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this powerful faction, had plunged his father in a war with the house of Austria, by which he was brought under the necessity of calling parliaments, and gave those parliaments the courage to dispute his actions. For though they promised to stand to him with their lives and fortunes, in prosecution of that war; yet when they had engaged him in it, they would not part with any money to defray that charge, till they had stripped him of the richest jewels in the regal diadem. But he was much more punished in the consequence of his own example in aiding those of Rochelle against their King, whereby he trained up his own subjects in the school of rebellion, and taught them to confederate themselves with the Scots and Dutch, to seize upon his forts and castles, invade the patrimony of the church, and to make use of his revenue against himself. To such misfortunes many Princes do reduce themselves, when either they engage themselves to maintain a party, or govern not their actions by the rules of justice; but are directed by self-ends, or swayed by the corrupt affections of untrusty minis. ters.*
“ The Presbyterian-Scots, and the Puritan-English, were not so much discouraged by the ill successes of their brethren in France and Germany, as animated by the prosperous fortunes of their friends ( the Calvinists] in Holland; who by rebellion were grown powerful; and by rapine, wealthy; and by the reputation
and tallest Cedars of the three nations ; blasted all its beauty and fruitfulness; brought its strength to decay, and its glory to reproach, and almost to desolation ; by such a career and deluge of wickedness and rebellion, as, by not being enough foreseen, or, in truth, suspected, could not be prevented.
• Dr. Heylin has been called, by his enemies," a favourer of absolute power," &c. Yet what writer of that age has pointed out with equal clearness the political errors of two sovereigns for whom he entertained the highest regard ? The state of the British Constitution must likewise be taken into the account, when we venture to object against some of the sentiments which are bere avowed. The well-defined jurisdiction and nicelybalanced power of the several branches of the legislature, now the boast of this country and the admiration of the civilized world,'had at tbat period no existence.
It is remarkable, that the English soldiers who had assisted the Dutch in the recovery of their liberty, and had garrisoned those fortified places in the Low Countries which this country retained as pledges for monies advanced, were almost without exception, after their return, republican in their political principles, and inclined on religious subjects to Presbyterianism or Independency: This partial feeling of alienation from the institutions of their own country, was not without its effects in the subsequent troubles. The generous interest too which had been industriously excited, and very properly cherished, in the sound part of the uation, in favour of the new republic, was one of the causes that operated in forming a taste for a more enlarged religious and civil freedom than had been previously enjoyed.-In our own days we have seen a similar instance in our neighbours of France, with this marked difference, however, that religion was one of the least considerations among both the parties into which that unhappy, country was divided. The King of France had sent his soldiers to fight the battles of the new American Republic; and some of those very inen lived long enough to carry arms in their native land, and assist in the establishment of their own Republic.
of their wealth and power, were able to avenge themselves on [the Arminians ] the opposite party. To whose felicities, if those in England did aspire, they were to entertain those counsels and pursue those courses by which the others had attained them ; that is to say, they were by secret practices to diminish the King's power and greatness, to draw the people to depend upon their directions, to dissolve all the ligaments of the former government; and either call in foreign forces, or form an army of their own to maintain their doings.† And this had been the business of the Puritan faction, since the death of Bancroft; when by the retirements of King James from all cares of Government, and the connivance or remissness of Archbishop Abbot, the reins were put into their hands. Which gave them time and opportunity to grow strong in parliaments, under pretence of standing for the subjects' property against the encroachments of the court, and for the preservation of the true religion against the practices of the Papists. By which two artifices, they first weakened the prerogative royal, to advance their own; and, by the diminution of the King's authority, endeavoured to erect the people's, whom they represented. And then they practised to asperse with the name of Papist all those who either join not with them in their Sabbathdoctrines, or would not captivate their judgments unto Calvin's dictates. (See pages 209, 266, 294.]
“ The party in both kingdoms being grown so strong that they were able to proceed from counsel unto execution, there wanted nothing but a fair occasion for putting themselves into a posture of defence; and from that posture, breaking out into open war.
