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cause of the king at home declined, the friends and adherents of Claiborne, and the advocates of the Parliament considered this a favorable moment to throw off the authority of the Proprietary.

2. Uncertain what course to pursue, and anxious to view in person the tendency of affairs in the mother country, Governor Calvert determined to visit England and consult his brother, Lord Baltimore. He set sail in the early part of the year 1643. During his absence the spirit of disaffection increased, and at length broke out in Clai. borne and Ingle's rebellion.

3. The Indians, either urged by the malcontents, or perceiving the internal divisions of the settlers, again began to be troublesome. The Susquehannas were particularly so, having, contrary to the laws of nations, been furnished with fire-arms by the Swedes and Dutch.

4. Whilst the Indians were threatening the colony on the north, Captain Richard Ingle, an associate of Claiborne, a pirate and a rebel, was hovering about the settlement with an armed ship, holding communication with the disaffected, and endeavoring to strengthen their numbers. Governor Brent, who was acting in the absence of

Questions.-1. What did the advocates of Parliament think? 2. Why did Calvert return to England? What happened during his absence? 3. What is said of the Indians ? Who furnished them with arms? 4. Who was Ingle, and what was he doing? Who acted in the absence of Calvert?

Gov. Calvert, issued a proclamation ordering his arrest and the seizure of his ship. Ingle was taken, but soon effected bis escape, to join Clai. borne and concoct new trouble for the colony.

5. On his return in 1644, Calvert found the province in great disorder, the public officers at variance, the Indians encroaching, the pirate Ingle at large, his enemy, Claiborne, in arms, and once more in possession of Kent Island.

6. Calvert endeavored to obtain possession of Kent Island, but his efforts failed ; and the rebels, emboldened by success, and certain of assistance from their friends, invaded the Western shore, and, after a short struggle, obtained complete possession of the province. Governor Calvert was compelled to fly to Virginia.

7. The conquerors immediately commenced a system of outrage and oppression upon those who had adhered to his fortunes, and had supported the laws of the colony. Many were robbed of all their possessions, and banished from the province. Even the missionaries, among whom was Father White, called the apostle of Maryland, were seized and sent in chains to England. The provincial records were mutilated and destroyed, so that it is almost impossible to get accurate accounts of their

Questions.-4. What proclamation did he issue ? 5. Describe the condition of the colony on the return of Calvert ? 6. What did Calvert endeavor to do? What, the rebels? 7. How insurgents act? Whom did they seize?

CALVERT DOES NOT YIELD.

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proceedings, or of the struggle which followed their success.

8. The parliamentary party being now completely in the ascendant, and having the king in their hands, Claiborne and Ingle acted in the name of parliament. Their success seemed a death-blow to the supremacy of Lord Baltimore in the province. He felt this, and accordingly, in 1646, directed his brother, the governor, to collect and take charge of his private property, and save what he could from the wreck of his fortunes, apparently abandoning the hope of recovering his rights.

9. Leonard Calvert was not willing to yield.— The people of Virginia were loyal to their sovereign, and he believed that the majority of the people of Maryland were attached to the mild and parental sway of the Calverts. In Virginia he found not only a safe refuge, but also the means for a final effort to subdue the rebels. The outrage, oppression and misrule of the usurpers in Maryland, soon prepared the people to sustain him in the attempt.

10. Having completed his arrangements, at the close of the year 1646, he crossed the Potomac with a military force, surprised the enemy, entered St. Mary's in triumph, and once more took possession of the government.

Questions.-8. In whose name did Claiborne act? What did Lord Baltimore direct? 9. Why did not Calvert yield? What did he find in Virginia? 10. When did he return, and with what success ?

11. Kent Island, the stronghold of the malcon. tents, did not submit so easily as the rest of the province. It was found necessary to declare martial law; to cut off all communications from without, and send an expedition under the governor himself, into the island before the rebels could be reduced once more under the authority of the Proprietary. The governor having secured the tranquillity of the island, granted an amnesty to most of the offenders and returned to St. Mary's.

12 Just as order was once more restored to the colony, and renewed prosperity began to dawn upon the settlers, they met with a heavy blow in the death of their governor. Governor Calvert died, surrounded by his family and friends, on the 9th of June, 1647, having named Thomas Green his successor.

13. During the space of fourteen years he had guided the colony through the storms which had darkened around its infancy-he had devoted bis whole life and energies to its permanent establishment — with a disinterested self-devotion, he had striven in the wilderness for its glory and its prosperity: and it seemed as if, through a special providence of heaven, to reward his labors, a beam of sunshine had broken over the province as he was about to die, at peace with all, triumphant

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Questions.--11. What did he do on Kent Island ? 12. What mis. fortune befel the Colony? 13. What had been the character of Calvert's administration ?

LIBERTY OF CONSCIENCE.

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over the enemies of Maryland, full of honor, and enriched with the prayers and blessings of a rescued people. His character, public and private, was without stain, his abilities were undoubted, his government, kind and parental, and his memory was long cherished by the colonists with grateful recollection, He was indeed a great and good

man.

CHAPTER VIII.

LIBERTY OF CONSCIENCE New guards to Liberty of Con

science-Oath of Office--Acts of Assembly--Protection to Feelings~ Who formed the Assembly.

1. Lord Baltimore now perceived, that, while some concessions to the disaffected might be necessary to maintain his provinces, new guards were necessary to prevent the growing feeling of intolerance manifested by the insurgents, and which was tending to destroy the sanctuary he bad erected at the cost of so much care and treasure.

2. Therefore, in 1648, he appointed William Stone, governor of the province, and prescribed the famous oath of office, as a further guaranty for the continuance of liberty of conscience, and full

Questions.-1. What did Lord Baltimore now perceive? 2. Whom did he appoint governor? What oath did he prescribe to the governor ?

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