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tion, but the tax was one hundred pounds of paper money for every hundred pounds worth of property, nominally the whole worth of their property, but as paper money was worth only one-fortieth, the real tax was two and a half per cent. on all property, amounting often to more than half of the owner's income.

11. This tax was endured the more cheerfully because it was part of the price of liberty, and men knew that no price was too dear for that blessing. It was not a tax to support a party or a power, nor was it a tax to pay the cost of conquest; yet, even with all these advantages in its favor, the currency was in effect repudiated, and the governor's salary had to be paid in wheat, at the rate of forty-five hundred bushels per year.


THE CONFEDERATION — Delay of Confederation Diffi

culty of adjusting Public Lands Clause secured by Virginia--Maryland Objects-Compromise proposed by New York--Sovereign StatesMaryland's efforw in the Commun Cause.

1. Early in the revolutionary struggle, a plan was introduced into congress for the confederation

Questions.-10. What rendered this act necessary? 11. What is said of the tax? How was the governor's salary paid ? 1. What plan had been proposed in congress ?

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of the colonies. The matter had to be deferred from time to time, to give way to the pressing needs of the army.

2. One source of difficulty was the adjustment of the question of the public lands. Maryland was determined not to relinquish her claim to a portion of them, and was the last to hold out. Virginia claimed the unsettled territory of the West; Maryland maintained that if the dominion of those lands should be established by the blood and treasure of the United States, such lands ought to be considered as common property.

3. Virginia had succeeded in securing, in the articles of confederation, a clause, “that no State should be deprived of her territory, for the benefit of the United States." Maryland would not give in her adherence while that clause existed.

4. The compromise proposed by New York was, that each State should limit its western boundary, and cede to congress its claim to lands beyond it, in the purpose of erecting new States hereafter, and for no other purpose whatever. This effected a settlement and the articles of confederation were signed on the first day of March, 1781.

5. This was the germ of the Union Each State preserved its separate and distinct sover

Questions.—2. What was one source of difficulty? What position did Maryland take? 3. What clause had Virginia secured? 4. What compromise was offered, and by whom? 6. What is said in this section ?

eignty. The United States, being the creation of the States, could not be greater than the power that created it. It could only exercise acts of authority delegated to it. It was the agent to exercise the power belonging to the States.

6. Questions were to be decided not by the people at large, but by the States themselves, a majority of them being required to carry a question.

7. The States agreed that congress, which represented them in their collective capacity, alone should exercise certain acts of sovereignty,--such as declaring war, laying imposts, and coining money, which were essential for the common good.

8. Though Maryland had held aloof from the confederation, she had not relaxed her efforts in the common cause. At the very time when she was contending for her own rights with Virginia, her sons were fighting on the soil of this sister State for its defence, shedding their blood without stint upon every battle-field - the Maryland line and the Virginia regiments, side by side, bearing the brunt of the hard-fought southern campaigns. Her valor in the field, and her wisdom and firmness in the cabinet, have left their impress upon the country, however they may be ignored by partial writers of its history. Her valor in the

Questions.-6. How were questions to be decided ? 7. What did the states agree to? 8. What is said of Maryland ? What is said of her valor and firmness?



field either determined the victory, or saved the army in many a hard fought struggle, and her firmness in the cabinet gave rise to the formation of those States wbich this day constitutes the pride and power of the Republic—the great West.


THE MARYLAND LINE SOUTH- Maryland Line sent to

Reinforce the Southern Department-Passage through Maryland---Gates' Folly--Route marked by De KalbChanged by Gates--Battle at Camden--Dreadful Charge of the Marylanders The whole British force brought against the Maryland Line- Virginia Militia.

1. During the year 1779, the southern army had been unfortunate. Georgia and South Carolina were re-conquered by the enemy, and North Carolina was invaded.

2 In this critical state of affairs, it was resolved by congress that the Maryland and Delaware lines should be dispatched to reinforce that department.

5. In April, 1780, they were accordingly detached, under the command of Maj. Gen. De Kalb, and, after marching through New Jersey and Pennsylvania, embarked at the head of Elk river.

Questions.-1. What is said in this section ? 2. What did con. gress resolve? . 3. Under whose command were they placed ?

4. The first and second brigades passed through the State early in May. They numbered about two thousand men, and most of that gallant and veteran army looked for the last time upon their beloved State. Yet proudly conscious of their noble bearing, and the honor they had won for it, they cheerfully marched on to new fields of glory.

5. The south was calling for their aid, and these men, who had shewn their prowess at the northsome, sharers with Gist of the bloody day upon Long Island, some, who fought at Harlem Heights, White Plains, Fort Washington, and through five severe campaigos-were hastening thither to cross their bayonets with British steel again.

6. The legislature directed the sum of three thousand dollars to be paid to each officer, and, to welcome their passage through the State, gratuities were distributed among the non-commissioned offi. cers and privates.

7. On their march, they were orertaken and joined by Genl. Gates, who had been appointed to the command of the southern department.

8. The broken remains of the cavalry, which had served the preceding campaign, had been with. drawn to North Carolina to recruit. Its officers desired Gates to use his influence to fill his corps.

Questions.-4. What is said of their passage through the State ? 6. What is said in this section? 6. How were they welcomed ? 7. By whom were they joined? 8. What is said of the cavalry? What did the officers desire ?

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