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gence of Fendall's rebellion. Fendall gave himself up, and was respited. He abused this clemency to excite new trouble in after days.
14. Claiborne, “the evil genius of Maryland," the arch-disturber of its peace, returned into Virginia, where he still continued a man of some distinction. He met his death in battle with the Indians, and was buried in the field. His life and death were those of an heroic adventurer.
1660_1689 – PEACE AND PROSPERITY Calm - Charles
Calvert- Increase of Population--Planters-Marylond Domestic Life - Slavery - Servants —Quakers-FoxLand of the Sanctuary - Death of the ProprietaryFendall's Attempt at Rebellion - End of the Period of Repose.
1. After these storms a calm of thirty years succeeded. The colony, again under a brother of its founder, baving proclaimed Charles II, king, set about to remedy the consequences of the late troubles.
2. In 1662, Philip Calvert was superseded by Hon. Charles Calvert, son of the Lord Proprietary.
Questions.—13. What of Fendall ? 14. What became of Clatborne ? 1. What is said in this section ? 2. Who superseded Philip Calvert ?
When Philip Calvert assumed the government of the colony, in 1660, the number of inhabitants was twelve thousand; in five years, it had increased to fifteen thousand, and in 1671, to twenty thousand.
3. The number of counties was increased. But as yet there were few towns. St. Mary's contained little more than sixty houses. The people were planters and farmers. There were no influences to draw people together in towns, and the people, free from the excitement, turmoil and ambition of commercial communities, laid the foundation of that peculiar domestic life, which has always been the characteristic and charm of Maryland.
4. The first evidence of slavery in Maryland, is to be found in the laws relating to masters and slaves, passed during this period of repose. Slavery was probably introduced from Virginia.*
5. There was another species of servant in the colony, of whom mention is frequently made. They were white emigrants, who wanting the means to emigrate, apprenticed their time, for a certain period, to those who would bear that expense.
*As the Puritans of New England were the first to engage in the traffic of slaves after the trade was re-opened in South Carolina, and the very last to abandon it, it is not impossi. ble that Maryland is indebted for the existence of slavery in her borders to the Puritans she received from Virginia.
Questions.—3. What was the number of inhabitants ? What is said of domestic life? 4. First evidence of slavery? 5. What other species of servant was there?
This was made a matter of trade. The captain of a ship would bring out a party of emigrants, taking in lieu of passage money an indenture, whereby the emigrant agreed to serve for a given time.
6. On the arrival of such emigrants, their unexpired time was sold to the highest bidder. The price was paid in tobacco, which was the currency of the province.
7. The Quakers or Friends here found peace and refuge. In Massachusetts, the law had proscribed them as a “cursed sect.” They were to be imprisoned “ without bail," and "sentenced to banishment upon pain of death." They were to be maimed, whipped, and, “man or woman, to have their tongnes bored through with a red hot iron."
8. In Maryland, on the contrary, George Fox, their zealous leader, tarried and preached. Indian chiefs and their subjects, the legislature and the council, persons of quality, justices of the peace, and the heir of the Proprietary himself, came to listen to his preaching. To the Friends indeed was Maryland THE LAND OF THE SANCTUARY.Whatever difficulty they had with the government, it arose from their refusal to perform military duty, and their rejection of oaths, but even of these requirements they were subsequently relieved.
Questions.—7. What is said of the Quakers? How were they treated in Massachusetts ? & What is said of the preaching of
9. Charles Calvert continued to act as governor until the death of his father, November 30th, 1675, by which event he became himself the Lord Proprietary. Having revised and reformed the laws, and believing his presence no longer necessary the province, he appointed Thomas Notely to act as deputy governor in the name of his infant son, Cecil Calvert, and returned to England.
10. While in Europe, he met and refuted the charges that had been made against his colony. He then, in 1680, returned to his province and assumed the government.
11. In the following year, Fendall, in conjunction with a restless spirit, named Coode, attempted to excite a rebellion among the people; they failed and were arrested, tried and convicted, but escaped
, , with their lives again to disturb the peace of the province.
12. After governing the colony for four years, the Proprietary, thinking it necessary for him to return to England, appointed a council to direct the affairs of the colony, and departed from the province, never to return.
13. Events in Maryland were bringing to a close the long period of repose and toleration enjoyed under the mild administration of the second
Questions.-9. How long did Charles Calvert govern the colony? What did he do upon the death of his father ? 10. What did he in England ? 11. What is said of Fendall ? 12. How long did Charles Calvert govern in person after he was proprietary? 13. What is said in this section ?
Lord Proprietary. Dissensions, excited by the troubles in the mother country, and pourished by a sympathising spirit of intolerance in the colony, at length broke out in open revolution.
STATE OF SOCIETY, to 1689–Friendship of the Natives
Kind of Government–Trade-Coin--Luxuries-Fruit -The Baltimore Bird-Tobacco-- Travelling.
1. Up to this time, the aborigines and the colonists were living side by side upon terms of the greatest friendship. The Chesapeakes had disappeared from Maryland, and the remnant of their tribe was seated on the banks of the Elizabeth river, in Virginia, under the dominion of the Pow. hatans.
2. The Yo-a-comicos lived upon the St. Mary's, and, as has been mentioned, were almost domesticated with the settlers.
3. The Susquehannocks, at the head of the Chesapeake bay, were at some distance from the early settlers, and less under the influence of the whites than the Yo-a-comicos, and were less
Questions.—1. What is said of the Indians ? 2. Or Yo-a-comicos? 3. Or the Susquehannocks?