But finding no occasion, they resolve to make one; and to begin their first embroilments upon the sending of the new Liturgy and book of Canons to the Kirk of Scotland. At Perth, in 1618 they had past five articles for introducing private Baptism, communicating of the sick, kneeling at the Communion, Episcopal Confirmation, and the observing of such ancient festivals as belonged immediately unto Christ: Yet when those articles were incorporated in the Common-prayer Book, they were beheld as innovations in the worship of God, and therefore not to be admitted in so pure and reformed a Church as that of Scotland. These were the hooks by which they drew the people to them, who never look on their superiors with a greater reverence, than when they see them active in the cause of religion; and willing, in appearance, to lose all which was dear unto them, whereby they might preserve the Gospel in its native purity. But it was rather gain than godliness, which
+ These were exactly the steps taken by the Calvinists in the United Provinces, under the guidance of that ambitious warrior Prince Maurice, the year prior to the meeting of the Synod of Dort; the most suitable preparation for which seemed to be a deep wound on the constitution then established.
brought the great men of the realm to espouse this quarrel; who, by the commission of surrenderies, (of which more elsewhere,) began to fear the losing of their tithes and superiorities, to which they could pretend no other title than plain usurpation. And on the other side, it was ambition, and not zeal, which inflamed the Presbyters; who had no other way to invade that power which was conferred upon the Bishops by Divine institution, and countenanced by many acts of Parliament in the reign of King James, than by embracing that oc casion to incense the people, to put the whole nation into tumult, and thereby to compel the Bishops and the regular Clergy to forsake the Kingdom. So the Genevians dealt before with their Bishop and Clergy, when the reforming-humour came first upon them: And what could they do less in Scotland, than follow the example of their mother-city?
“ These breakings-out in Scotland smoothed the way to the like in England, from which they had received encouragement, and presumed on succours. The English Pyritans had begun with libelling against the Bishops, as the Scots did against the King: For which, the authors and abettors had received some punishment; but such, as did rather reserve them for ensuing mischiefs, than make them sensible of their crimes, or reclaim them from it. So that upon the coming of the Liturgy and Book of Canons, the Scots were put into such heat that they disturbed the execution of the one by an open tumult, and ree fused obedience to the other by a wilful obstinacy.
“ These insolencies might have given the King a just cause to arm, when they were utterly unprovided of all such necessaries as might enable them to make the least show of a weak resistance. But the King deals more gently with them, negotiates for some fair accord of the present differences, and, in 1638, sends the Marquess of Hamilton as his chief Commissioner for the transacting of the same. By whose solicitation he revokes the Liturgy and the Book of Canons, suspends the Articles of Perth, and then rescinds all Acts of Parliament which confirmed the same ; submits the Bishops to the next General Assembly, as their competent judges ; and thereupon gives intimation of a General Assembly to be held at Glasgow, in which the point of church government was to be debated, and all bis condescensions enrolled and registered. And, which made most to tlieir advantage, he caused the Solemn League or Covenant to be imposed on all the subjects, and subscribed by them. Which in effect was to legitimate the rebellion, and countenance the combination with the face of authority.* But all this would not do his business, though it might do theirs. For they had so contrived the matter, that none were chosen to have voices in that Assembly, but
* See a Note from Grotius, page 216.
such as were sure unto the side, such as had formerly been una der the censures of the Church for their inconformity, and had refused to acknowledge the King's supremacy, or had declared their disaffections to Episcopal Government. And that the Bishops might have no encouragement to sit amongst them, they cite them to appear as criminal persons, libel against them in a scandalous and unchristian manner; and finally, make choice of Henderson, a seditious presbyter, to sit as moderator or chief president in it. And though upon the sense of their disobedience, the assembly was again dissolved by the King's proclamation ; yet they continued, as before, in contempt thereof. In which session they condemned the calling of Bishops, the articles of Perth, the Liturgy, and the Book of Canons, as inconsistent with the scripture, and the Kirk of Scotland. They proceed next to the rejecting of the five controverted points, which they called Arminianism : And finally, decreed a general subscription to be made to these constitutions. For not conforming whereunto, the Bishops, and a great part of the regular clergy, are expelled the country, although they had been animated unto that refusal, as well by the conscience of their duty, as by his Majesty's Proclamation which required it of them.
