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circumstance in this part of instinct, we find her covering it from the injuries of the that the love of the parent may be length weather, providing it proper nourishment, ened out beyond its usual time, if the pre- and teaching it to help itself; nor to men, servation of the species requires it; as we tion her forsaking the neft, if after the usual may see in birds that drive away their time of reckoning, the young one does not young as soon as they are able to get their make its appearance. A chymical operalivelihood, but continue to feed them if tion could not be followed with greater art they are tied to the neft
, or confined within or diligence, than is seen in the hatching of a cage, or by any other means appear to be a chick; though there are many other birds out of a condition of supplying their own that shew an infinitely greater sagacity in neceffities.
all the forementioned particulars. This natural love is not observed in But at the same time che hen, that has all animals to alcend from the young to the this seeming ingenuity (which is indeed abparent, which is not at all necessary for the solutely necessary for the propagation of the continuance of the species: nor indeed in species) confidered in other refpe&s, is reasonable creatures does it rise in any pro- without the least glimmerings of thought portion, as it spreads itself downwards; for or common sense. She mistakes a piece of in all family affection, we find protection chalk for an egg, and sits upon it in the granted, and favours bestowed, are greater fame manner: The is insensible of any in motives to love and tenderness, than lafety, crease or diininution in the number of those benefits, or life received.
she lays: she does not distinguish between One would wonder to hear sceptical her own and those of another species; and men difputing for the reason of animals, when the birth appears of never fo different and telling us
it is only our pride and pre- a bird, will cherish it for her own. In all judices that will not allow them the use of these circumstances, which do not carry an. that faculty.
immediate regard to the subsistence of her Reafon Thews itself in all occurrences self or her species, she is a very idiot. of life; whereas the brute makes no dir. There is not, in iny opinion, any thing covery of fuch a talent, but what immedi. more mysterious in nature, than this instinct ately regards his own preservation, or the in animals, which thus rises above reason, continuance of his species. Animals in and falls infinitely Mort of it. It cannot be their generation are wiser than the sons of accounted for by any properties in marter, men; but their wisdom is confined to a few and at the same time works after so odd a particulars, and lies in a very narrow com manner, that one cannot think it the faculpass. Take a brute out of his instinct, and ty of an intellectual being. For my own you find him wholly deprived of under- part, I look upon it as upon the principle of ftandi? :-To use an instance that comes gravitation in bodies, which is not to be exoften wider obfervation :
plained by any known qualities inherent in With what caution does the hen provide the bodies themselves, nor from any laws herself a neft in places unfrequented, and of mechanım, but, according to the beit free from noise and disturbance! When she notions of the greatest philosophers, is an has laid her eggs in such a manner that she immediate impression from the first Mover, can cover them, what care does the take in and the divine energy acting in the creaturning them frequently, that all parts may tures.
Spectator. partake of the vital warmch! When she leaves them, to provide for her necessary § 26. The Necelja:y of forming religious sustenance, how punctually does she return
Principles ai an early Age. before thay have time to cool, and become, As soon as you are capable of reflecincapable of producing an animal! In the tion, you must perceive that there is a right summer you see her giving herself greater and wrong in human actions. You see freedoms, and quitting her care for above that those who are born with the same adtwo hours together; but in winter, when vantages of fortune, are not all equally the rigour of the season would chill the prosperous in the course of life. While some principles of life, and destroy the young of them, by wise and steady conduct, attain one, the grows more affiduous in her at distinction in the world, and pass their days tendance, and stays away but half the time. with comfort and honour; others of the When the birth approaches, with how much fame rank, by mean and vicious behaviour, nicety and attention does she help the chick forfeit the advantages of their birth, involve to break its prison ! Not to take notice of themselves in much misery, and end in be
ing a disgrace to their friends, and a burden ter, and every station in life. Bad as the en society. Early, then, you may learn world is, respect is always paid to virtue. that it is not on the external condition in In the usual course of human affairs it will which you find yourselves placed, but on be found, that a plain understanding, the part which you are to act, that your joined with acknowledged worth, contrivelfare or onhappiness, your honour or in- butes more to prosperity, than the brightest famy, depend. Now, when beginning to parts without probity or honour. Whether act that part, what can be of greater mo- science, or buliness, or public life, be your ment, than to regulate your plan of conduct aim, virtue ftill enters, for a principal share, with the moft serious attention, before you into all those great departments of society. have yet committed any fatal or irretriev. It is connected with