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grandizement, indifferent to the rights, or even the sufferings of the masses, who alone can protect them in their wealth.

15. Hence the people of Maryland insisted that the power of wealth, in producing class legislation, should be checked by the power of numbers, every one of whom had life, liberty and character at stake, and they succeeded in passing a law giving the right of suffrage to every free white male citizen, twenty-one years of age, who had resided twelve months in the State, and six in the county prior to the election.

16. The ballot and the ballot-box were also substituted for viva voce vote. In 1809, all clauses of the State constitution requiring property quali. fications for office holders, were repealed.

CHAPTER XX.

1812-WAR WITA ENGLAND-Declaration of War-Two PartiesThe Position of New England-Of Maryland -Riot in Baltimore-Hartford Convention-Admiral Cockburn-His Deeds, Defence of Havre de Grace.

1. Difficulties, which arose from the jealousy of England and her haughty spirit, and which led to an interference with the commerce of America, and

Questions.--15. What did the people of Maryland insist upon ? 16. What method of voting was introduced? 1. What led to diffi. culties with England ?

COMMERCE VERSUS HONOR.

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merce.

an infringement on her rights as a nation, at last resulted in a declaration of war. This was made by the United States, on the 11th of June, 1812.

2. There were two political parties in the country, known as the Federal and Democratic. Tbe former, as its name implies, favored a strong central government, the latter adopted the theory of State-rights. The Federal party opposed the war.

3. The New England States, at first, were quite éager for it, because the measures adopted to prevent so great a calamity, interfered with their com

They looked upon war as a remedy for the evil, but finding the remedy worse to them than the evil, they were thenceforth bitterly opposed to war, as both wicked and expensive.

4. Maryland, and the agricultural States gene. rally, thinking the honor of the republic, as well as its commerce, were at stake, favored active hostilities. The legislature of Maryland voted an address to the President of the United States, declaring they were ready to submit to all the hardships and dangers of war, rather than permit outrages upon the honor of the country to pass unpunished.

5. The “ Federal Republican,” a newspaper published in Baltimore, made such a violent attack upon the administration and the war measures, that

Questions.—1. When was war declared? 2. What two political parties? 3. What is said of the New England States? 4. What of Maryland? 6. In what lawless manner did the people of Maryland show their zeal ? 18*

a riot was the result; the office of the paper was tora down, and one person was killed.

6 In New England, on the other hand, where the Federalists were in the majority, opposition to the war was popular. The Massachusetts legislature proposed to call & convention of delegates from the several States of New England, to meet and enquire what ought to be done.

This was called the Hartford Convention.

7. It is claimed by the New England historians that the objects of this convention were patriotic, and that was the mists of passion fade away this becomes more apparent.”

Whether so, or not, it is certain the convention was considering the propriety of withdrawing New England from the Union, for, in its journal it says, " whenever it shall appear that these causes of our calamities are radi. cal and permanent, a separation by equitable ar. rangement will be preferable to an alliance by constraint, among nominal friends, but real ene

The somewhat unexpected close of the war prevented further action.

8. Divided by these elements of internal discord the United States went into the war. Whether owing to this want of unanimity on the part of the people, or to want of skill on the part of the offi. cers, the first year of the war was one of misfortune.

mies."

Questions.-6. How did New England shew its hostility? 7. What is claimed by the New England historians? What is certain ? 8 What effect had these dissensions on the war?

ADMIRAL COCKBURN.

211

per.

9. Maryland bore part in the deeds of the war only through her privateers. Her soldiers and sailors were distributed throughout the Federal army, and were not, as formerly, distinguished in a separate corps.

10. In 1813, Admiral Cockburn made his appearance in the Chesapeake with four ships of the line and six frigates. He directed his operations against detached farm houses and seats of private gentlemen, anprepared for defence; these were robbed, and the owners treated in the rudest inan

The cattle, which could not be carried away, were destroyed; the slaves were armed against their owners, and persuaded to attack defenceless families.

11. Although it was impossible to station a force at each farm house to repel these incursions, yet the spirited citizens of Maryland formed bodies of cavalry, which were stationed at intervals along the shore. In several instances Cockburn and his ruffians were bravely repelled by a collection of neigh, bors, under no authority and without a leader.

12. Cockburn took possession of several islands in the Bay, particularly Sharp's, Tilghman's and Poplar Islands, whence he could make a descent upon the neighboring shores.

Questions.-9. How did Maryland bear her part? 10. When did Admiral Cockburn arrive ? What was his conduct? 11. How did the Marylanders protect their shore? 12. What places did Cock, burn seize ?

13. Among the places that suffered by this famous or infamous Admiral, were Frenchtown, Havre-deGrace, Fredericktown, (on the Eastern Shore), and Georgetown, which were taken, plundered and burned.

14. Frenchtown was a small village, consisting of six dwelling houses, two store houses and several stables. It was of some importance, however, as a place of deposit on the line of packets and stages between Baltimore and Philadelphia. Against this village he sent a force of five hundred marines. A small party of militia from Elkton collected to oppose him, but moved off as the Admiral approached.

15. Havre-de-Grace was, at that time, a neat village, containing about twenty or thirty houses. The attack on this place was made on the third of May, before day-light. The approach of the enemy was announced by cannon shot and the firing of rockets. The inhabitants, roused from their sleep, leaped up in the greatest consternation. The more courageous repaired to the beach, where a few small pieces of artillery had been planted on a kind of battery.

16. On the approach of the barges, nineteen in number, they all, with the exception of an old citizen of the place, an Irishman named O'Neill, fled.

Questions.—13. What towns were plundered and burnt? 14. What 18 said of Frenchtown? 15. What is said of Havre-de-Grace? What of its attack? 16. What is said of O'Neill?

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