“ They could not hope that the King's lenity so abused, might not turn to fury; and therefore thought it was high time to put themselves into arms, to call back most of their old soldiers from the wars in Germany; and almost all their officers from such commands in the Netherlands ;* whom to maintain, they intercept the King's revenue, and the rents of the Bishops, and lay great taxes on the people, taking up arms and ammunition from the States United, 7 with whom they went on
* See Note page 310. + That a great sympathy should subsist between the Dutch and the Scotch at this crisis, will not seen wonderful to those who consider, that the ecclesiastical form of government in both countries was Presbyterian, and that the Canons of the Synod of Dort, and the subsequent severe measures of the States General, had rendered Calvinism completely triumphant in Holland. (See pages 226, 267.) The author of the Historical Essay upon the Loyalty of the Presbyterians, 1713, says: “The ecclesiastical iustitution of Presby. tery does provide such effcctual remedies against the usurpations and ambition of the clergy, and lays such foundations for the liberty of the subject in CHURCH MATTERS, that it naturally creates in people an aversion from all tyranny and oppression in the State also : Which hath always made it odions in the eyes of such princes as have endeavoured to stretch the prerogatives above the laws of the nation and liberties of the subjects."
The decided leaning of the Dutch towards the Puritans in their ambitious undertaking to suppress Arminianism and Episcopacy, was early displayed. G. J. Vossius makes the following mention of it in a leiter to Grotius, in 1012: “ The Puritanic war fills many persons in this country with anxiety. It is not difficult to learn, from the prayers that are offered up in public, to which party the affectious of the Dutch pastors are attracted. Some of them have no doubt, that God requires the work of Reiormation happily to proceed, • as it has auspiciously commenced, and the king's mind to be mollified. Though these sentiments manifest an accommodaiing spirit; yet the pastors
ticket, and long days of payment, for want of ready money for their satisfaction. But all this had not served their turn, if the King could have been persuaded to have given them battle, or suffered any part of that great army which he brought against them, to lay waste their country. Whose tenderness when they once perceived, and knew withal how many friends they had about him, they thought it would be no hard matter to obtain such a pacification as might secure them for the present from an absolute conquest, and give them opportunity to provide better for themselves in the time to come, upon the reputation of being able to divert or break such a puissant army. And so it proved in the event. For the King had no sooner retired his forces both by sea and land, and given his soldiers a license to return to their several houses, but the Scots presently protest against all the Articles of the Pacification, put harder pressures on the King's party, than before they suffered, keep all their officers in pay; by their messengers and letters, apply themselves to the French King for support and succours. By whom encouraged under-hand, and openly countenanced by some agents of the Cardinal Richelieu, who then governed all affairs in France, they enter into England with a puissant army, making their way to that invasion by some printed pamphlets, which they dispersed into all parts, thereby to colour their rebellions, and bewitch the people.
“And now  the English Presbyterians take the cou. rage to appear more publickly in the defence of the Scots and their proceedings, than they had done hitherto. A Parliament had been called on the 13th of April, for granting monies to maintain the war against the Scots. But the Commons were so backward in complying with the King's desires, that he found himself under the necessity of dissolving the Parliament, which else had blasted his design, and openly declared in favour of the public enemies. This puts the discontented rab
make it sufficiently evident, that nothing is more desirable to them, than for the king to be content with an empty title, and for novel doctrines to iriumph over those which can lay claim to antiquity." After stating this as the grand object of the Calvinistic combination, he briefly adverts to the differing ulterior views of the Independents and Presbyteriaus, which finally effected the overthrow of that oppression and anarchy which both parties bad contributed to introduce into the new Commonwealth.
* Tbe odium of this measure was, as usual, ascribed to Archbishop Laud; but with what degree of truth, the following statement from Lord Clarendon's Life will evince:
“ As soon as the House was up, be went over to Lambeth, to the Archbishop, whom he found walking in his garden; baving received a full account of all that had passed, from persons who had made more haste from the House. He appeared sad and full of thoughts; and calling the other to him, seemed willing to hear what he would say. He told him, that be * would pot trouble him with the relation of any thing that had passed, of which he presumed he had received a good account; that his business was only to inform him of his own fears and apprehensions, and the observa* tion he had made upou the discourses of some considerable men of the