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History of Maryland.
Motives for coming to this Country--Religion thought to be a part of the business of Government--Intolerance, the Spirit of the Age--Maryland an exception—- Why Colonists left England-Different kinds of Colonial Governments.
1. THE general history of the discovery and settlement of North America is presumed to be so familiar to the students of this History, as not to require any recapitulation here.
2. Many motives induced the people of the Old World, as Europe was called, after the discovery of America, to come to this country. Some came to seek for gold; some, for adventure and the improvement of their worldly affairs; and some, to seek an asylum where they could worship God according to the dictates of their own consciences,
Questions.-2. What were some of the motives that led emigrants to come to this country?
without disobeying the laws of the land, or coming in conflict with those in power.
3. In that age, it was thought a part of the business of the government to legislate about religious matters. No one, then, objected to the principle that the government had this right. They objected to the right being enforced against themselves. History is full of the examples of those who, however they resisted, or fled from, laws against the exercise of their own religion, did not hesitate to pass very severe enactments against those who conscientiously differed from themselves.
4. The case is very different now. None but the most misguided partizans claim that "government is based upon the religious ideas of those who carry it on, and, that they have the right to control the religion." But at the time of the settlement of the colonies, it was thought "that in a well governed and Christian community, matters concerning religion and the honor of God, ought, in the first place, to be taken into earnest consideration and endeavored to be settled;" in other words, that the law should determine each man's belief.
5. We are not, then, to blame any particular body of Christians for its intolerant spirit, for it was exercised by all denominations alike,—if we
Questions.-3. What was thought to be a part of the business of the government? What is said of the Puritans? 4. What is the case now? What was thought at the time of the settlement of the colonies? 5. Are we to blame any particular body of Christians for intolerance? Why?
exclude the Quakers, or Friends. It was the spirit of the age.
6. The toleration, and freedom of conscience that characterized the Colony of Maryland, have placed it in advance of its age, and made its history the proudest of that of any of the colonies. For here, in the language of Bancroft, "religious liberty obtained a home, its only home in the wide world. Every other country in the world had persecuting laws; but through the benign administration of the government of Maryland, no person professing to believe in Jesus Christ was permitted to be molested on account of religion."
7. In England the laws bore very hard on all who did not conform to the established religion. These Non-Conformists consisted chiefly of the Puritans and the Roman Catholics. The Puritans left the country in great numbers, and settled chiefly in New England. A colony under a Roman Catholic proprietary, and governor, and consisting mostly of Roman Catholic gentlemen, came to Maryland.
8. North America having been discovered by English subjects, belonged by right of discovery to the crown. Hence, when colonies were formed to settle any part of the newly acquired territory,
Questions.-6. What characterized the Colony of Maryland? What does Bancroft say? Who could not be molested? 7. What is said of the laws in England? Who were the Non-Conformists? What of the Puritans? Who formed the Maryland colony? 8. Who gave the colonies their land, and by what right?
the crown gave them tracts of land, together with rights and privileges, at the same time imposing certain conditions which the colonists were to fulfil.
9. The deed or document by which all this was done was called the Grant or Charter. These charters were given by the King to individuals, to companies, or to the colonists themselves. Hence there arose among the colonists three kinds of governments, viz: The proprietary government, the charter government, and the royal government.
10. The royal governments were under the immediate rule of the crown. The charter governments were those in which the administration of their affairs was in their own hands. The proprie
tary governments were those in which the charter granting territory, conferred upon the person or persons to whom it was made, the right of governing the people who settled within the limits of their charter.
11. The charter of Maryland exhibits to us the form of a proprietary government. The proprietary was not a company, but a single person, and at his death his heir succeeded to his rights and privileges.
Questions.-9. What is meant by the Charter? To whom were they given? 10. What were the royal governments? What, the eharter? What, the proprietary? 11. What kind of government had Maryland?
LORD BALTIMORE--The Founder of Maryland-- Early Schemes-Newfoundland-- Sails for Virginia--Chesapeake Bay-Return to England--Death--Cecil Calvert -Opposition of Virginia Colony--Claiborne.
ways maintained the rights of the king, and protected his interests. The king did not fail to prove his grateful recollection of Calvert's loyalty.
2. Sir George had early engaged in the schemes of colonization of that period, and very important trusts had been committed to him. His devotion
Questions.-1. The founder of Maryland? Who was Lord Balti more? What is said of him? 2. Why did he resign his office?