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" For the charge of Popery that is fallen upon him, it is evi. dent from whence that flows, either from his profest opposition to many doctrines of some Reformers, Zuinglius, and Calvin, 8c. Or from his Annotations on Cassander, and the Debates with Rivet consequent thereto, the Votum pro Pace and Discussio.

« For the former of these, it is sufficiently known what contests there were, and at length how profest the divisions betwixt the Remonstrant and Contra-remonstrant; and it is confessed, that he maintained (all his time) the Remonstrant's party, vindicating it from all charge, whether of PelaGIANISM or SEMI-PELAGIANISM, which was by the opposers objected to it, and pressing the favourers of the doctrine of Irrespective Decrees with the odious consequences of making God the Author and Favourer of sin, and frequently expressing his sense of the evil influences that some of those doctrines were experimented to have on men's lives. And by these means it is not strange, that he should fall under great displea

from those who, having espoused the opinion of Irrespective Decrees, did not only publish it as THE TRUTH, and TRUTH of God, but farther asserted the questioning of it to be injurious to God's Free Grace and his Eternal Election, and consequently retained no ordinary patience for or charity to opposers. But then, still, this is no medium to infer that charge. The doctrines which he thus maintained, were neither branches nor characters of Popery, but asserted by some of the first and most learned and pious Reformers. Witness the writings of Hemingius in his Opuscula, most of which are on these subjects. Whereas, on the contrary side, Zuinglius and others, who înaintained the rigid way of Irrespective Decrees, and infused them into some of this nation of ours, are truly said, by an excellent writer of ours, Dr. Jackson, to have had it first from some ancient Romish Schoolmen, and so to have had as much, or more, of that guilt adherent to them, as can be charged on their opposers. So that from hence, to found the jealousy, to affirm him a Papist because he was not a Contra-remonstrant, is but the old method of speaking all that is ill of those who differ from our opinions in any thing; as the Dutchman in his rage calls his horse an ARMINIAN, because he doth not go as he would have him. And this is all that can soberly be concluded from such suggestions, that they are displeased and passionate that thus speak.

As for the Annotations on Cassander, fc., and the consequent vindications of himself against Rivet, those have with some colour been deemed more favourable toward Popery; but yet, I suppose, will be capable of benign interpretations, if they be read with these few cautions or remembrances :

First.—That they were designed to shew a way to peace, whensoever men's minds on both sides should be piously affected to it.

Secondly.- That he did not hope for this temper in this age, the humour on both sides being so turgent, and extremely contrary to it, and the controversy debated on both sides by those · who,' saith he, desire to eternize, and not to compose, contentions,' and therefore makes his appeal to posterity, when this paroxysm shall be over.

Thirdly.---That, for the chief usurpations of the Papacy, he leaves it to Christian Princes to join together to vindicate their own rights, and reduce the Pope ad Canones, to that temper which the ancient Canons allow and require of bim ; and, if that will not be done, to reforin every one within their own dominions.

Fourthly-That, what he saith in favour of some Popish doctrines, above what some other learned Protestants have said, is not so much by way of assertion or justification of them, as to shew what reasons they may justly be thought to proceed upon, and so not to be so irrational or impious as they are ordinarily accounted; and this only in order to the peace of the Christian world, that we may have as much charity to others and not as high animosities, live with all men as sweetly, and amicably, and peaceably, and not as bitterly as is possible, accounting the wars, and seditions, and divisions, and rebellions, that are raised and managed upon the account of religion, far greater and more scandalous unchristian evils, than are the errors of some Romish doctrines, especially as they are maintained by the more sober and moderate men among them, Cassander, Picherel, &c.

