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PREFACE.

THE former editions of this History having met with such favor from the public that a new edition is demanded, opportunity has been given to make further additions. Biographical sketches of some of Maryland's prominent men have been added. New illustrations have been made, and it has been more thoroughly adapted to the uses of the class room. The portion that relates to the period of the civil war has been re-written, and care has been taken to make it a History of the State during that war. No attempt has been made, and it would be out of place if it were made, to give a history of the war; that belongs to the History of the United States.

The History of the Proprietary government, under which Maryland was established and grew, is full, for it is in that government that we find the germs of those principles of popular liberty that resulted in the Revolution; and it is in the free institutions founded under it that we recognize the school in which our fathers learned both the true objects of government, and their own rights as individuals.

There is perhaps no stimulus to worthy deeds, or at least to the preservation of self-respect, equal to that which is furnished in the legacy of a good name. That our youth should know how rich the History of Maryland is in all that can inspire noble emulation, is not only desirable in itself, but is the surest pledge that they will be animated to deeds worthy of their sires, and that, by "imitating the virtue, the valor, and the liberality of their forefathers,” they will hand down the State to posterity with untarnished lustre.

In the former editions, the hope was expressed that this little book might be instrumental in promoting this

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knowledge among the rising generation of the State. The adoption of this History as & text-book by the Public Schools of the City of Baltimore, and the subsequent adoption by the State Board of Education, and their recommendation of its use by all the Schools of the State, justify the hope expressed, and give assurance that it supplies the want so long felt.

With a view of meeting the requirements of the School Law of 1872, the Constitution of the State has been added. The importance of making this a subject of study in the common schools cannot be over estimated. As it is the duty of every man to take part in the political movements of the day, we trust, that our youth, will be thorougly instructed therein, so that when they come to act their part on the stage of life, they may be amply prepared to discharge the high and holy duties that necessarily devolve upon every free.

man.

The authorities consulted in this work are McMahon, McSherry, Irving, Bancroft, Bozman, and papers of Maryland Historical Society.

HENRY ONDERDONK. COLLEGE OF ST. JAMES.

September, 1877.

CONTENTS.

......17

CHAPTER III.-The CHARTER.

Powers granted by the Charter - Land and Churches

“ Hitherto Uncultivated ” Lands - Application of the

Term— Claiborne-Swedes and Dutch- Boundary Lines

by Charter

............................... .........21

CHAPTER IV.-EARLY SETTLEMENT OF MARYLAND.

Preparations--Leonard Calvert-Einbarkation—The “Ark”.

and the “Dove," and the “ Mayflower"-Arrival-Land.

ing-Exploration-Interview with Indians—Treaty with

them-Advantages enjoyed by other colonies—The Strik-

ing Features of this Colony

CHAPTER V.-CLAIBORNE's REBELLION.

Claiborne, the Evil Genius of the Colony-His Claim-Ex-

cites the Indians—Resorts to Violence-Flees to Virginia

Sent to England - First Legislative Assembly - Divi-

bion of Land ......

CHAPTER VI.-THE SECOND GENERAL ASSEMBLY.

Missionaries—Kent Island-New Hundred-New Code of

Laws–Trial of Smith-Claiborne's Efforts in England

Returns to Virginia-Conversion and Baptism of the Tayao

-Father White-Privileges of the Governor Extended..36

...24

....................................................

.....32

CHAPTER VII.-CLAIBORNE AND INGLE'S REBELLION.

Death of Calvert-Troubles in England—Insubordination of

Claiborne -- Calvert visits England - Indian Troubles

Ingle-Gov. Brent-Calvert's Return-Endeavors to obtain

Possession of Kent Island-Calvert com pelled to Flee-

Conduct of the Insurgents — Success of Parliamentary

Party-Calvert regains Possession-Death of Calvert.... 42

CHAPTER VIII.-LIBERTY OF CONSCIENCE.

New Guards to Liberty of Conscience-Oath of Office-Acts

of Assembly - Protection of Feelings - Who formed the

Assembly

........47

CHAPTER IX.-PURITAN SETTLEMENTS.