eminence, in every li. sble errors? If, instead of exerting re- beral art; with reputation, in every branch flection for this valuable purpose, you de- of fair and useful business; with distincliver yourselves up, at so critical a time, to tion, in every public station. The vigour foth and pleasure; if you refuse to listen to which it gives the mind, and the weight any counsellor but humour, or to attend to which it adds to character; the generous any pursuit except that of amusement; if sentiments which it breathes; the un. you allow yourselves to float loose and daunted spirit which it inspires, the ardour careless on the side of life, ready to receive of diligence which it quickens, the freedom any direction which the current of fashion which it procures from pernicious and dismay chance to give you; what can you honourable avocations, are the foundations expect to follow from such beginnings of all that is high in fame or great in sucWhile fo many around you are undergo- cess among men. Whatever ornamental ing the sad consequences of a like indiscre- or engaging endowments you now possess, tion, for what reason shall not these con- virtue is a necessary requisite, in order to Sequences extend to you? Shall you only their shining with proper luftre. Feeble artain faccess without that preparation, and are the attractions of the faireft form, if iç ekape dangers without that precaution, be suspected that nothing within corre. which is required of others ? Shall happi- fponds to the pleasing appearance without ress grow up to you of its own accord, and Short are the triumphs of wit, when it is foiicit your acceptance, when, to the rest fupposed to be the vehicle of malice. By of mankind, it is the fruit of long cultivation, whatever arts you may at firft attract the and the acquisition of labour and care? attention, you can hold the esteem and feDeceive not yourselves with such arrogant cure the hearts of others only by amiable hopes. Whatever be your rank, Providence dispositions and the accomplishments of the will not, for your fake, reverse its estab. mind. These are the qualities whose inkthed order. By listening to wise admo- fluence will last, when the luftre of all that nitions, and tempering the vivacity of once sparkled and dazzled has passed yoath with a proper mixture of serious away,
Ibid. thought, you may enfore chearfulness for the rest of your life; but by delivering
The Happiness and Dignity of yourselves up at present to giddiness and
Manhood depend upon the Conduct of sbe levity, you lay the foundation of lafting youthful Age, beaviness of heart.
Blair. Let not the season of youth be barren of § 27. The Acquifition of virtuous Difpofio and honour. Your character is now of
improvements, fo essential to your felicity tiens and Habits a necessary Part of Edwo your own forming; your fate is in some (atien.
measure put into your own hands, Your When you look forward to those plans nature is as yet pliant and soft, Habits of life, which either your circumstances have not established their dominion, Prehave fuggefted, or your friends have pro- judices have not pre-occupied your under posed, you will not hesitate to acknowledge, standing. The world has not had time to chat in order to pursue them with advane contract and debase your affections. All tage, fome previous discipline is requisite. your powers are more vigorous, disemBe assured, that whatever is to be your barrafied and free, than they will be at profeffion, no education is more necessary any future period. Whatever impulse you to your fuccefs, than the acquirement of now give to your desires and pasions, the virtuous dispofitions and habits. This is direction is likely to continue. li will the universal preparation for every charac. form the channel in which your life is to
run; nay, it may determine an everlasting his goodness. Consider it as the service islue. Consider then the employment of of the God of your fathers; of him to this important period as the highest trust whom your parents devoted you; of him which shall ever be committed to you; as, whom in former ages your ancefors ho. in a great measure, decisive of your happi- noured; and by whom they are now re. ness, in time and in eternity. As in the warded and blested in heaven. Connected fuccession of the seasons, each, by the inva- with so many tender sensibilities of soul, let riable laws of nature, affects the produc- religion be with you, not the cold and bartions of what is next in course; so, in hu ren offspring of speculation, but the warm man life, every period of our age, accord- and vigorous dictate of the heart. Ibid. ing as it is well or ill spent, in Auences the happiness of that which is to follow. Virtu- $ 30. Religion never to be treated with ous youth gradually brings forward accom
Levity, plithed and flourishing manhood; and such Impress your minds with reverence for. manhood passes of itself, without uneasiness, all that is sacred. Let no wantonness of into respectable and tranquil old age. But youthful spirits, no compliance with the inwhen nature is turned out of its regular temperate mirth of others, ever betray you courte, disorder takes place in the moral, into profane fallies. Belides the guilt just as in the vegetable world. If the which is thereby incurred, nothing gives a fpring put forth no blossoms, in suinmer more odious appearance of petulance and there will be no beauty, and in autumn no presumption to youth, than the affe&ation fruit: So, if youth be trifled away without of treating religion with levity. Instead of improvement, manhood will be contempti- being an evidence of superior understandble, and old
which, vain of the firit (matterings of know$ 29. Piety to God the Foundation of good ledge, prefumes to make light of what the Morals.
