipio to accept that sum as a present; lady of such distinguished beauty, that protesting they would acknowledge it as a the attracted the eyes of all wherever the favour, as much as they did the restoring went. Scipio, by enquiring concerning the virgin without injury offered to her. her country and parents, among other Scipio, unable to resist their importunate things learned, that she was betrothed to solicitations, told them, he accepted it; Allucius, prince of the Celtiberians. He and ordering it to be laid at his feet, thus immediately ordered her parents and bride- addressed Allucius : “ To the portion you groom to be fent for. In the mean time “ are to receive from your father-in-law, he was informed, that the young prince “ I add this, and beg you would accept it was fo excessively enamoured of his bride,

as a nuptial present.” So he deäred that he could not survive the loss of her. him to take up the gold, and keep it for For this reason, as soon as he appeared, himself. Transported with joy at the preand before he spoke to her parents, he sents and honours conferred on him, he took great care to talk with him. “ As returned home, and expatiated to his coun

you and I are both young,” said he, trymen on the merits of Scipio. « There “ we can converfe together with greater “ is come amongst us,” said he, “a young « freedom. When your bride, who had “ hero, like the gods, who conquers all « fallen into the hands of my soldiers, « things, as well by generosity and bene" was brought before me, I was informed “ ficence, as by arms. For this reason, " that you loved her passionately; and, in having raised troops among his own sub• truth, her perfect beauty left me no jećts, he returned a few days after to Scipio e room to doubt of it. If I were at li- with a body of 1400 horse. Livy, “ berty to indulge a youthful paflion, I « mean honourable and lawful wedlock,

§ 262. The private Life of ÆMILIUS

SCIPIO. " and were not folely engrossed by the « affairs of my republic, I might have The taking of Numantia, which termi

hoped to have been pardoned my ex- nated a war that disgraced the Roman « cessive love for fo charming a mistress. name, completed Scipio's military exploits. “ Bat as I am fituated, and have it in my But, in order to have a more perfect idea

power, with pleasure I promote your of his merit and character, it seems that, « happiness. Your future spoufe has met after having feen him at the head of ar« with as civil and modeft treatment from mies, in the tumult of battles, and in the

me, as if she had been amongst her own pomp of triumphs, it will not be loft labour parents,

who are soon to be yours too. to consider him in the repofe of a private « I have kept her pure, in order to have life, in the midst of his friends, family, and “ it in my power to make you a present household. The truly great man ought to “ worthy of you and of me. The only be so in all things. The magistrate, gene« return I ask of you for this favour is, ral, and prince, may constrain themselves, « that you will be a friend to the Roman whilt they are in a manner exhibiting

people; and that if you believe me to themselves as spectacles to the public, and “ be a man of worth, as the states of appear quite different from what they

Spain formerly experienced my father really are. But reduced to themselves, “ and uncle to be, you may know there and without the witnesses who force them

are many in Rome who resemble us; to wear the mask, all their lustre, like the " and that there are not a people in the pomp of the theatre, often abandons then,


and leaves little more to be seen in duced, for natural elegance and beauties, them than meanness and narrowness of are ascribed to him and Lælius, of whom mind.

we ihall foon speak. It was publicly Scipio did not depart from himself in enough reported, that they aflifted that any respect. He was not like certain poet in the composition of his pieces; and paintings, that are to be seen only at a Terence himself makes it an honour to distance : he could not but gain by a him in the prologue to the Adelphi. I nearer view. The excellent education shall undoubtedly not advise any body, and which he had had, through the care of his least of all persons of Scipio's rank, to father Paulus Æmilius, who had provided write comedies. But on this occasion, let him with the most learned masters of those us only consider taste in general for lettimes, as well in polite learning as the ters. Is there a more ingenuous, a more fciences; and the instructions he had re- affecting pleafure, and one more worthy ceived from Polybius, enabled him to fill of a wife and virtuous man, I might perup the vacant hours he had from public haps add, or one more necessary to a mi. affairs profitably, and to support the lei- litary person, than that which results from sure of a private life, with pleasure and reading works of wit, and from the condignity. This is the glorious teftimony versation of the learned ? Providence given of him by an historian: “ Nobody, thought fit, according to the observation « knew better how to mingle leisure and of a Pagan, that he ihould be above those “ action, nor to use the intervals of rest trivial pleasures, to which persons without “ from public business with more elegance letters, knowledge, curiosity, and taste for « and taste. Divided between arms and reading, are obliged to give themselves « books, between the military labours of up. “ the camp, and the peaceful occupations Another kind of pleasure, still more sen“ of the closet, he either exercised his body fible, more warm, more natural, and more “ in the dangers and fatigues of war, or implanted in the heart of man, constituted « his mind in the study of the sciences,” the greatett felicity of Scipio's life; this

The firit Scipio Africanus used to say, was that of friendship; a pleasure seldom That he was never less idle, than when at known by great persons or princes, beleisure, nor less alone, than when alone. cause, generally loving only themselves, A fine saying, cries Cicero, and well wor they do not deserve to have friends. Howthy of that great man.

And it shews that, ever, this is the most grateful tie of human even when inactive, he was always em- society; so that the poet Ennius says with ployed; and that when alone, he knew great reason, that to live without friends how to converse with himself.

is not to live. Scipio had undoubtedly a extraordinary disposition in persons ac- great number of them, and those very customed to motion and agitation, whom illuftrious: but I shall speak here only of leisure and solitude, when they are reduced Lælius, whose probity and prudence acto them, plunge into a disguft for every quired him the lurname of the Wife. thing, and fill with melancholy; so that Never, perhaps, were two friends betthey are displeased in every thing with ter suited to each other than those great themselves, and fink under the heavy bur men. They were almost of the same age, den of having nothing to do. This say and had the same inclination, benevolence ing of the firit Scipio seems to me to suit of mind, tafte for learning of all kinds, the second fill better, who having the ad- principles of government, and zeal for the vantage of the other by being educated in public good. Scipio, no doubt, took place a taite for polite learning and

the sciences, in point of military glory; but Lælius did found in that a great resource against the not want merit of that kind; and Cicero inconvenience of which we have been tells us, that he signalized himself very speaking. Besides which, having usually much in the war with Viriathus. As to Polybius and Panærius with him, even in the talents of the mind, the superiority, in the field, it is easy to judge that his house respect of eloquence, seems to have been was open, in times of peace, to all the given to Lælius; though Cicero does not learned. Every body knows, that the agree that it was due to him, and says, comedies of Terence, the most accom- that Lælius's ftyle savoured more of the plished work of that kind Rome ever pro- ancient manner, and had something less

agreeable in it than that of Scipio. * Velleius Paterculus, Let us hear Lælius himself (that is, the


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