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proceeded in this sedition upon the worst of Popish principles and practices; and that this godly league which was so much applauded by the people, was a combination of men acting over those traitorous, bloody and Jesuitical maxims of Mariana, Suarez, and Bellarmine, which all good people abhorred. When by the diligence of the King's enemies, and the security and treason of his pretended friends, who made it their business to persuade his Majesty that there was no DANGER, so long until there was no SAFETY,
a faction formed into councils and drawn up into armies ;-when he saw one kingdom acting in open rebellion, and another countenancing and inclining to it;-when he discovered a correspondence between the conclave of Rome and the Cardinal of France, between the King of France and the rebels of Scotland, between the leaders of the Scottish sedia tion and the agents of the English faction, (one Pickering, Laurence, Hampden, Fines, &c. being observed then to pass to and fro between the English and the Scottish Brethren,) and saw letters signed with the names (though as some of them alleged since, without the consent) of the five members [of the House of Commons,] &c. ;—when the government in church and state was altered, the King's ships, magazines, revenue, forts, and faithful servants were seized on ; the orders of state and the worship of God were affronted by a barbarous multitude, that, with sticks, stools, and such other instruments of fury as were present, disturbed all religious and civil conventions ; and the King's agents, Hamilton, Traquair and Roxborough, (pleased, no doubt, with the commotions they at first raised, and by new, though secret, seed of discontents improved,) increased the tumults by a faint opposition, which they might have allayed by vigorous punishments,
* This is one of the crimes which were alleged, by one of our old historians, against the Duke of Hamilton : “For interceding for Loudon, and hindering Montrose, so as to make the king believe that the Scots would not invade England, till he himself writes that they were on the borders.' Yet, by a Providence which one calls digitus Dei, (after great overtures of money and of discoveries, to save his life,) he was in 1619 Leheaded at Westminster, for the king, by that party whom he was thought to serve against the king.” Wheu the king heard that he led the Scots army, (see page 34%,) for which he suffered, his majesty said, “ Nay, if he leads them, there is no good to be done for me."
He was without doubt a very dangerous man in such a Court as that of Charles the First, whose letters he was accused of taking out of his pockets and of divulging ihe king's secrets to his enemies. Some of the unjust odiuin which was bestowed on Archbishop. Laud and his royal in aster, is well described by Dr. Heylin in the following passage:
“ Look on them (the Scotch] in the church, and we shall find many of that nation beneficed and preserred in all parts of this country; and, of all these, scarce one in ten who did not cordially espouse and promote their cause amongst the people. They had beside no less assurance of the English Puritans than they had of their own; those in court (of which there was no very small number) being headed by the Earl of Holland, those in the country by bis brother, the Earl of Warwick; the first being aptly called in a letter of the Lord Conway to the Lord Archbishop, the spiritual and invisible head, the other, the visible and temporal head of the Puritan faction. And, which was more than all the rest, they had the Marquis of Hamilton for their lord and patron, of so great a power about the King, such authority in the court of Eugland, such a powerful influence on the council of Scotland, and such a general command over all that nation, that bis pleasure amongst them passed for law, and his words for oracles; all matters of Grace and Favour ascribed to him, matters of HARSANESS or DiSTASTE to the King or Canterbury. To speak the matter in a word, he was grown of Scots in fact, though not of title ; his Majesty being locked ou by them as a cypher only, iu the arithmetic of State."
+ Some of the crude notions about civil government which this alteration suggested, in the minds of different conscientious individuals who wished
-all the declarations that were drawn in the King's name being contrived so as to overthrow his affairs ;-in a word, when he saw that the traitors were got into the King's bed-chamber, cabinets, pockets and bosom, *and, by false representation of things, had got time to consolidate their conspiracy, and that the King's concessions to their bold petition about the liturgy, the high-commission, the book of Canons, and the five articles of Perth,) were but encouragements to put up bolder ;-finding that force could obtain that which modesty and submission had never compassed, and imputing all kindness to the King's weakness rather than goodness ;his apprehensions in that affair were at Council-board, (Dec. 5, 1629,) against the King's indulgence to them : He voted, that
to discover some principle which might sanction their adherence to the usurped government, are thus summarily stated by Falkner, in bis Chris. tian Loyalty ;
“ In our late dreadful times of civil war, the whole management of things against the King, and the undertaking to alter and order public affairs without him, was a manifest anul practical disowning the King's supremacy. Some persons then who would be thought men of sense, did assert, that though the King was owned to be suPREME governour, yet the • SUPREMEST sovereign power was in the people.' Others declared, that the title of SUPREME GOVERNOUR was an honorary title given to the King, to please him instead of fuller power.' And in the issue, by a pretended act, it was called treason, to say, that the Commons, assembled in Parliament, were not the supreme authority of the nation. But there were also some who then affirmed, the whole body of the people to be superior to the Parliament, and that they might call them to an account.”
