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TIME CALCULATIONS AND EXPLANATIONS OF SIGNS AND ABBREVI

TIONS. All the calculations except the Moon's Phases, Tides and seasons are in me Jocal time. (See table for its conversion into Standard Time.) The Sun's rising setting is for the upper limb and corrected for refraction. The signs used an follows: ó conjunction or near approach, at which time a line from the y. Star through one will also pass through the other; 8. opposition or 180° from the su at which time the Superior Planets are the brightest; O quadrature or 90 from: Sun: 0. Sun; © Earth; 8. Mercury; 7. Venus; . Mars; 4. Jupiter; h. Satır 3, Uranus; Moon lowest: Moon highest; Moon generally; , Ascend Node; 8. Descending Node.

Per.-Perhelion, or nearest to Sun: opposed to Planets.
Aph.-Aphelion, or furthest from Sun; applied to Planets.
Per.---Perigee, or nearest to Earth; applied to the Moon.
So.-Southing, or Meridian Passage.

STANDARD TIME TABLE.
To obtain standard time, add or subtract the figures given to local time.
Standard Correc-

Standard Corte
City.

of
tion.
City.

of
Division. Minutes.

Division Mit:12 Albany, N. Y

Eastern

5 ILittle Rock, Ark. Central Austin, Texas.

Central

+ 31
Louisville, Ky

Central
Baltimore, Md.

Eastern

6
Lynchburg. Va.

Eastern
Baton Rouge, La. Central

Memphis, Tenn.

Central Bismarck, N. Dal Central

Milwaukee, Wis.

Central Boston, Mass..

Eastern

16
Mobile, Ala..

Central
Buffalo, N. Y.

Eastern - 16 Montgomery'. Ala. Central
Burlington,
lowa
Central

5

Nashville, Tenn.. Central Cairo, Ill...

Central

3 New Haven, Conn. Eastern Charleston, SC.

Eastern + 20 New Orleans, La. Central
Chicago,

Central
10 New York, N. Y.

Eastern
Cincinnati, Ohio

Central

29
Vorfolk, Va.

Eastern
Cleveland, Ohio

Central

Ogdensburg. N. Y Eastern
Columbia, S. C.
Eastern + 24 Omaha, Neb.

Central
Columbus, Ohio.

Central
28 Pensacola, Fla.

Central
Dayton, Obio

Central

23 Philadelphia, Pa. Eastern Denver, Col..

Mountain
Pittsburg, Pa.

Eastern
Des Moines, Iowa Central

+ 14
Portland, Me.

Eastern
Detroit, Mich...

Central

28 Providence, R, I. Eastern Dubuque, Iowa

Central

3
Quincy, Jl.

Central
Duluth, Minn..

Central
9 Raleigh, N. C.

Eastern
Erie,
Pa..

Central
39 Richmond, Va.

Eastern
Evansville, Ind.

Central

10 Rochester, N. Y. Eastern Ft Gibson, Cher. N. Central + 21 Rock Island. III.

Central Fort Smith, Ark.. Central + 19 Sali Francisco, Cal. Pacific Fort Wayne, Ind. Central

20 Santa Fe, N. M.

Mountain
Galena, Ill..

Central
2 Savannah. Ga..

Central
Galveston, Texas, Central

19 Shreveport, La.

Central Grand Haven. Mich. Central

15 Springfield, 11.

Central
Harrisburg,

Eastern
7 St. Joseph, Mo.

Central
Houston, Texas.

Central
21 St. Louis, Mo..

Central
Huntsville, Ala..

Central
12 St. Paul, Minn.

Central
Indianapolis, Ind.

Central

16 Superior City, Wis Central Jackson, Miss..

Central
1 Syracuse, N. Y.

Eastern
Jacksonville, Fla.. Central

33 Toledo, Ohio.

Central
Janesville, Wis.

Central
4 Trenton. N. J..

Eastern
Jefferson City, Mo.. Central

9 Utica, N." I.

Eastern Kansas City, Mo.. Central

19

Washington, D. C. Eastern Keokuk, lowa...

Central

6

Wheeling, W. Va. Eastern Knoxville, Tenn.. Central

24 Wilmington, Del.

Eastern La Crosse, Wis.

Central

5 Wilmington, N. C. Eastern Lawrence, Kan.

Central + 21

Yankton, S. Dak. Central Lexington, Ky

Central

23

TIME STANDARDS. The following is the table of times, based upon the meridian used by the Un States and Canada:

I Central Meridian.! Name of Time. Degree. From Greenwich.

