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1751-1755-FREDERICK, LAST LORD BALTIMORE-English and French War-Claims of each-Bold design of the Governor of Canada-Maryland stands aloof-Opposition to Arbitrary Demands — Dinwiddie's Perplexities-Maryland takes a part-Fort Cumberland-Acts of Assembly.
1. 1751, Frederick, last of the Lords Baltimore, became Proprietary of Maryland.
2. A contest was now approaching in which Maryland was deeply interested. It was the last war between the English and French, for dominion in the New World.
3. Immense regions in America were claimed by both nations, and each was eager to forestall the other by getting possession of them. The most desirable of these regions lay west of the Alleghany mountains.
4. The French claimed all this country by right of discovery, because in 1673, Father Marquette, and Joilet, of Quebec, French subjects, had passed down the Mississippi in a canoe, as far as Arkansas.
5. The English claimed all land west of the Alleghany mountains to the Mississippi. This claim was based upon a purchase that had been
Questions.-1. Who was the last Lord Baltimore? 2. What contest was now approaching? 3. What were the grounds of this contest? 4. What was the French claim? 5. What was the English?
made by commissioners from Pennsylvania, Maryland and Virginia, and the Six Nations. The Indians had a tradition that this land had been conquered by their forefathers.
6. Such were the foundations of claims which plunged two nations into a series of wars ending in a loss to England of a great part of her American possessions, and, to France of the whole.
7. In furtherance of the French claim, the governor of Canada conceived the bold design of constructing a chain of forts along the Mississippi and Ohio rivers, where the English had already established trading posts.
8. Virginia was chiefly interested in the controversy. Maryland became involved simply in selfdefence. The legislature of Maryland stood aloof, in spite of the commands of the crown, the remonstrances of the governor, and the entreaties of Virginia. They declared, however, their determination to resist foreign invasion, and contribute to the assistance of the neighboring colonies when they conceived their necessity required it..
9. Even in Virginia, which was so deeply interested in the controversy, the growing spirit of Republicanism led to an opposition to the arbitrary demands of the governor for means to carry
Questions.-7. What design did the governor of Canada conceive? 8. Who was chiefly interested in this controversy? How was Maryland drawn in? Why did she stand aloof at first? What did she declare? 9. What trouble was there in Virginia?
on the war against the French, when all efforts at a peaceful settlement had failed.
10. Governor Dinwiddie, of that colony, was sorely perplexed, and exclaimed, "There appears to me an infatuation in all the assemblies in this part of the world." He urged the home government to tax the colonies for the benefit of the common cause, independently of assemblies.
11. But the time was come when Maryland was compelled to take part in the war. The Virginia troops under Colonel Washington had been captured by the French and Indians, who, from Fort Duquesne, erected on the present site of Pittsburgh, poured their savage and plundering bands on the unprotected frontiers of Pennsylvania, Maryland and Virginia.
12. The Assembly at Annapolis, in 1754, voted supplies and assistance to the Virginians in their efforts to reduce this fort. Many of the people of the province had, before this, organized companies of rangers and frontier guards for the protection of the border settlements. A fort had been erected at Cumberland, far beyond the settlements, which served as a resting point in the expeditions undertaken against the French on the Ohio. In these expeditions the people of Maryland bore a
Questions.-10. What did Dinwiddie exclaim? What did he urge? 11. Why was Maryland now compelled to take a part? 12. What did the assembly vote? What had the people already done? Where had a fort been erected?
part. Governor Sharpe, of Maryland, was, by a royal commission, commander-in-chief of all the forces engaged against the French, on the Ohio.
13. On the 24th of December, 1754, the General Assembly of Maryland was again convened, and passed a law for the levying of troops for the ensuing campaign. In the session of February, 1755, they passed other laws providing for the energetic prosecution of the expedition which ended so disastrously for the whole country, known as Braddock's Defeat.
1755-1758-BRADDOCK'S DEFEAT-Braddock's ArrivalCouncil at Alexandria-Braddock at Frederick-Arrival of Franklin — Franklin's Suggestions-Braddock's Confidence-Franklin's Proposition- March over the Mountains-Baggage-Mutual Disgust--Braddock rejects the Indians and Backwoodsmen--Slow Movements --The Contest--The Defeat.
1. Although the expedition which resulted in Braddock's defeat belongs more properly to the history of Virginia, yet as the disaster involved
Questions.-12. Who was commander-in-chief of all the forces ? 13. When did the assembly meet? What act did they pass?
serious consequences to Maryland, and the story is one of peculiar interest, it calls for more than passing notice.
2. Early in the year, Gen. Braddock, at the head of a strong body of troops, embarked for the colonies. On his arrival at Alexandria, a council of colonial governors was summoned to meet him at Annapolis, on the 3d of April. Gen. Braddock, Gov. Dinwiddie, and Commodore Keppel, arrived at Annapolis, where they were shortly. after joined by the governors of Massachusetts, New York and Pennsylvania.
3. The place of meeting having been changed, these gentlemen, together with Gov. Sharpe, of Maryland, proceeded to the General's head-quarters at Alexandria.
4. In the council three expeditions were determined on the first, against Fort Duquesue, under Braddock himself, reinforced by the Maryland and Virginia levies; the second, against Niagara and Fort Frontignac; and the third, against Crown Point.
5. Gov. Sharpe immediately proceeded to Frederick, where a portion of the army was already quartered. He was joined here by Gen. Braddock, who had left Alexandria, on the 20th of April. Braddock intended to remain at Frederick, until
Questions.-2. When did Braddock embark for the colonies? What council was held? 3. Where did they adjourn to? 4. What expeditions were determined upon? 5. What delayed Braddock?