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1695, a public post was established; the route extended from the Potomac, through Annapolis, to Philadelphia. The system, in some of its features, was well suited to the condition of the province.

14. Under the royal government, the population did not increase as rapidly as formerly. Three principal causes operated to check immigration, namely, universal toleration had ceased; lands

l were no longer given as a bounty to the immigrants; and, the fluctuations in the tobacco trade. To add to these misfortunes, a destructive disease made its appearance among the stock of the farmers and planters; and, two years later, a violent and raging mortality made its appearance among the people of Charles county.

15. During the administration of the royal governors, the hand of the crown seemed to weigh like an incubus upon the prosperity of Maryland. For a quarter of a century the limits of the settlements were but little advanced; the population but feebly increased, and the foreign and domestic resources, at best, remained stationary. Religious liberty had taken flight, and with the overthrow of equal toleration, and the establishment of a church, was destroyed that true civil freedom which cannot exist for the body while the spirit is enchained.

Questions.—14. What is said of the population under the roya! government? What were the causes? 15. What is said of the prosperity under the royal governors ?

CHARLES CALVERT.

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CHAPTER XIV.

1714-1751 – THE RESTORATION OF THE PROVINCE

Death of Charles, Lord Baltimore-Province restored to his Son- Undisturbed Tranquillity- Policy towards IndiansEstablishment of Baltimore--Fell's PointCommercial Advantages-Elk Ridge Landing--Annapolis - Maryland Gazette Frederick GeorgetownDeath of Proprietary-State of the Colony.

CITY

BALTIMORE.

INCORPORATED

1797

1. Charles, Lord Baltimore, expired on the 20th of February, 1714, at the age of eighty-four years. His title and his province descended to his son, Benedict Leonard Calvert, who, having abandoned the faith of his father, and become

a Protestant, secured SEAL OF BALTINORE. the favor of the king, and had the government of the province restored to him. He only lived long enough, however, to be acknowledged Lord Proprietary.

2. By his death in 1715, the province fell to his infant son, Charles, who was educated in the Pro

Questions. 1. Who succeeded Charles, Lord Baltimore? What is said of him? 2. How long did he live, and who succeeded him?

testant religion. Governor Hart, the last royal governor, was continued in office as representative of the Proprietary. The restoration produced but little change in the province. The Roman Catholics were still disfranchised.

3. For a period of forty years the colony enjoyed almost undisturbed tranquillity. It had no greater troubles than contests between the gove ernor and council, who formed the upper house, and the delegates of the people, in the lower house. These struggles were the germ of that mighty contest in which the liberties of the people were finally secured.

4. From the earliest, period, the government of the colony had pursued a peaceful and just policy towards the Indians. In 1698, an act was passed to assure to the Nanticokes, the possession of their lands in Dorchester county.

5. Thus even the warlike Nanticokes had yielded to the mild influence of the colonial government, and became peaceful dwellers under its protection. But the red man cannot long remain in the vicinity of the white, and by degrees they began to remove.

6. In 1729, Baltimore, the great emporium of the State, was first laid out on the lands of Charles Carroll, in sixty lots of one acre each, by commis.

Puestions.-3. What was the condition of the colony? What is said of these struggles? 4. What act had been passed in 1698? 6. What is said of the Indians? 6. When was Baltimore founded? On whose land ?

ELK RIDGE LANDING.

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sioners appointed by the legislature. The northwestern corner lot was that whereon St. Paul's church now stands. In 1732, it was increased by an addition of ten acres east of the falls, commencing where the Gay street bridge now stands. In 1763, Edward Fell laid off a further portion called Fell's Point, which, in the year 1773, was added to Baltimore Town. In 1781, he laid off “the addition to Fell's Point,” which was annexed to Baltimore, by act of assembly of that year.

7. The commercial advantages possessed by Baltimore Town soon drew population, and the town grew and flourished. For a time, the town of Elk Ridge Landing contended with it for the commerce of the northern part of the colony, and was a great tobacco market. But the superior advantages of Baltimore soon enabled it to surpass its rival.*

* The original lines of Baltimore were as follows: From near the corner of Pratt and Light streets to McClellan's alley, from that point to the corner of St. Paul and Saratoga streets. thence east to about 165 feet from Gay street, including Fish street; thence south to near where Water street is, and following the line of that crooked streetwhich was the line of the low lands—back to the beginning. Old Town was so-called from an early settlement made by Coles, or Gorsuch, or Jones.

It was not originally a part of Baltimore Town, but was called Jones' Town. It consisted of ten acres, and was laid

Questions.—6. When increased and by what addition ? 7. What is said of the advantages of its position ? What rival had it?

8. At Elk Ridge Landing, where now there is a meadow and a marsh, rather than the channel of a river, vessels came for their cargoes of tobacco The greater part of this tobacco was still housed upon the plantations on which it was raised, awaiting notice of shipment.

9. When this notice arrived, there was great stir and activity. The huge and stout hogsheads were fitted up with rough shafts, fastened to cleats, in which revolved the strong axle-like pins inserted in either end. . A single horse was attached, and the driver, walking by the side, began to "roll" his tobacco to the little port. Some of the roads near Baltimore, leading to Elk Ridge Landing are still known as “Rolling roads."

10. Annapolis, which had been erected into a port of entry in 1683, continued to increase after it had been made the seat of government. In 1745, the earliest, and, for a long time, the only newspaper in the colony was issued. It was called the "Maryland Gazette," and was continued, by the descendants of the founder, until 1839. '. The early wealth of Annapolis is still shewn in the

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off in twenty lots in the year 1732. It was bounded by Pitt, now East Fayette street, by Jones' Falls and by French street. It was connected with Baltimore by the Gay street bridge in 1732, but was not made part of Baltimore until 1745.

Questions.—8. Describe Elk Ridge Landing? 9. The Rolling of tobacco ? 10. What is said of Annapolis ?

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