* “ By which the King was so observed and betrayed witbal, that as far as they could find his meaning by words, by signs and circumstauces, or the silent lauguage of a shrug, it was posted presently into Scotland, some of his bed-cbamber being grown so bold and saucy, that they used to ransack his pockets when he was in bed, to transcribe such letters as they found, and send the copies to their countrymen in the way of intelligence. A thing, so well known about the court, that the Archbishop of Canterbury in one of his letters, gave him this memento, that he should not trust his pockets with it." HeYLIN'S Life of Laud.
“ And here I might justly enough take occasion to lament the fate as well as admire the glory of puissant and great princes, whom a Syminel or Jack Straw, a Prefacer or dawbing historian niay expose to infinite hazards and disturbances. Though they govern their people with the mildness and clemency of guardian angels, yet they must not partake of their divine tranquillity; their character is not always their security, nor their bravery their protection. For, suppose them adorned with all royal qualifications, with the laws of generosity, punctilios of true honour, and all the niceties of jus. tice : grant that they ascend the royal throne with the gladsome shouts and acclamations of the people, and gaiu a diadem by iuberitance or desert. Yet they can only hold intelligence with the faces of men, but cannot spell out intrigues, and converse with inclinations. Due allegiance and hononir is all the tribute that subjects can defray, or they themselves can exact; and how shall they know but the most seemingly regular and plausible forms of speech may be nothing but a neat well-acted hypocrisy and a mere studied disguise ? Unnecessary offers and over-basty officiousness smell strong of interest and dark design ; how then can they tell, whether the most grave and submissive application be the free result of a good intention, or mere solemn flattery and artificial address ? Nay, how can they be assured, but their greatest enemies may be those of their own housebold? Whether they that are adopted into the secrecy of their bosoms, that depend on tbeir smiles, and sport themselves for a while in their warm beams, will help to guard the throne, or to shake it?” Commonwealth's Man Unmasked.
they were to be reduced by force, (being a people, as his Majes‘ty observed of them, lost by favours and won by punishments,) in
an offensive war that would put a period to all the troubles in 'five months, whereas a defensive war will linger many years.' Neither was he less careful of the church's doctrine than discia pline, forbidding the Primate's [Archbishop Usher] obtruding the Calvinists' school-points for Articles of faith; and, instead of the polemic Articles of the Church of Ireland, to receive the positive, plain and orthodox Articles of the Church of England; neither admitting high questions nor countenancing the men that promoted them, aiming at a religion that should make men serious rather than curious, honest rather than subtile ; and that men lived high, but did not talk so : Equally disliking the TRENT FAITH, consisting of canons, councils, fathers, &c. that would become a library rather than a catechism, and the Scots CONFEssions, consisting of such school-nicelies as would fill a man's large table-book and common-place, rather than his heart. Julius Cæsar said, other men's wives should not be loose, but his should not be suspected. And this great Lord advised the primate of Ireland, that as no clergyman should be in reality 'guilty of compliance with a schism, so should not he in ap
pearance,' adding, (when the Primate urged the dangers on all sides,) as Cæsar once said, “You are too old to fear, and I too
sickly'-A true saying, since, upon the opening of his body, it was found that he could not have lived, according to the course of nature, six months longer than he did by the malice of his enemies,-his own diseases having determined his life about the same period that the nation's distemper did. Philip the First of Spain said, he could not compass his design as long as Lerma lived ; nor the Scots theirs, as long as Strafford acts and with his own single worth bears up against the plot of three kingdoms, like Sceva, in the breach, with his single resolution duelling the whole conspiracy.".
The historian then gives an account of the conduct of King Charles under his accumulated sufferings: “ How tender his conscience ! that was resolved to do public penance, for consenting to the Earl of Strafford's death, (a deep sense of which action went with him to his grave,) and to the injuries done the church in England and Scotland. How careful his heart ! in that, when
the commissioners at the Isle of Wight urged him to allow the lesser catechism of the Assembly, 'that being (they said) but a small matter,' he said, Though it seem to you a small matter, yet I had rather part with the choicest flower in my crown, than permit your children to be corrupted in the least point of their religion.That prince who, besides the great examples he gave them, began his reign with the highest act of grace that he could, or any king did in the world ; I mean the granting of the petition of right, wherein he secured his people's estates from taxes that are not given in Parliament, and their lives, liberties and estates, from all proceedings not agreeable to law :* A king that permitted his chief favourite and counsellor, the Duke of Buckingham, whose greatest fault was his Majesty's favour, to satisfy the kingdom, both in Parliament and Star-chamber, in the way of a public process : And gave up Mainwaring and Sibthorpe, both as I take it) his chaplains, to answer for themselves in Parliament, saying, 'He that will preach more than he can prove, let him his faithful counsellors should assist him, and he not dare to own them as friends: That such a king should be abused to Parliaments by his servants, and to his people by Parliaments; should be first intreated out of his magazines, castles and whole militia, and then fought against with them ;* should be forced out of one town and shut out of another : That such a prince should see his whole court voted and dealt with as traitors ; his estate sequestered for delinquency ; bis clergy and church (which he was by oath obliged to defend and maintain in its due rights) ruined for keeping the fifth commandment, and [the doctrine contained in] Rom. xiii ; his churches turned to stables ; his loyal subjects murthered, plundered, banished, and he not able to help them, his laws and edicts overruled by I-know-not-what orders and ordinances ; his seals and great offices of state counterfeited ; all the costly ornaments of religion ruined and defaced ; learning, that was his honour and his care, trampled on by its and his old enemies, the ignorant.t-These are things that the world could