Nearest Place, Intercolonial

60

4 hours west, About 318° east of Halifax, N. S. Eastern

75

5 hours west. Between New York and Philadelp? Central

6 hours west. St. Louis and New Orleans, Mountain

105

7 hours west. Denver, Col. Pacific

120

8 hours west. 12° east of Sacramento, Cal. Sitka

135

9 hours west. 14° east of Sitka, Alaska. Tahiti

150

10 hours west. 12° west of the island of Tahiti. Hawaiian

1713 10 b. 31 m. west. Near centre of Molokai,

| ++++1+++! | 1 + ! | +1++11++1++ 1 ++11+11++++++

Pa....

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STANDARD TIME!

Galveston
BELTS

GULI OF

MEXCO FAS 90

73 Map of the Standard Time Belts, 2 extremes being so slight as to be of no importance for ordinary purposes, except

the case of the Moon's rising, southing and setting, when 6m. for Pacific Coast Dints and 3m. for Mississippi River Valley region, including Chicago, etc., must be aded, or 2m. for each hour of longitude.

The heavy dotted lines show the arbitrary divisions of time in the United States. ho plus and minus marks on either side of the meridian lines show whether it is Lecessary to add to or subtract from the standard time of points east or west of hese lines to arrive at actual, or mean local, time. See table on page 4.

STANDARD TIME. For the convenience of the railroads and business in general a standard of time 28 established by mutual agreement in 1883, and it is by this method of calculation hat trains are now run and local time is regulated. In accordance with this system

United States, extending from 65° to 125° west longitude, is divided into four mne sections, as shown on the map. Inside of each of these sections standard time

uniform, and the time of each section differs from that next to it by exactly ne hour.

If the standard time correction for any place not enumerated in the table be esired proceed as follows: Locate the place, as any one can approximately on this nad

and then subdivide the hour space in which the place is until the distance in Ime (60m, = one space) from that meridian within whose bounds the place is located S apparent.

Then add or subtract the result to mean time as the siga at the top of he map indicates. Example: What will be the standard time of sun rise July i at Pend Yann, N. Y.7 The map does not give the lines of latitude and longitude, but Rost people can locate their own place in its respective State on the map with suffi Tant correctness.

By this means I locate Peon Yan at about one-eighth of the disCance

between the 75th and 30th meridians and within the Eastern time zone Thia 11 give 8m. to be added, or 4:31.

CHINESE CALENDAR The year 1907 corresponds nearly to the year 4604 of the Chinese era and is the 44th of the 76th cycle of 60 years. 1907.

1907. First month begins. February 13 Seventh month begins.

August 9 Second month begins..

*March 14. Eighth month begins. September Third month begins.

April 13
Ninth month begins.

*October Fourth month begins. May 12 Tenth month begins.

November Fifth month begins..

June 11 | Eleventh montb begins. •December Sixth month begins. July 101

1908

Twelfth month begins. January *30 days; all others 29 days.'

THE MEMBERS OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM.

Name.

Sun Mercury Venug Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune

(From sun, Siuereal Orbit

miilions period, loc., miles Diameter, Mass,
of miles. days. per sec. miles. Earth=1.

866,4001 331100
36.0 87.969 23 to 37 3,030 0.125
67.2 224.701

21.9 7,700 0.78
92.8 365.256

18.5
7,918

1.
141.5 686.95

15.0
4,230

0.107
483.31 4332.58

8.1 86,500 316.0 886.0! 10759.22

6.01 71,000 94.9 1781.9! 30086.82

4.21 31,900 14.7 2791.6 60181.11

3,41 34,8001 17.1

Volume, Density,
Earthol Earth=1

1310001
0.0501

2.23 0.92

0.86 1.00

1.00 0.152

0.72 1309

0.24 721

0.13 65

0.22 85

0.20

Dec.

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THE SUN'S COURSE THROUGH THE ZODIAC AND THE SEASONS. Sun

Washington mean time.
enters
Sign.Con.
D. H. M.

D. H. M.
(106) 22 0 37 p.m. Winter begins, and lasts 89 0 40 S. of Equator,
Jan'y (17) 20 11 14 p.m.
February 19

1 42 p.m.
E March 21 1 17 p.m. Spring begins, and lasts 92 20 10 N. of Equator.
9 April

21 1 (a.in, May

22

0 17 a.m. June

22

9 27 a.m. Summer begins, and lasts 93 14 35 N. of Equator. July

23

8 2 August 23

8 51 a.m. September 24

2 a.m.

