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friendly to them. They were also hostile to the Yo-a-comicos, and were, therefore, sometimes troublesome.

4. The government was essentially a monarchy. But no powers were ever exercised with more entire reference to the interest and welfare of the governed than this power was by the Proprietary.

5. Trade was conducted through the medium of barter, or the exchange of one commodity for another. There was, however, a silver coin issued by the Proprietary, of various denominations, having Lord Baltimore's arms on one side, with the motto, Crescite et multiplicamini on the other. Probably very little of this coin was used, tobacco being the most common currency of the province, one pound of it, in 1650, being about three-pence English money ; in 1732 it was made a legal tender at one penny a pound.

6. The luxuries of the present day were un. • known. Our forefathers sat upon stools and forms,

and dined without forks ; but they paid especial attention to the furniture of their bed chamber. Tea and coffee were scarcely used, but cider and sack were freely drunk.

7. Great attention was paid to fruit. The waters of the bay furnished the greatest of delicacicsoysters and canvas-back duck.

The oriole was

Questions.—4. Of what kind was the government? 5. llow wag traile conducted? What coin was issued ? 6. What is said of luxuries? 7. Fruit? Chesapeake bay? Baltimore Bird ?

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common, and the settlers were so pleased with its plumage_black and yellow-corresponding with those upon the arms of the Calverts, that they called it the Baltimore Bird.

8. Tobacco was the greatest product of the province. It is said, “that a hundred sail of ships" traced in this article. Indian corn and the sweet potato were also cultivated at an early period. The words potato, pone and homony are derived from tbe Iudians.

9. There was no regular post. Travelling was performed on horseback by land, and in canoes or other small boats by water. Letters were sent by private hand.

CHAPTER XIII.

REVOLUTION OF 1689--James II Banished-William and

Mary-Delay of Instructions--Protestant Association —John CoodeFirst Royal Governor-Acts of Assembly-Lord Baltimore Appeals to the King-Removal of the CapitalSecond Royal Governor - Improvements Efforts of the Royal Administration.

1. In England, James II, who had succeeded Charles II, had been banished, and was succeeded by William and Mary.

2. Upon their accession, the Lord Proprietary immediately gave in his adherence, and sent in

Questions.-8. Tobacco, &c.? 9. Travelling? 1. By whom wou James II succeeded? 2. What did the proprietary do?

WILLIAM AND MARY.

65

structions to have them proclaimed in the province. Unfortunately, these instructions did not arrive in due time, and, even after the new sovereigns hud been acknowledged by the neighboring colonies, the authorities hesitated to act until they should receive instructions from the Proprietary.

3 The ill-will of the people had been excited against the deputies, and every measure they adopted was looked upon with suspicion. The public arms were collected, in fear of a general outbreak. At length the unfortunate delay to proclaim William and Mary brought affairs to a crisis.

4. In April, 1689, “An association in arms for the defence of the Protestant religion, and for asserting the rights of King William and Queen Mary to the province of Maryland and all the English Dominions was formed. John Coode, who had already been once guilty of treason and rebellion, was at the bead of this association.

5. It was, perhaps, unfortunate for this association that it was identified with a person of such an exceptionable character. He was a man of loose morals and desperate habits. Assuming to be in holy orders, he was yet so depraved that he was presented by the grand jury for atheisin and blasphemy. To escape trial he fled to Virginia, whence he would frequently come back, declaring

Questions.-2. Why did not the authorities act? 3. What is said in this section? 4. What association was formed? Who was at the head of it? 5. What was the character of this man?

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as he had overthrown one government he would pull down another.

6. The king sustained the acts of a revolution, which was, in fact, only a continuation of that which placed him on the throne, and, in 1691, appointed Sir Lionel Copley, first royal governor of the province.

7. Early in 1692, Governor Copley summoned a General Assembly, which met at St. Mary's. — Their first act was the recognition of William and Mary; their next, the overthrow of equal toleration, and the establishment of the Church of England as the State Church of Maryland.

8. The legislature proceeded to pass oppressive acts against all who differed from the creed of the dominant party. These laws, in time, were modified or repealed, though some of the obnoxious restrictions continued until the revolution of 1776, when religious liberty was the acknowledged right of all.

9. They next endeavored to deprive the Proprietary of his personal rights in the province. Lord Baltimore appealed to the king, who issued a royal letter authorizing him to collect his reve. nues. The convention refused to submit, and threw his agents into prison. The king and council, however, having expressly decided in favor of Lord

Questions.—6. What is said of the king? 7. What was the first act of the Assembly? 8. What further acts did the legislature pass? 9. What did they attempt? What did Lord Baltimore do? aud what the convention?

OPPRESSIVE LAWS.

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Baltimore, the assembly at length yielded, as far as port and tonnage duties were concerned.

10. From the Proprietary the assembly turned to old St. Mary's. In that part of the province his firmest supporters dwelt, and the assembly determined to punish them by removing the seat of government from their capital. Another weighty reason was that the colony had now so extended that St. Mary's was inconveniently situated for those who had business before the legislature and the courts.

11. As the very existence of the town depended upon its being the seat of government, it is natural that its inhabitants prayed and protested against this change. Their prayers and protests were in vain. The seat of government was removed to New Providence, which thenceforth was called Annapolis.

12. Sir Lionel Copley was succeeded by Francis Nicholson, who was principally active in securing the success of the established Church, and promoting the cause of Education. He was commissioned in 1691, but did not enter upon his duties until 1694, the government being administered by Sir Edmond Andros, after the death of Copley, till the arrival of his successor.

13. During the administration of Nicholson, several beneficial improvements were effected. In

Questions.—10. What was the next step of the assembly? 11. Why did the town of St. Mary's protest? Where was the capital removed to ? 12. By whom was Copley succeeded? 13. What took place during the administration of Nicholson ?

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