reit of mankind revere. At the same time, What I shall first recommend is piety to you are not to imagine, that when exhorted God. With this I begin, both as the to be religious, you are called upon to befoundation of good morals, and as a dispo- come more formal and folemn in your fition particularly graceful and becoming manners than others of the same years; or in youth. To be void of it, argues a cold to erect yourselves into supercilious reheart, deftitute of some of the belt affections provers of those around you. The spirit of which belong to that age. Youth is the true religion breathes gentleness and affafeason of warm and generous emotions. bility. It gives a native unaffected ease to The heart should then spontaneously rise the behaviour. It is social, kind, and into the admiration of what is great; glow chearful; far removed from that gloomy with the love of what is fair and excellent; and illiberal fuperftition which clouds the and melt at the discovery of tenderness and brow, tharpens tne temper, dejects the goodness. Where can any object be found, fpirit
, and teaches men to fit themselves lo proper to kindle those affections, as the for another world, by neglecting the conFather of the universe, and the Author of cerns of this. Let your religion, on the all felicity? Unmoved by veneration, can contrary, connect preparation for heaven you contemplate that grandeur and majesty with an honourable discharge of the duties which his works every where display ? Un- of active life. Of such religion discover, touched by gratitude, can you view that on every proper occasion, that you are not profusion of good, which, in this pleasing ashamed; but avoid making any unnecessary season of life, his beneficent hand pours oftentation of it before the world. Ibid. around you? Happy in the love and affection of those with whom you are con
§ 31. Modesty and Docility to be joined nected, look up to the Supreme Being, as
to Piety. the inspirer of all the friend thip which has To piety join modesty and docility, ever been shewn you by others; himself reverence of your parents, and submisyour best and your first friend; formerly, fion to those who are your fuperiors in the supporter of your infancy, and the guide knowledge, in itation, and in years. Deof your childhood; now, the guardian of pendence and obedience belong to youth. your youth, and the hope of your coming Modesty is one of its chief ornaments; and years. View religious homage as a natu- has ever been esteemed a presage of rising ral expression of gratitude to him for all merit. When entering on the career of
lfe, it is your part, not to assume the maze. After the first departure from fin. reins as yet into your hands; but to com- cerity, it is not in your power to stop. One mit yourselves to the guidance of the more artifice unavoidably leads on to another; experienced, and to become wife by the till, as the intricacy of the labyrinth inwidom of those who have gone before creases, you are left entangled in your own FOQ. Of all the follies incident to youth, snare. Deceit discovers a little mind, which there are none which either deform ito pre- ftops at temporary expedients, without feat appearance, or blait the prospect of its rising to comprehensive views of conduct. future prosperity, more than self-conceit, It betrays, at the same time, a daftardly fresumption, and obftinacy. By checking spirit. It is the resource of one who wants is natural progress in improvement, they courage to avow his designs, or to rest upon áx it in long immaturity; and frequently himself. Whereas, openness of character produce mischiefs which can never be re- displays that generous boldness, which paired. Yet these are vices too common- ought to difinguish youth. To set out iy found among the young. Big with en, in the world with no other principle than a terprize, and elated by hope, they resolve crafty attention to interest, betokens one to trust for füccess to none but themselves. who is destined for creeping through the Full of their own abilities, they deride the inferior walks of life: but to give an early admonitions which are given them by their preference to honour above gain, when friends, as the timorous suggestions of age. they stand in competition; to despite every Too wise to learn, too impatient to delibe- adyantage, which cannot be attained withrate, too forward to be restrained, they out dishonest arts; to brook no meanness, plunge, with precipitant indiscretion, into and to stoop to no diffimulation; are the ihe midit of all the dangers with which life indications of a great mind, the presages aboonds.
Blair, of future eminence and distinction in life.
At the same time this virtuous fincerity is 32. Sincerity and Truth recommended.
perfectly confiftent with the most prudent It is necessary to recommend to you fin- vigilance and caution. It is oppofed to cerity and truth. This is the basis of every cunning, not to true wirdom. It is not the vizue. That darkness of character, where simplicity of a weak and improvident, but we can see no heart; those foldings of art, the candour of an enlarged and noble mind; through which no native affection is allowed of one who scorns deceit, becaufe he acto penetrate, present an object, unamiable counts it both base and unprofitable; and in every season of life, but particularly who seeks no disguise, because he needs odious in youth. If, at an age when the none to hide him.
