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American savages, occafioned this disor- Cardinal Ximenes, who was prime minister der. There were no cannibals on the of Castile before the time of Charles V. island of Hispaniola, where it was most fre- sent over four monks of this order, in quaquent and inveterate; neither are we to. lity of presidents of the royal council of fuppose, with fome, that it proceeded from the island. Doubtless they were not able too great an excess of sensual pleasures. to resist the torrent; and the hatred of the Nature had never punished excesies of this natives to their new masters, being with kind with such disorders in the world; and just reason become implacable, rendered even to this day, we find that a momentary their destruction unhappily necessary. . indulgence, which has been passed for eight
Voltaire. or ten years, may bring this cruel and thameful scourge upon the chastelt union. $ 250. The Influence of the Progress of The great Columbus, after having built
Science on the Manners and Characters several houses on these islands, and disco
of Men. vered the continent, reţurned to Spain, The progress of fcience, and the culti. where he enjoyed a reputation unsullied by vation of literature, had considerable effect rapine or cruelty, and died at Valladolid in changing the manners of the European in 1506. But the governors of Cuba and nations, and introducing that civility and Hispaniola, who succeeded him, being per- refinement by which they are now diftinsuaded that these provinces furnished gold, guished. At the time when their empire resolved to make the discovery at the price was overturned, the Romans, though they of the lives of the inhabitants. In short, had lost that correct taste which has renwhether they thought the natives had con- dered the productions of their ancestors the ceived an implacable hatred to them; or standards of excellence, and models for that they were apprehensive of their fu- imitation to fucceeding ages, ftill preserved perior numbers; or that the rage of Naugh- their love of letters, and cultivated the arts ter, when once begun, knows no bounds, with great ardour. But rude Barbarians they in the space of a few years entirely were so far from being struck with any adde populated Hispaniola and Cuba, the for- miration of these unknown accomplishmer of which contained three millions of ments, that they despised them. They inhabitants, and the latter above fix hun were not arrived at that state of society, in dred thousand.
which those faculties of the human mind, Bartholomew de la Casas, bishop of that have beauty and elegance for their Chiapa, who was an eye-witness to these objects, begin to unfold themselves. They desolations, relates, that they hunted down were strangers to all those wants and dethe natives with dogs. These wretched fires which are the parents of ingenious in, favages, almost naked and without arms, vention ; and as they did not comprehend were pursued like wild beasts in the fo- either the merit or utility of the Roman reits, devoured alive by dogs, not to arts, they destroyed the monuments of death, or surprised and burnt in their habic them, with industry not inferior to that with tations.
which their pofterity have since studied He farther declares, from ocular testi- preserve, or to recover them. The conmony, that they frequently caused a num vulsions occasioned by their settlement in ber of these miserable wretches to be fum- the empire; the frequent as well as violent moned by a priest to come in, and submit revolutions in every kingdom which they to the Chriftian religion, and to the king established; together with the interior deof Spain; and that after this ceremony, fects in the form of government which they which was only an additional act of in. introduced, banished security and leisure; justice, they put them to death without the prevented the growth of talte or the culture least remorfe.--I believe that De la Cafas of science; and kept Europe, during fehas exaggerated in many parts of his rela- veral centuries, in a state of ignorance. tion; but, allowing him to have said ten But as soon as liberty and independence times more than is truth, there remains began to be felt by every part of the comenough to make us mudder with horror.
munity, and communicated some taste of It
may feem surprising, that this make the advantages arising from commerce, sacre of a whole race of men could have from public order, and from personal sebeen carried on in the fight, and under curity, the human mind became conscious the administration of several religious of of powers which it did not formerly peruc 0. der of St. Jerome; fus we know that ceive, and fond of occupations or pursuits
of which it was formerly incapable. To- rupted those sciences which they cultivated. wards the beginning of the twelfth cen The former rendered theology a fyftem of tury, we discern the firit symptoms of its speculative refinement, or of endleís conawakening from that lethargy in which it troversy. The latter coinmunicated to had long been furk, and oblerve it turning philofoplay a spirit of metaphysical and friwith curiosity and attention towards new volous subtlety. Milled by the guides, objects.
