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EVACUATION OF PHILADELPHIA.
6. As the spring advanced, the British prepared to retreat from Philadelphia. Many were anxious to drive the enemy from the city, but the weakness of the American army rendered it too dangerous to make the attempt. None of the States, except Maryland and New Jersey, had filled up their quotas, although constantly urged by Washington to do so.
7. On the 18th of June, 1778, the British army evacuated Philadelphia, and crossed the Delaware. They had encamped at Monmouth Court House, in a strong position. Washington determined to attack them the moment they began to retire from the posts, and directed Lee to carry this design into execution.
8. General Lee having taken upon himself to judge of the propriety of engaging on the ground he occupied, ordered his troops to retire. At the first sound of the artillery, Washington moved on with the troops to support the advance. After a speedy march of five miles, he came upon Lee in full retreat, without having made an effort to maintain his position.
9. The crisis required promptness of action. Stopping only long enough to administer a stern
Questions.-6. What did the British prepare to do? What is said of the quotas of the State ? 7. When did the British evacuate Philadelphia? Where did it encamp? What did Washington determine to do? 8. What is said of Gen. Lee? What did Washing. ton do? 9. What further did he do and say?
and even fierce rebuke to Lee, Washington turned to Ramsay, who commanded a Maryland battalion, and Col. Stewart, commanding a regiment, and called to each of them that he “was one of the officers he should rely upon to check the enemy that day.”
10. The enemy now opened their artillery upon Ramsay and Stewart, who were soon sharply engaged with the infantry. Though compelled to fall back before superior numbers, the obstinate defence made by the Marylanders, gave Washington time to draw up his lines of battle.
11. As soon as the scale of victory began to turn, Washington ordered up Patterson's division and Smallwood's brigade to secure the day. The British were driven back. But night coming on, the battle had to be suspended, and in the morning it was found that the British had retreated.
12. In November, the 'Maryland line was marched to Middlebrook, New Jersey, where Washington had established his head-quarters.
13. In February, 1779, the British landed a body of troops in New Jersey, with the design of taking Elizabethtown.' Smallwood, with the Maryland line, and St. Clair, with the Pennsylvania division, were immediately ordered forward.
Questions.-10. Upon whom did the enemy open? What is said of the Marylanders ? 11. What did Washington do? What further is said ? 12. Where did the Maryland line now go? 13. What is said in this section ?
The British, however, retreated without venturing a battle.
14. In July, the army was concentrated at West Point, New York. The Maryland line formed its right wing.*
1779 AND 1781 – Maryland's Quota Large and always Full
-- Early Harvests — Arrival of French Fleet — Paper Money-Pensions to Troops-Depreciation of Currency - Confiscation-Tax— The Price of Liberty.
Maryland had always kept its quota of troops fall, and at one timė its quota was one-third more than any other State, except Delaware, according to proportions fixed by congress.
2 Bit it was not only for men that the State was looked to; its wheat, ripening before that of the other wheat-growing States, was always required for the ti: st supplies of the army. also bought up by the north for the use of the States, in that section
3 This gave rise to a commerce that had to be protected from the British fleet. Maryland was, therefore, obliged to keep up a marine force of her
Questions:-1. What of the Maryland quota ? 2. What besides men was requured from Maryland ? 3. What did this give rise to ?
The fleet consisted of the ship Defence and several galleys, a sloop of war, and four barges.
4. The prize money, arising from captures made by these vessels, was distributed among the victorious crews, and was an incentive to exertion, which increased their usefulness.
5. The arrival of the French fleet, however, at a later period, rendered it unnecessary to maintain this force. The distressed condition of the finances made the reduction of the marine very desirable, as thereby the State was relieved of a great ex. pense, and the men were employed as a portion of the State's quota for the campaign.
6. The expenses of the war increased so rapidly that it was found impossible to keep up with them by taxation. To furnish money, therefore, to pay the troops and to supply the necessities of trade, the States resorted to the means with which this generation is so familiar, namely, of issuing bills of credit, or paper money, which were made legal tender for the payment of debts.
7. The difference between the nominal value of this paper money and specie, was so great that forty dollars in paper were worth only one dollar in gold, or silver. An officer having been dis
Questions.-3. What did the State fleet consist of ? 4. What is said of the prize money? 5. What is said of the arrival of the French fleet? What was done with the marines? 6. To what did the State resort to raise money? 7. What is said of the value of this paper money?
patched to Baltimore to buy cloth for coats, after great difficulty, bought fifteen yards, for fifteen hundred pounds.
8. To ensure a just payment of the troops, the legislature of Maryland resolved that the officers of the Maryland line, who should serve to the close of the war, should be entitled to half-pay during life. to commence after the expiration of their pay from congress.
This provision was also extended to their widows, during widowhood.
9. Thomas Johnson, having served three years as governor, was succeeded by Thomas Sim Lee. The depreciation of the currency, and the consequent high prices of provisions, compelled the legislature to enact very stringent laws against speculators, who bought ip the necessities of life, in order to grow rich upon the distresses of the army.
10. It was also determined, as a matter of relief, to confiscate the estates of all those who had ad. hered to the royal cause. Their property was sold as that of British subjects, found within the State, as fair spoil of war. That injustice might not be done, an opportunity was allowed to the owners to come in and take the oath of allegiance to the State, prior to the first of March, 1782. This measure of confiscation, necessary as it was, was not passed without reluctance and serious opposi
Questions.-8. What did the legislature do? 9. Who succeeded Gov. Johnson? What laws did the legislature pass? 10. What measure of relief was determined upon? What opportunity was given the disaffected?