Autumn begins, and lasts 89 18 34 S. of Equator,
October 24 8 35 a.m.
November

23

5 36 a.m.
I December 22

6 36 p.m.
Winter begins

Tropical year..365 5 59
Tire north of the Equator, 186d. 10b. 45m.
Time south of the Equator, 1780. 19h. 14m.

7d. 15h. 31m. longer north of the Equator than youth of tt This is due to the slower motion of the Earth (Sun's apparent motion) while in that portion of its orbit most distant from the Sun (aphelion). Hence in the summer onlls we are further from the Sun than in the winter time.

THE PLANETS. MORNING

STARS--WEST OF SUN. H-Just before inferior conjunction, INFERIOR PLANETS.

July 1, 1908. Mercury (), until February 2, March

SUPERIOR PLANETS, 13 to May 24, July 24 to September 6,

Mars (0), until March 9, and after November 14.

Jupiter (24), from July 16 to November Venus (9), until September 14.

Saturn (h), from March 9 to June 19. The planet Venus will present the

Uranus (), until April 3. Various phases, as shown on page 7, as Neptune (), from July 5 to October 9. follows:

EVENING STARS-EAST OF A--Fifteen days after superior conjunc

SUN.

INFERIOR PLANETS. tion, or September 29. B-At greatest elongation west, Febru

Mercury, from February 2 to March 18

May 24 to July 24, and September 6 ti C-When brightest as a morning star,

November 14. January 4.

Venus, after September 14. D-just after inferior conjunction, or

SUPERIOR PLANETS. July 10, 1908.

Mars, after March 9. E--Fifteen days before superior con- Jupiter, until July 16 and after Novem junction, August 31.

ber 5. F-At greatest elongation east, April Saturn, until March 9 and after June 19 26, 1908.

Uranus, after April 3. G--When brightest as an evening star, Neptune, until July 5 and after Oo May 29, 1908

tober 9.

ary 8.

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THE PLANETS (Continued). Mercury will be brightest February 20-28, setting shortly after the Sun; also August 18–28, rising shortly before the Sun.

Venue will be brightest as a morning star January 4, but will not get around on the other side of the Sun at her point of greatest brilliancy as an evening star until May 29, 1908, She will be at her greatest elongation (angular distance) west of the Sun, 46° 53', February 8. An opera glass or small telescope will

Toward bring out her phases, as shown in the an

the Sun. nexed cut. Her difference in apparent size

N or diameter is due to her varying distance from the Earth, according as she is between

Phases of
12s and the Sun or in the opposite portion of
her orbit. See the table following this divi. E
sion for her motion in her orbit; also that
of the other principal planets, page 8.

Venus.
MARS NEAREST THE EARTH,
The planet Mars will attract the atten-

S tion of the world this year because of the As seen in the

As seen in the fact that he will approach nearer to us than Morning.

Evening ne has been within the last fifteen years, or will be again in the following fifteen years. The reason for this will be understood by an inspection of the annexed figure. When the points C (Aphelion) in the Earth's orbit, and A (Perihelion) in Mars's orbit. come in line with the Sun, then the Earth and Mars will be the nearest possible. A moderately close approach to these conditions occurs every

fifteen years. This year, ori July 12, these planets will occupy the positions in their respective orbits E and F. On July 5 the Earth will be at C. or farthest from the Sun, and on September 26 Mars will be at A, or nearest to the Sun. It is apparent that there must be a point between A and C where these bodies are in line with the Sun, and where they will be nearest, and, as has been said, this occurs

at T and F. At such times Mars is some DE

30,000,000 miles nearer to us than when these conditions shown in the figure are reversed. with Mars at or near D and the Earth at or near B. While Mars will be mathcinati

cally brightest July 6, he will be by far the most conspicuous object in the stellar or planetary hosts für' weeks before and aftor that date, and will be most carefully watched and photographed at observatories. Comparisons of these with former photographs may disclose important (haukos.

Jupiter will not be at his brightest this year, but will be very bright in December, as he will attain his point of opposition to the Sun January 23, 1908.

Saturn will be brightest on September 17. He will then be in the last degrees of Aquarius and close to the Equinoctial Colure, or First Meridian of the iieavens, corresponding to the Meridian of Greenwich or Washington on the Earth.