The Liberal Policy attracts Settlers—Richard Bennett and

bis Puritans—Chivalric Conduct of Marylanders-Influ.

ence of Puritans—Reduction of Virginia-Claiborne and

Bennett's Descent upon Maryland–The Proprietaryship

Abolished-Indian Troubles-Claiborne and Bennett's In.

vasion-Puritan Intolerance

........50

CHAPTER X.-RESTORATION OF THE PROPRIETARY.

Rebuke to Gov. Stone-Recovery of Records—Unsuccessful

Expedition to Providence-Barbarity of Puritans-Appeal

to Cromwell - Decision of the Board of Trade - Bennett

makes Terms-Fendall--The last of Claiborne....

............54

CHAPTER XI.-PEACE AND PROSPERITY.

Calm-Charles Calvert-Increase of Population-Planters-

Maryland Domestic Life-Slavery-Servants—Quakers-

Fox Land of the Sanctuary - Death of Proprietary

Fendall's Attempt at Rebellion - End of the Period of

Repose.........

.............................................58

CHAPTER XII.-STATE OF Society, to 1689.

Friendship of the Natives--Kind of Government–Trade-

Coin-Luxuries-Fruit-The Baltimore Bird-Tobacco

Travelling .....

.62

CHAPTER XIII.-REVOLUTION OF 1689.

James II, Banished-- William and Mary-Delay of Instruc-

tions - Protestant Association-John Coode--First Royal

Governor--Acts of Assembly--Lord Baltimore appeals to

the King--Removal of the Capital--Second Royal Gov.

-- Improvements -- Sickness - Effect of the Royal

Administrations

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CHAPTER XIV.-THE RESTORATION OF THE Province.

Death of Charles, Lord Baltimore--Province restored to his

Son--Undisturbed Tranquility-Policy towards Indians-

Establishment of Baltimore --- Fell's Point -- Commercial

Advantages--Elk Ridge Landing--Annapolis--Maryland

Gazette--Frederick--Georgetown—Death of Proprietary--

State of the Colony

.69

CHAPTER XV.-BOUNDARY DISPUTES.

Watkins' Point-Dispute with Pedo-Penn's Grant-Penn

Attacks the Charter-Baltimore out of Favor at Court-

The King is patron to Penn-His Expulsion-Settlement

Postponed – Mason and Dixon's Line Shrewdness of

Penn-Virginia Boundary ......

......... 74

CHAPTER XVI.-FREDERICK, LAST LORD OF BALTIMORE.

English and French War-Claims of each—Bold design of the

Governor of Canada-Maryland Stands Aloof-Opposition

to Arbitrary Demands-Dinwiddie's Perplexities–Mary-

land takes a part—Fort Cumberland-Acts of Assembly.78

CHAPTER XVII.-BRADDOCK'S DEFEAT.

Braddock's Arrival - Council at Alexandria - Braddock at

Frederick-Arrival of Franklin-Franklin's Suggestion

Braddock's Confidence- Franklin's Proposition - March

over the Mountains Baggage - Mutual Disgust- Brad.

dock rejects the Indians and backwoodsmen-Slow Move.

ments—The Contest the Defeat................ .... 81

CHAPTER XVIII.-FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR.

Terror and Desolation - Plantations laid Waste - Panic -

Expedition against Fort Duquesne-Grant's Bravado and

Defeat—Gallantry of Marylanders-Abandonment of the.

Fort by the French.................

CHAPTER XIX.—THE DAYS BEFORE THE REVOLUTION.

The Democratic and the Aristocratic Elements-Claims of

the two Houses—Peace-Debt-Condition of Maryland-

Influence of French War–The old Controversy Revived

Preparatory Steps to the Stamp Act.....

............94

CHAPTER XX.-STAMP Act.

Stamp Act Imposed- Maryland Assembly Prorogued— No

Stamps in Maryland - Protest of Assembly - Treatment

of Hood -- Acts of Assembly- Frederick County Court-

“Sons of Liberty"-Repeal of Stamp Act....................97

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