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SEPARATE ORGANIZATIONS.

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12. The Rev. John Carroll, a native of Prince George's County, received from Rome the neces. sary powers of an ecclesiastical superior, and was the first Archbishop of the United States. In the beginning of the war, he had been associated with his cousin, Charles Carroll, and Benjamin Franklin, on their mission to Canada.

13. The Protestant Episcopal Church received through the Rev. Samuel Seaburry, of Connecticut, and the Rev. William White, Episcopal authority by consecration in the mother country. Bishop White was born in Philadelphia, whither his father had emigrated from Maryland.

14. The Methodists looked to Mr. Wesley, of England, for ministerial appointments. Mr. Wesley appointed Dr. Thomas Coke, as Superintendent.

15. The land office, which had been closed, was opened, and the bounty promised the soldiers of the line laid off for them. The officers, were not neglected. The depreciation of their pay was made good to them, and those who had served in the independent corps, were placed npon the same footing with regard to the half-pay and pensions, as the officers of the line.

Questions.—12. Who was the first Roman Catholic Archbishop in the United States? 13. Who were the first Protestant Episcopal Bishops? 14. Whom did Mr. Wesley appoint? 15. What was done about bounty and pay of soldiers ?

CHAPTER XIX.

The FEDERAL Constitution— Needs of the Country

Convention Proposed Disputes - The Constitution a Compromise-CapitalDistrict of Columbia Property Qualifications for Voting RemovedThe Ballot substituted for vivá voce.

1. The old articles of confederation were found not adapted to the wants of the country in its new condition. There was need of a more centralized power, by which the States could be brought into closer union, and the general government could act more efficiently for the general good.

2. A convention of all the States, to devise some means to give stability to the confederation, having been proposed, the legislature of Maryland elected five delegates to represent the State.

3. The convention met at Philadelphia, and agreed upon the present Constitution and form of government of the United States, which was laid before Congress. That body immediately directed that copies should be transmitted to the several legislatures to be submitted to a convention of delegates, chosen in each State by the people.

4. The condition of the country was such, that every one acknowledged the necessity of immediate

Questions.-1. What is said of the confederation? What did the country need? 2. What was proposed ? 3. Where did the convention meet? What did the convention present to congress ? What was the action of congress? 4. What two parties were there in the country?

THE FEDERAL CONSTITUTION.

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change. But there were two parties; one was desirous of strengthening State authority, fearing that too great centralization of power would ultimately destroy State independence and popular liberty itself, by leaving minorities entirely at the mercy of majorities; the other hoped to derive from an efficient general government, unity and stability, which would ensure prosperity at home, and respect abroad.

5. The Constitution was a happy compromise. The popular majorities were represented in the House of Representatives, and State sovereignty was represented in the Senatė. This protected the weak from the strong. It is the remark of an ancient philosopher, and history confirms the truth of it, that “the weak always desire what is equal and just : but the powerful pay no regard to it.

6. The immense popular majorities of a large State, regarding only their own interests, could control legislation to the disadvantage of the smaller States; but in the Senate the smallest State is equal to the largest. Hence, under ordinary circumstances, the necessities of concurrent majorities would prevent unjust legislation, and the strong would be compelled to listen to the weak, and respect their rights.

Questions.-6. What is said of the constitution? How? 6. Es. plain further?

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7. This most admirably contrived compromise and compact called the Constitution, was ratified by the Maryland convention. A certificate of their ratification was signed by the members, on the 28th of April, 1788.

8. Or the 2d of July, 1788, the ratification of the constitution by nine States, was laid before the old Congress, then still in session, and preparations were immediately made to carry it into effect. The States were directed to appoint their electors to cast their votes for president and vice-president. The vote of Maryland was cast for Washington for president, and Robert Hanson Harrison for vicepresident.

9. The general government had not yet adopted any permanent capital. After having hesitated between the Potomac and the Delaware, Congress concluded to accept the proposition of Maryland, and the Potomac was selected.

10. Commissioners were appointed in 1790; the district was laid out on both sides of the Potomac, embracing nearly equal portions of Virginia * and Maryland, including Georgetown and Alexandria, und called the “ Territory of Columbia.” The new

* The Virginia portion was afterwards ceded back to that State.

Questions. -7. When did Maryland ratify the constitution : 8. When was the ratification laid before congress? Who was the first president? 9. Had the capital been adopted yet? 20. When were commissioners appointed ?

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city, whose site was selected for the Federal Metropolis, was named Washington.

11. On the 18th of September, 1793, the corner stone of the north wing of the capitol was laid by Washington in person.

12. Prior to 1801, no person was allowed to vote unless he possessed a certain amount of property. It was thought necessary that there should be a property qualification in voters, in order to give them a personal interest in the management of public affairs.

13. The first States to break through this custom were Vermont and Maryland. In Maryland there was great opposition at first to the extension of the right of suffrage, on the part of the senate, But it was contended that property was not the only interest at stake in the community, or to be effected by its government and legislation. The rights of life, liberty and character, are to be regarded as paramount to those of mere property.

14. It is not always the property holders who have interest enough in the general welfare, in the hour of danger to the commonwealth, to stake their lives or liberty in its defence. But being powerfui in the State, by reason of their wealth, the danger is that they will use that power for their own ag.

Questions.—10. What site was selected? 11. When and by whom was the corner stone of the capitol laid? 12. What was necessary prior to 1801? 13. What States were the first to break through this custom? What was contended in favor of enlarged suffrage ? 14. What is said of property holders ?

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