the persons who first applied to science were The first literary efforts, however, of involved in a maze of intricate inquiries, the European nations, in the middle ages, Initead of allowing their fancy to take its were extremely ill-directed. Among na natural range, and to produce such works tions, as well as individuals, the powers of of invention as might have improved their imagination attain fome degree of vigour taste, and refined their sentiments; infead before the intellectual faculties are much of cultivating those arts which embellish exercised in speculative or abstract disqui. human life, and render it comfortable ; fition. Men are poets before they are phi- they were fettered by authority; they were lofophers. They feel with fenfibility, and led aftray by example, and wasted the whole describe with force, when they have made force of their genius in speculations as unbut little progress in investigation or rea- availing as they were difficult. soning. The age of Homer and of Hefiod But fruitless and ill-directed as these long preceded that of Thales, or of So- speculations were, their novelty roused, crates. But unhappily for literature, our and their boldness interested, the human ancestors, deviating from this course which mind. The ardour with which men purnature points out, plunged at once into the fued these uninviting studies was astonishdepths of abftrufe and metaphysical en- ing. Genuine philosophy was never culquiry.. They had been converted to the tivated, in any enlightened age, with greater Christian faith soon after they settled in zeal. Schools, upon the model of those their new conquests: but they did not re- inflitutea by Charlemagne, were opened in ceive it pure. The presumption of men every cathedral, and almost in every mohad added to the simple and instructive nastery of note. Colleges and universities doctrines of Christianity, the theories of a were erected, and formed into communi. vain philosophy, that attempted to pene. ties, or corporations, governed by their trate into mysteries, and to decide questions own laws, and invested with separate and which the limited faculties of the human extensive jurisdiction over their own memmind are unable to comprehend, or to re bers. A regular course of studies was folve. These over-curious speculations were planned. Privileges of great value were incorporated with the fystem of religion, conferred on maiters and scholars. Acaand came to be considered as the moit eí- demical titles and honours of various kinds sential part of it. As soon, then, as cu were invented, as a recompence for both. riosity prompted men to inquire and to Nor was it in the schools alone that fupe. reason, these were the subjects which first riority in science led to reputation and aupresented themselves, and engaged their thority; it became the object of respect in attention. The scholastic theology, with life, and advanced such as acquired it to a its infinite train of bold disquisitions, and rank of no inconsiderable eminence. Ain subtile distinctions concerning points which lured by all these advantages, an incredible are not the object of human reason, was number of students resorted to thele new the first production of the spirit of enquiry seats of learning, and crowded with eagerafter it began to resume fome degree of ness into that new path which was open to activity and vigour in Europe.
fame and distinction. It was not this circumitance alone that But how considerable foever these first gave such a wrong turn to the minds of efforts may appear, there was one circummen, when they began again to exercise ftance which prevented the effects of them talents which they had so long neglected. from being as extenfive as they ought to have Most of the persons who attempted to re- been. All the languages in Europe, during vive literature in the twelfth and thirteenth the period under review *, were barbarous, centuries, had received instruction, or de. They were destitute of elegance, of force, rived their principles of science from the and even of perspicuity. No attempt had Greeks in the eastern empire, or from the Arabians in Spain and Africa. Both these * From the subversion of the Roman empire people, acute and inquisitive to excess, cor to the beginning of the sixteenth century.
been hitherto made to improve or to polis pointed for the Lacedæmonians, that hothem. The Latin tongue was consecrated nest people, more virtuous than polite, rose by the church to religion. Custom, with up all to a man, and, with the greatest reauthority scarce less facred, had appropri- fpect, received him among them. The ated it to literature. All the sciences cul- Athenians, being suddenly touched with a tivated in the twelfth and thirteenth cen sense of the Spartan virtue, and their own turies were taught in Latin. All the books degeneracy, gave a thunder of applause; with refpect to them, were written in that and the old man cried out, 6. The Athelanguage. To have treated of any im “ nians underítand what is good, but the portant subject in a modern language, would “ Lacedæmonians practite it.” have been deerned a degradation of it.
Spectator. This confined science within a very narlow circle. The learned alone were ad § 252. On PÆTUS and ARRIA. mitted into the temple of knowledge; the In the reign of Claudius, the Roman gate was shut against all others, who were
emperor, Arria, the wife of Cæcinna Petus, allowed to remain involved in their former
was an illustrious pattern of magnanimity darkness and ignorance.
and conjugal affection. But though science was thus prevented,
It happened that her husband and her during several ages, from diffusing itself fon were both, at the same time, attacked through society, and its influence was cir- with a dangerous illness. The fon died. cumscribed, the progress of it may be men. He was a youth endowed with every quationed, neverthelefs, among the great causes lity of mind and person which could endear which contributed to introduce a change him to his parents. His mother's heari of manners into Europe. That ardent, was torn with all the anguish of grief; yet though ill-judged, spirit of inquiry, which she resolved to conceal the distressing event I have described, occafioned a fermentation froin her husband. She prepared and conof mind, which put ingenuity and inven- ducted his funeral so privately, that Pætus tion in motion, and gave them vigour. It did not know of his death. Whenever the led men to a new employment of their fa came into her husband's bed-chamber, the culties, which they found to be agreeable, pretended her son was better; and, as ofas well as interesting. It accustomed them ten as he inquired after his health, would to exercises and occupations which tended answer, that he had refted well, or had to foften their manners, and to give them eaten with an appetite. When she found fome relish for those gentle virtues which that she could no longer restrain her grief, are peculiar to nations among whom sci- but her tears were gushing out, she would ence hath been cultivated with fuccefs.
leave the room, and, having given vent to
Robertson. her passion, return again with dry eyes 251. On the Respect paid by the Lace-, left her forrow behind her at the door of
and a serene countenance, as if she had DÆMONIANS and ATHENIANS to old
the chamber. Age.