Uranus will be brightest July 3 and Neptune January 2.

В.

ORBI

MARS ORBIT

RTHS

F

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CHURCH DAYS AND MOVABLE FEASTS.
Epiphany
Jan. 6 Ascension Thursday.

May 9 Conversion of St. Paul..

Jan. 255
Whit Sunday (Pentecost)

May 19
Septuagesima Sunday.
Jan. 27 Trinity Sunday.

May 26 Purification B. V. M.. .Jan. 2 Corpus Christi..

May 30 Sexagesima Sunday. Feb, 3 St. Barnabas.

June 11 Quinquagesima Sunday. Teb. 10 St. John the Baptist.

.June 24 Sbrove Tuesday.. Feb. 12 Saints Peter and Paul.

June 29 Ash Wednesday (Lent begins). Feb. 13 St. James..

July 21 St. Valentine. Feb. 14 Transfiguration

. Aug. 65 Quadragesima Sunday. Feb. 17 St. Bartholomew

Aug. 94 St. Matthias. Fco. * St. Matthew.

.Sept. 21 St David.

March 1 Michaelmas (St. John and all
Mid-Lent Sunday.
March 10 Angels)

Sept. 20
St. Patrick.
..March 17 St. Luke.

.Ort 18 Palm Sunday March 24 Saints Simon and Jude.

.Oct. 2 Annunciation (Lady Day).... March 25 All Saints' Day

Nor.

1 Good Friday. March 29 All Souls' Day

NCV. Baster Even. March 30 Thanksgiving Day

NOV. " Paster Sunday March 31 St. Andrew.

.Nov. 3 Low Sunday ....April 7 St. Thomas.

.Dec. 21 Yaundy Thursday .. April 12 Christmas Day (Wednesday).

Dec. 255 St. George. April 23 St. Stephen..

Dec. 26 St Mark.

April 25 St. John the Evangelist........ Dec. 27 Beints Phillip and James.

May
1 Holy Innocents..

.Dec. 28 Logation Sunday.

May 5

Month..

MERIDIAN PASSAGE, RISING AND SETTING OF THE PLANETS.
Washington mean time, (AI) P. m. figures are in black type)
VENUS

MARS
JUPITER

SATURN z

z

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States..
Southern

States....
Northern

Meridian.

States... Bouthern

June. July...

Rises
Sets.
Bets.

-Sets H MH MH MH MH MH MH MH MH MH MH MH January.

1 9 231 4 11 4 20 7491 2 21 2 37| 11 41 6 41 7 111 4 101 9 489 January 11) 971 48

7 33 2 10 2 2810 56 5 57 6 26 3 84 9 13,6 January

21] 8 59 3 434 4 7 18 1 59/ 2 19||10 12 5 13 5 42 2 58 8 38 & February 1 8 57 3 44 48

1 46 % 9 9 24 4 281 456 2 19 8 0 February

11 8 53 3 471 4 12 6 451 1 331 1 58 8421 3441 4 14 1 441 126 February

71 9 4 3 62 4 17 6 30 1 211 1 47 8 1 3 3 3 33 1 9 6 51 6 March.

11 9 10 3 571 4 21 6 17 1 11 1 38 7 30 2 32 3 21 12 41 625 6 March.

11 9 17 4 0 4 22 6 112 66 1 25 6 52 1 54 2 24 12 06 Ó OK March.

21 9 24 4 21 4 21 54412 411 1 10 6 15 1 17 147/11 32 April.

1

9 32 4 0 4 14 5 25 12 23 12 53 5 86 12 381 1 810 531 Invisib April. 11 9 37 3 57

5 5/12 1/12 35 5 2 12 0 12 3410 18 Rises April.

21 9 421 351 3 56 4 45 11 47112 15 4 29 11 27/11 57 943 3651 May

1 9 47 3 468 46 4 22/11 24/11 54 3 57/10 55 11 25 9 7 3 17 2 Мау.

11 9 521 3 401 3 35 3 56 10 58 11 26 3 25 10 22 10 51 8 32) 2 41 : May.

211 9 571 3 35 3 24 3 26 10 28 10 58 2 54 951 10 20 7 551 2 3 June.

1 10 4 3 301 3 15 2 481 9 52 10 25 2 201 9 16 9 44 7 15 1 23 1 Jano.