Ibid. heart is warm, when the emotions are ftrong, and when nature is expected to thew
§ 33. Benevolence and Humanity, herself free and open, you can already smile Youth is the proper season of cultivat. and deceive, what are we to look for, when ing the benevolent and humane affections. you shall be longer hackneyed in the ways As a great part of your happiness is to of men; when interest shall have completed depend on the connections which you form the obduration of your heart, and experi. with others, it is of high importance that ence hall have improved you in all the arts you acquire betimes the temper and the of guile? Dilimulation in youth is the manners which will render such connections forerunner of perhdy in old age. Its comfortable. Let a sense of justice be the Atsi appearance is the fatal omen of grow. foundation of all your social qualities. In ing depravity and future shame. It de- your moit early intercourse with the world, grades parts and learning; obscures the and even in your youthful amusements, let, luitre of every accomplithment; and finks no unfairness be found. Engrave on your you into contempt with God and man. As mind that sacred rule, of doing in all you value, therefore, the approbation of things to others, according as you wish Heaven, or the esteem of the world, culti- that they fhould do unto you.' For this Fate the love of truth. In all your pro- end, impress yourselves with a deep sense ceedings, be direct and consistent. Inge- of the original and natural equality of nuity and candour possess the most power. men. Whatever advantages of birth or ful charm; they bespeak universal favour, fortune you possess, never display them and carry an apology for almost every fail- with an oftentatious fuperiority. Leave ing. The path of truth is a plain and safe the subordinations of rank, to regulate the path; that of falsehood is a perplexing intercourse of more advanced years. At
present it becomes you to act among your respect to pleasure, amount? They may companions, as man with man. Remem- all be comprized in a few words- not to ber how unknown to you are the viciffi- hurt yourselves, and not to hurt others, by tudes of the world; and how often they, your pursuit of pleasure. Within these on whom ignorant and contemptuous young boonds, pleasure is lawful; beyond them it men once looked down wich scorn, have becomes criminal, because it is ruinous. risen to be their superiors in future years. Are these restraints any other than what a Compassion is an emotion of which you wise man would choose to impose on himnever ought to be ashamed. Graceful in self? We call you not to renounce pleayouth is the tear of sympathy, and the fure, but to enjoy it in safety. Instead of heart that melts at the tale of woe. Let abridging it, we exhort you to pursue it on not ease and indulgence contract your
an extensive plan. We propose measures fections, and wrap you up in felfish enjoy, for securing its poffeffion, and for prolongmcnt. Accustom yourselves to think of ing its duration.
Ibid. the distresses of human life; of the solitary cottage, the dying parent, and the weep § 36. Whatever violates Nature, cannot ing orphan. Never sport with pain and
afford true Pleasure. distress, in any of your amusements; nor Consult
your whole nature. Confider treat even the meanett insect with wanton yourselves not only as sensitive, but as racruelty.
Blair. tional beings; not only as rational, but
social; not only as social, but immortal. § 34. Courtesy and engaging Manners.
Whatever violates your nature in any of In order to render yourselves amiable in these respects, cannot afford true pleasure; fociety, correct every appearance of harsh- any more than that which undermines an ness in behaviour. Let that courtesy dif- essential part of the vital system, can protinguish your demeanour, which springs mote health. For the truth of this connot so much from studied politeness, as clufion, we appeal, not merely to the aufrom a mild and gentle heart. Follow the thority of religion, nor to the testimony of customs of the world in matters indifferent; the aged, but to yourselves, and your but stop when they become finful. Let own experience. We ask, whether you your manners be simple and natural; and have not found, that in a course of criof course they will be engaging. Affec- minal excess, your pleasure was more than tation is certain deformity. By forming compensated by succeeding pain? Wheyourselves on fantastic models, and vying ther, if not from every particular instance, with one another in every reigning folly, yet from every habit, at least, of unlawful the young begin with being ridiculous, and gratification, there did not spring fome end in being vicious and immoral. thorn to wound you; there did not arise
Ibid. fome confequence to make you repent of
it in the iffue : How long will you repeat $35. Temperance in Pleafure recommended,
the same round of pernicious folly, and Let me particularly exhort youth to tamely expose yourselves to be caught in temperance in pleasure. Let me admo- the same snare? If you have any condi, 'nish them, to beware of that rock on which deration, or any firmness left, avoid tempthousands, from race to race, continue to tations, for which you have found yoursplit. The love of pleasure, natural to selves unequal, with as much care as you man in every period of his life, glows at would shun pestilential infection. Break this
age with excesive ardour. Novelty off all connections with the loose and proadds fresh charms, as yet, to every grati- figate.
Ibid, fication. The world appears to spread a continual feaft; and health, vigour, and
$ 37. Irregular Pleasures. high spirits, invite them to partake of it By the unhappy excesses of irregular without reftraint. In vain we warn them pleasures in youth, how many amiable of latent dangers. Religion is accused of dispositions are corrupted or destroyed ! insufferable severity, in prohibiting enjoy- How many rising capacities and powers ment; and the old, when they offer their are fupprefed ! How many flattering admonition, are upbraided with having hopes of parents and friends are totally forgot that they once were young. And extinguished! Who but must drop a tear yet, my friends, to what do the constraints over human nature, when he beholds that of religion, and the counsels of age, with morning, which arose fo bright, overcaft