Fifthly.What he saith in his Discussio of a conjunction of Protestants with those that adhere to the Bishop of Rome, is no farther to be extended, than his words extend it.--(1.) That there is not any other visible way to the end there mentioned by him, of acquiring or preserving universal unity--(2.) That this is to be done, not crudely, by returning to them as they are, submit. ting our necks to our former yoke, but by taking away at once the division, and the causes of it, on which side soever; adding only, in the third place, that the bare primacy of the Bishop of Rome, secundum Canones, such as the ancient Canons allow of, (which hath nothing of supreme universal power or authority in it,) is none of those causes, nor consequently necessary to be excluded in the claddaxlıxov, citing that as the confession of that excellent person Philip Melancthon.

“ So that, in effect, that whole speech of his, which is so solemnly vouched by Mr. Knot, .and looked on so jealously by many of us, is no more than this,' that such a Primacy of the • Bishop of Rome, as the ancient Canons allowed him, were, for

so glorious an end as is the regaining the peace of Christendom, "very reasonably to be afforded him, nay absolutely necessary to 'he yielded him, whensoever any such catholic union shall be attempted;' which, as it had been the express opinion of Me. lancthon, one of the first and wisest Reformers, so it is far from any design of establishing the usurpations of the Papacy, or any of their false doctrines attending them, but only designed as an expedient for the restoring the peace of the whole Christian world, which every disciple of Christ is so passionately required to contend and pray for."

At the conclusion of the Doctor's Continuation of the Defence of Hugo Grotius, he thus expresses himself:

As this is an act of mere justice and charity to the dead,and no less to those who, by their sin of uncharitable thoughts towards him, are likely to deprive themselves of the benefit of his labours,—so is it but a proportionable return of debt and gratitude to the signal value and kindness which, in bis life time, he constantly professed to pay to this Church and nation ; expressing his opinion, that, of all Churches in the world, it was the * most careful observer and transcriber of primitive antiquity,' and more than intimating his desire to end his days in the bosom and communion of our mother. Of this I want not store of wit. nesses, which from time to time have heard it from his own mouth whilst he was Ambassador in France, and even in his return to Sweden immediately before his death: And, for a real evidence of this truth, it is no news to many, that, at the taking his journey from Paris, he appointed his wife, whom he left behind, to resort to the English assembly at the Agent's house, which accordingly she is known to have practised.

As far as the English Establishment is removed from Socinian and Popish, so far this learned man stands vindicated from both these aspersions; which makes me the less wonder, that some others, who have endeavoured to maintain their constancy of adherence and submission to the Church of England, are in like manner most injuriously aspersed by those who have departed from it. Lord, lay not this sin to their charge!".

With regard to the political principles of Grotius, the reader will discover, that, in advanced life, they were those of a man whom we should designate as “a Whig of 1688.” In the Concor, dia discors et Antichristus revelatus, which the celebrated Samuel Marets, (p. 270,) published against Grotius, in 1642, it is said: It is impossible to tolerate this, especially in Gratius,-his “ sufficiently open avowal, that kings are not of Divine institution: “ For, he places those kings who are first chosen by the will of “ the people, in opposition to those famous (seventy] judges who “ were instituted by God, as is apparent from Numbers xi, 16." On this passage the witty Bayle remarks: “ This, to be sure, is singular enough: For Grotius is always refuted upon his having too much subjected the people to the royal prerogative. After this, let nobody say that none but the Lutherans approve of Grotius's maxims: Here you see a Calvinist minister, who does not think that Grotius had spoken very favourably of Monarchy!"—When a great man is thus blamed alternately for a bias towards popular and regal rights, we are not at a loss in what class to place him: He belongs to the class of persons who are governed by moderate principles. Those who are conversant with the nervous and manly writings on political subjects, in which some of the most famous of our countrymen indulged between 1660 and 1690, know, that Grotius was perpetually appealed to, not only by the advocates for PopULARITY, but likewise by those for ROYALTY. The truth is, Grotius had, by painful experience, known enough of the boasted LIBERTY of a Republic, and therefore retracted some of those unguarded expressions which he had formerly employed in favour of that form of government. Unlike many of his cotemporaries, however, he did not run into the opposite extreme and applaud all the appalling encroachments of tyrants; but his principles kept him at an equal distance from the LicenTiousness into which liberty too often degenerates, and from that fearful servility which is frequently produced by too ardent a love of subordination and obedience.