Camillus Scribonianus, the governor of It happened at Athens, during a public Dalmatia, having taken up arms agaioft representation of some play exhibited in Claudius, Pætus joined himlelf to his party, honour of the commonwealth, that an old and was soon after taken prisoner, and gentleman came too late for a place suit- brought to Rome. When the guards were able to his age and quality. Many of the going to put him on board the ship, Arria young gentlemen, who observed the diffi- befought them that she might be permitted culty and confution he was in, made figns to go with him.
Certainly,” said the, to him that they would accommodate him
you cannot refuse a man of consular dig if he came where they fat: the good man “ nity, as he is, a few attendants to wait bultied through the crowd accordingly; “ upon him; but, if you will take me,! but when he came to the feats to which he “ alone will perform their office.” This was invited, the jest was, to fit close and favour, however, was refused;
upon expose him, as he stood out of countenance, the hired a small fishing vessel, and boldly ro'the whole audience. The frolic went ventured to follow the ship. sound all the Athenian benches. But on Returning to Rome, Arria met the wife thote occasions, there were also particular of Scribonianus in the emperor's palace, places affigned for foreigners : when the who pressing her to discover all that the good man skalked towards the boxes ap. knew of the insurrection, -"What !" said
me," thall I regard thy advice, who saw dered him conspicuous even in the vale of “ thy husband murdered in thy very arms, obscurity. Though remotely related to the “ and yet surviveft him?"
royal family, a series of misfortunes had Pætus being condemned to die, Arria reduced him to the necessity of cultivating formed a deliberate resolution to thare his a garden, for a small stipend, in the suburbs fate, and made no secret of her intention. of the city, Thrasea, who married her daughter, at While Abdolonymus was bufily employtempting to dissuade her from her purpose, ed in weeding his garden, the two friends among other arguments which he used, of Hephæstion, bearing in their hands the said to her, “ vould you then, if my life ensigns of royalty, approached him, and “ were to be taken from me, advise your faluted him king, informing him that Alexa
daughter to die with me?” “ Moit cer ander had appointed him to that office;
tainly I would,” the replied, “ if the and requiring him immediately to exchange “ had lived as long, and in as much his rustic garb, and utensils of husbandry,
harmony with you, as I have lived with for the regal robe and sceptre. At the “ Pætus,"
same time, they urged him, when he should Perliding in her determination, the found be seated on the throne, and have a na. means to provide herself with a dagger: tion in his power, not to forget the and one day, when she observed humble condition from which he had than usual gloom on the countenance of been raised. Pætus, and perceived that death by the All this, at the first, appeared to Abdohand of the executioner appeared to him lonymus as an illusion of the fancy, or an more terrible than in the field of glory, insult offered to his poverty. He requefted perhaps, too, sensible that it was chielly for them not to trouble him farther with their her fake that he wished to live
the drew impertinent jests, and to find some other the dagger from her side, and stabbed her way of amusing themselves, which might felf before his eyes. Then inftantiy pluck- leave him in the peaceable enjoyment of ing the weapon from her breait, the pre his obscure habitation.-At length, howsented it to her husband, saying, My ever, they convinced him that they were “ Pætus, it is not painful *.”
serious in their proposal, and prevailed upon
him to accept the regal office, and accom$ 253. AB DOLONYMUS raised to the Go
pany them to the palace. vernment of SIDON.
No sooner was he in possession of the The city of Sidon having surrendered government, than pride and envy created to alexander, he ordered Hephæstion to him enemies, who whispered their murmurs bestow the crown on him whom the Sido- in every place, till at last they reached the nians should think most worthy of that ho ear of Alexander; who, commanding the nour. Hephæltion being at that time re new-elected prince to be sent for, required fident with two young men of distinction, of him, with what temper of mind he had offered them the kingdom; but they re borne his poverty. “Would to Heaven," fused it, telling him that it was contrary to replied Abdolonymus, “that I may be able the laws of their country, to admit any one “ to bear my crown with equal moderation: to that honour, who was not of the royal “ for when I possessed little, I wanted no. family. He then, having exprefled his thing: these hands supplied me with admiration of their disinterested spirit, de “ whatever I desired.” From this answer, fired them to name one of the royal race, Alexander formed so high an idea of his who might remember that he received the wisdom, that he confirmed the choice which crown through their hands. Overlooking had been made, and annexed a neighbour. many who would have been ambitious of ing province to the government of Sidon. this high honcur, they made choice of Ab
Quintus Curtius. dolonymus, whose singular merit had ren.
