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4. During the night several rocket vessels and barges, with fourteen hundred men, supplied with scaling ladders, passed silently by the fort, and entered the Patapsco. Suddenly as they drew opposite the six gun battery, Lieut. Webster, its commander, opened upon them with terrible effect. The fort and ten gun battery, also poured in their fire. The havoc was dreadful. One of the barges was sunk, and the cries of the wounded and drowning, could be plainly heard upon the shore. The rest, having suffered a heavy loss, retreated to the feet.

5. Just previous to the bombardment, Francis S. Key, Esq., had, under a flag of truce, gone on board of the enemy's fleet, to obtain the release of a friend who had been taken captive. himself detained until after the bombardment. During the night he composed the national song, " THE STAR SPANGLED BANNER," descriptive of the scene which was passing, and of his own excited feelings.

6. Baffled by land and by water, the enemy determined to abandon the expedition. The troops were embarked on the 15th, and, on the 16th, the hostile fleet dropped down the Chesapeake, leaving the city filled with joy at her triumphant preservation, mingled with sorrow for the brave men who had died to defend her.

He was

Questions.-4. What was done during the night? How were they received ? 6. What national song was composed this night? 6. What is said in this section ?

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7. Early in the ensuing year, the war was closed. The treaty of peace was signed at Ghent on the 24th of December, 1814, and ratified by the United States, on 17th of February, 1815.


1815-1848 - REFORM - Internal Improvements - Chesa. peake and Ohio Canal - Rail Roads Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road Other Rail Roads - Colonization Society-Pecuniary Crisis- Mexican War.

1. The people of Maryland began now to turn their attention to the affairs of their own State. Baltimore had grown very rapidly and under the existing constitution, her representation in the legislature was not proportioned to her population.

2. By the system of that day, a minority of the people could determine the choice of the senate, the governor and council, and the legislature.

3. The senate was not chosen directly by the people, but by electors, two from each county, and the governor was appointed by the legislature; thus the influence of ten small counties, if brought to bear, could overpower that of the larger.

Questions.-1. What is said of Baltimore? 2. What of the sonato and governor? 3. How were they chosen?

three years.

4. After many years of fruitless efforts, a reform was effected.

The election of the governor was given to the people, and his term of office fixed for

The council was abolished, and a secretary of State provided. The senate was reorganized and was to be elected by the people.

5. The constitution of the house of delegates was materially altered, and the number of delegates was distributed more in accordance with the population of the several counties and towns.

6. In 1823, the subject of internal improvements became an absorbing theme in Maryland. The immense mineral resources of the western part of the State, the iron and the coal made it important that the designs of the Potomac Company should be completed. But after repeated efforts, it was found that the mode of navigation proposed by the Potomac Company was insufficient.

7. It was, therefore, proposed to incorporate a new company, to which the old one should surrender its privileges, for the purpose of making a canal along the river to its head, and thence to the Obio. In pursuance of this plan, the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Company was incorporated in 1824.

8. This canal had its terminus at Georgetown. The city of Baltimore naturally feared that the

Questions.-4. What change was made? 5. What change in the house of delegates? 6. What is said of internal improvements ? 7. What new company was formed ? 8. What is said of Baltimore?



trade with the west would be drawn from her. As she had no means of competing by canal or water routes with the interior, her attention was drawn to railways.

9. At this time, rail roads were an untried nove elty. In England, the engineers and capitalists were agitating the subject of this means of transportation between Liverpool and Manchester,-the first passenger rail road ever constructed,—and simultaneous with this movement the leading citi. zens of Baltimore were contemplating the organization of a company to build the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road—the first in this country.

10. The first persons to propose this measure were George Brown, Esq., and his associate, Philip E. Thomas, Esq. The far-reaching sagacity of these men, and the wonderful results that have developed themselves in connection with this road, render their names as worthy of honorable mention as those of any that grace the history of Maryland.

11. In February, 1827, these men called a meeting of the citizens of Baltimore, and a memorial was, at once, presented to the legislature : in ten days after a charter was granted.

12. A rail road was also projected from Bal. timore to York, Pennsylvania, and an act of

Questions.-9. What of rail roads? 10. Who were the first to pro pose the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road? 11. When was the first meeting called ? 12. What other road was projected ?

incorporation was 'obtained, under the title of the "Baltimore and Susquehanna Rail Road.” The title was subsequently changed to “Northern Central Rail Road.” The “ Western Maryland Rail Road” was also projected, but for many years it was suspended. The Washington Branch of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road was also built. This branch has proved very profitable to the State.

13. During this period, the American Colonization Society was formed, for the purpose of establishing colonies on the western coast of Africa, and of settling there those emancipated blacks, who should be willing to return to the land of their forefathers. A branch of this Association was immediately formed in Maryland. Findnug that, by its connexion with the National Society, it was liable to the vexatious interference of Northern abolitionists, it determined to form an independent organization, and plant a separate colony under the name of "Maryland," in Liberia. This society received aid from the State, by an annual appropriation of one thousand dollars.

14. In 1837, a great financial crisis occurred. There was great distress in all parts of the country. Suspensions and failures in business became of every day occurrence. In addition to private distress, the national treasury itself was plunged into a state of bankruptcy.

Questions.-13. What is said of the Colonization society? 14. What occurred in 1837 ?

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