5.RIVET AND DU MOULIN. Or Andrew River and some of his performances the reader will perceive, that I have said quite enough in the following pages, 230, 285–92, 745, 748-52. He was a most unfair and disingenuous adversary towards Grotius, whose ashes he would not suffer to rest in peace. I have said, in page 284, that “ Rivet was the accredited organ of the French and Dutch Calvinists, and was aided," in the composition of his pamphlets against Grotius, " by the whole Calvinian phalanx in Europe :” The truth of this fact is well known to all those who are acquainted with the complexity of his virulent productions.

His brother-in-law, the elder Peter Du Moulin, has also received ample notice in this volume; (see pages 215, 223, 230, 281, 290, 392, 554, 580,) and those who are aware of the very iniquitous part which he and his family acted, in fomenting the public disturbances of this kingdom, in whose bosom they had been generously cherished, will not think my exposure of their malevolent spirit and pragmatical conduct to be at all misplaced. He had two sons, Louis and Peter, both of whom obtained preferment in England; and the latter of them, during our civil broils, became an exemplary loyal divine, while his brother Louis continued one of the most seditious firebrands in the kingdom. After the Restoration, Louis's indignation was aroused at the great defection from the ranks of Presbytery and Calvinism, in the persons of certain great men, whom he mentions, and who, having received their education at Cambridge, are some of the individuals described under the appellation of " Latitude-men” in page 798. The following are Louis's words : “From all these hypotheses, I gather these conclusions, which naturally follow the aforesaid premises.-(1.) That several Bishops and Doctors of the Church of England, as Dr. Floyd, Dr. Tillotson, Dr. Stilling, fleet, Dr. Patrick, that are acknowledged by the Nonconformists to be persons of

great learning, worth, and piety, but who are extreme admirers of the Episcopacy of England and all its consequences, and who have also preferred its government to all other establishments in Europe, have, by an unlucky accident, contributed more towards the reputation of the English hierarchy and its practices, and towards the perpetuating the feuds and quarrels between the Conformists and Nonconformists, than it has been possible for any other corrupted party to do by all their irregularities and advances towards Rome.

“ (2.) That it may be said of these good Bishops and Doctors before mentioned, what the politic sages have observed of Anselme, Bernard, Thomas Aquinas, John of Salisbury, and Gerson, that by their great repute of piety and learning, they • have contributed more to the strengthening of the Pope's tyranny • and religion, in the minds of the people, than a hundred such as Gregory the VIIth and Boniface the VIIIth were able to effect, by their tyranny and the wickedness and impurity of their • lives, for the discrediting of the Pope and his religion.'

(3.) That it is not to be believed how much the Nonconformists of England suffer in the esteem of our great men of the Protestant party in Europe, who, hearing people talk of the learning and piety of so many English Bishops and Doctors, all Conformists, and who resemble those four Doctors I have just before named, say aloud, that the Nonconformists must needs • be very unreasonable, and of a very nice and fantastical piety, • for refusing to conform to the Church of England, after the example of those four Doctors.'

(4.) That how good soever the intentions of some of the Bishops and Doctors of the Church of England may be that are of the same temper of spirit with these four Doctors, and what kindness soever they may have for the Nonconformists, it is impossible they should ever come over to them, and consent to terms of reconciliation and moderation, so long as they remain in this judgment and opinion, that of all the established ecclesias. tical governments in Europe, that of the Church of England is • the most excellent, and the most Apostolical, and that there is

nothing of defect in it;' and so long as the multitude of their benefices, and the great honour they are in in the world, blinds their judgment, there being no likelihood nor hopes, that those who are raised so high, and that live in honour and abundance, richly and fatly, (unless they will imitate good Dr. Floyd, who bestows most of his Church-revenues on the poor,) will diminish any thing of their greatness, both as to their retinue or their kitchen, and will descend from high to low ; and that a Bishop,

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