11/10 13 3 31 3 10 2 9 9 16 9 50 1 501 8 4519 13 6 38/12 4611! 21 10 23 3 34 3 8 1 241 8 339 8 1 201 8 151 843 6 0 12 71:

1 10 35 340 3 12 12 35 8 0 5th 12 501 7 46 8 12 5 21 11 32 11 July.

11/10 48 3 511 3 22 11 38 Sets. 12 20 7 141 742 4 42 10 5310 July

21 11 2 4 5 3 36/10 471 3 35 2 55 11 501 0 16th 4 2 10 13 10 August

1/11 17 4 26 4 0 9 55 2 371 1 5711 17| Invisible. 3 181 9 30 9 August.

11/11 29 4 431 4 20 8 14 2 2 1 1910 471 Rises. 2 37 8 491 % August. 21 11 39 S 11th 8 40 1 40 12 49 10 17 3 271 3 2 1 561 8 9 8 September 1/11 48\ Invisible. 8 8 12 53 12 20 9 43 2 55 2 30 1 9 7 22 Septenher. 11/11 561 Sets. 7 44 12 38 11 54 9 121 2 251 2 112 271 641 6 September 21/12 021 6 41 6 5 7 24 12 21 11 45 8 40 1 54 1 31 11 41 ó 17 October.

112 081 6 00 6 56 7 612 611 31 8 7 1 23 1 0 10 59 Sets. October.

11/12 15 5 555 45 6 50 11 53/11 23 7 34 12 50 12 29|10 17 4 8 4 October

21 12 231 5 521 5 37 6 35 11 43 11 16 7 0 12 17 11 58 9 361 3 27% November. 1 12 33 5 531 5 28 S 2011 34 11 10 6 22 11 43 11 22 8 50 2 41 November 11/12 45 5 541 5 28 6 6 11 25 1 5 5 46 11 8110 47 8 101 21! 1 November. 21 12 59 6 11 5 31 5 52 11 18 11 1 5 8 10 30 10 9 301 1 1 1 December, 1 1 141 6 14 5 42 5 39 11 11 10 57 4 301 953/ 9 32 651)12 421 December 11 1 29 6 29! 5 57 5 26 11 5 10 55 3 501 9 13 8 52 6 12 12 3 11 December 21 1 44 647 6 18 5 12 10 5810 51 3 & 8 301 8 9 5 34 1 21 11 December.... 131 157 76 421 4 58 10 50 10 46 2 261 7 487 26/1 4 57 10 45/10 CHRONOLOGICAL ERAS.

EMBER DAYS.

Wednesday, Friday and Saturday after The year 1907, which comprises the lat

First Sunday in Lent-February 20, ter part of the 131st and the beginning of and 23. the 1320 year of the independence of the

Pentecost-May 22, 24 and 25. United States of America, corresponds

September 14 September 18, 20 and 2 nearly to

December 13-December, 18, 20 and 21 The Manometan year 1325, which be- MAHOMETAN CALENDAR-A. M. 80 gins on February 14.

-1907 A, D. The year 5668 of the Jews, which be

The Mahometan year 1325 is the 5th sing on September 9, or at sunset Sep

the 44th cycle of 30 years, and contai tember 8,

355 days.

La The Chinese rear 4604, wbich begins

Year:
Month.

Begins. da February 13.

1324...11... Dul Kaeda (1906).Dec, 19 The year 7415-16 of the Byzantine Era,

1324...12... Dulhegge (1907)..Jan, 18 beginning September 1.

1325... 1... Muharrem

Feb. 14 The year 2219 of the Grecian Era, which

1325. 2... Saphar

March 16 began near the Vernal Equinox, B. C. 312.

1325...3...Rabia I...... April 14 The year 2567 of the Japanese Era.

1325...4...Rabia II.

. May 14

1325...5...Jomhadi I.. June 12 CHRONOLOGICAL CYCLES.

1325... 6...Jomhadi II.... July 12 Dominical Letter....

1325... 7...Rajeb

.Aug. 10 Epact (Moon's age, January 1).. 18 1325... S... Shaban

.Sept9 Lunar Cycle, or Golden Number...... 8

1325... 9...Ramadan*

......Oct. 8 Solar Cycle.

12 1325...10... Schawall .......Nov. Roman Indiction....................

1325...11... Dul Kaeda......Dec. Julian Period.

6620 1325...12...Dulhegge (1908). .Jan. Dionyalan Period.

236 1326... 1... Muharrem (1908), Feb. Jewish Lunar Cycle.....

*Fasting.

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