suffer: That a king that was and did so, as he was and did, should be first suspected and then opposed, should be rendered ridiculous abroad and odious at home, should easier persuade his foreign enemies to a peace, than his own subjects to contribute to a war, and that of their own advising and persuading : That the Scots should fight and he not dare to call them rebels ; and
* " The King at all times when there is no Parliament, and in Parliament, is assisted with the advice of the judges of the law, 12 in number; for England at least hath two sergeants when fewest, an attorney and solicitor, twelve masters of the chancery; his council of state consisting of some great prelates, and other great personages, versed in state attairs, when they are fewest, to the number of twelve. All these persous are always of great sub-. stance, which is not preserved but by the keeping of the law; the prelates versed in divine law, the other grandees in affairs of state and managery of government; the judges, king's sergeants, attorney, solicitor, and masters of the chancery, versed in law and customs of the realm ; all sworn to serve the King and his people justly and truly: The King is also sworn to observe the laws; and the judges have in their vath a clause, that they • shall do common right to the King's people, according to the established • laws, notwithstanding any con mand of the King to the contrary under the 'great seal, or otherwise. The people are safe by the laws in force, without any new. The law finding the Kings of this realm assisted with so many great men of conscience, honour, and skill in the rule of commonwealth, knuwledge of the laws, and bound by the high and holy bond of an oath upon the evangelists, settles among other powers upon ihe King, a power to refuse any bill agreed upon by both Houses, and power to pardon all offences, to pass any grants in his minority, not to be bound to any law to bis prejudice whereby be doth not biud himself, power of war and peace, coining of money, making all officers, &c. The law, for the reasons aforesaid, hath approved these powers to be unguestionable in the King, and all Kings have enjoyed them till the third of Nov. 1640.
« It will be said, “Notwithstanding all this fence about the laws, the laws • bave been violated, avd therefore the said powers must not hold : the two • Houses will remedy this.' The auswer to this is evident: There is no time past, nor time present, nor will there be time to come, so long as MEN inanage the law, but the laws will be broken more or less, as appears by the story of every age. All the pretended violations of this time were reme died by acts to which the King consented before his departure, 10 Jan. 1641. JENKINS's Law of the Land.
* “ For the considerations aforesaid the King's party adhered to him . The law of the land is their birth-right, their quide; no offence is committed where that is not violated. They found the commission of array warranted by the law; they found the King in this Parliameut to have quitted the ship-moucy, kuighthood-money, seven courts of justice, consented to a triennial Parliament, settled the forest bounds, took away the clerk of the market of the household, trusted the house with the navy, passed an act not to dissolve this Parliament without the Houses' assent. No people in the world so free, if they could have been content with Laws, OATHS, and REASONS ; and nothing more could or can be devised to secure us, neither hath been in any time. Notwithstanding all this, we found the Kiug driven from London by frequent tumults, that two thirds and more of the Lords had deserted that House for the same cause, and the greater part of the House of Commons left that House also for the same reason ; new men chosen in their places against law by the pretended warrant of a counterfeit seal, and in the King's name against his consent, levying war against him, and seizing his ports, forts, magazines and revenue, and converting them to his destruction, and the subversion of the law and land, laying taxes on the people, never beard of before in this land, devised new oaths to oppose forces raised by the King, nor to adhere to him but to thein in this war; which they call the negative oath, and the vow and covenant.
“ By several ways pever used in this kingdom, they have raised monies to foment this war, and especially to enrich some among them : namely, first, excise; secondly, contributions, thirdly, sequestrations; fourthly, fifth parts; fifthly, twentieth parts ; sixthly, neal-money; seventhly, sale of plundered goods ; eighthly, loans ; ninthly, benevolences ; tenthly, collections upon their fast-days; eleventhly, new impositions upon merchandizes ; twelfthly, guard, maintained upun the charge of private men; thirteenthly, fifty subsidies at one time; fourteenthly, compositions with such as they call delinquents; fifteenthly, sale of Bishops' lands, &c.
“ From the King's party means of subsistence are taken; before any indictment, their lauds are seized, their goods taken : the law allows a traitor or felon attainted necessaria sibi et familia suæ in victu et vestitu : where is the covenant? where is the petition of right? where is the liberty of the subject?” Ibid.
+ " Another way to advance the darling anti-monarchicaldesign is, by bringing the public schools and universities into disgrace: These are the dangerous
strong-holds of Antichrist, where principles of loyalty and passive doctrines 6 are sucked in with greediness :' and therefore it is held convenient to throw