$ 254. The Refignation of the Emperor In the Tatler, No 72, a fancy piece is drawn,
CHARLES V. founded on the principal fact in this story, but
Charles resolved to resign his kingdoms wholly fictitious in the circumstances of the tale. The author, mistaking Ciecinna Pætus for Thra: to his son, with a solemnity suitable to the sea Pætus, has accused even Nero unjustly: charg. importance of the transaction; and to pers ing him with an action which certainly belonged form this last act of sovereignty with luch to Claudius. See Pliny's Epiftles, Beok i. Ep. formal pomp, as might leave an indelible 16. Dion. Calius, Lib. ix. and Tacitus, Lib. xvi. impresion on the minds, not only of his $35.
subjects, but of his successor. With this now, when his health was broken, and his view, he called Philip out of England, vigour exhausted by the rage of an incurwhere the peevish temper of his queen, able distemper, his growing infirmities adwhich increased with her despair of having monished him to retire; nor was he lo fond issue, rendered him extremely unhappy; of reigning, as to retain the sceptre in an and the jealousy of the English left him no impotent hand, which was no longer able hopes of obtaining the direction of their to protect his subjects, or to render them affairs. Having assembled the states of the happy: that, instead of a sovereign worn Low Countries, at Brussels, on the twenty out with diseases, and scarcely half alive, fifth of October, one thousand five hundred he gave them one in the prime of life, acand fifty-five, Charles seated himself, for customed already to govern, and who added the last time, in the chair of state; on one to the vigour of youth, all the attention and fide of which was placed his son, and on the sagacity of maturer years : that if, during other his sister, the queen of Hungary, re the course of a long administration, he had gent of the Netherlands ; with a splendid committed any material error in governretinue of the grandees of Spain, and ment; or if, under the pressure of so many princes of the empire, standing behind him. and great affairs, and amidst the attention The president of the council of Flanders, which he had been obliged to give to by his command, explained, in a few words, them, he had either neglected, or injured his intention in calling this extraordinary any of his subjects, he now implored their meeting of the states. He then read the forgiveness : that for his part, he should instrument of resignation, by which Charles ever retain a grateful sense of their fidelity surrendered to his son Philip all his terri- and attachment, and would carry the retories, jurisdiction, and authority in the Low membrance of it along with him to the Countries; absolving his subjects there place of his retreat, as his sweetest confofrom their oath of allegiance to him, which lation, as well as the bett reward for all he required them to transfer to Philip, his his services; and, in his last prayers to Allawful heir, and to serve him with the same mighty God, would pour forth his ardent loyalty and zeal which they had manifested, wishes for their welfare. during so long a course of years, in support Then, turning towards Philip, who fell of his government.
on his knees, and kissed his father's hand, Charles then rose from his seat, and “ If,” says he, " ! had left you by my leaning on the shoulder of the prince of « death, this rich inheritance, to which I Orange, because he was unable to stand “ have made such large additions, some without support, he addressed himself to the regard would have been juitly due to my audience, and, from a paper which he held “ memory on that account: but now, when in his hand, in order to alift his memory, “ I voluntarily resign to you what I might he recounted with dignity, but without u still have retained, I may well expect oftentation, all the great things which he " the warmest expresions of thanks on had undertaken and performed since the your part. With these, however, I discommencement of his administration. He “ pense; and Thall consider your concern observed, that, from the seventeenth year « for the welfare of your subjects, and your of his age, he had dedicated all his thoughts “ love of them, as the best and most ac• and attention to public objects; reserving ceptable testimony of your gratitude to no portion of his time for the indulgence me. It is in your power, by a wise and of his case, and very little for the enjoy. « virtuous administration, to justify the ex. ment of private pleasure: that, either in a "traordinary proof which I this day give pacific or hostile manner, he had visited “ of my paternal affection; and to de. Germany nine times, Spain fix times, France “ monstrate, that you are worthy of the four times, Italy seven times, the Low Coun “ confidence which I repose in you. Pretries ten times, England twice, Africa as « serve an inviolable regard for religion; often, and had made eleven voyages by “ maintain the Catholic faith in its purity; fea : that, while his health permitted him “ let the laws of your country be sacred in to discharge his duty, and the vigour of “ your eyes; encroach not on the rights his constitution was equal, in any degree, " and privileges of your people: and, if to the arduous office of governing such ex o the time shall ever come, when you
Thall tensive dominions, he had never shunned “ wish to enjoy the tranquillity of private labour, nor repined under fatigue : that “ life, may you have a son endowed with