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TRENTON AND PRINCETON.

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13. The victories of Trenton and of Princeton, during this celebrated retreat, were successful strategetic movements, rather than battles. They served to show the master-mind of Washington, but there was little of that hard fighting that shews the stuff the men were made of; hence in them, there are no particular instances of heroic deeds to record.

14. The campaign of 1776, was a dark and bloody one, but full of glory to the Maryland line; which, a powerful regiment in the month of August, was now reduced to a mere handful of men, under the command of a captain. In the battles from Brooklyn, Long Island, to Princeton, the old or first line was almost annihilated.

CHAPTER VI.

THE NEW CONSTITUTION AND STATE GOVERNMENT

Convention Division of Frederick County-Supplies for the Army-Constitution agreed to-Division of the Government Qualifications for Voters First State Legislature-Inducements to EnlistThe First Governor--Inauguration. .

1. An election having been held for delegates to a new convention to form a new constitution, this body assembled on the 14th of August, 1776, and

Questions. — 13. What is said of the battles of Trenton and of Princeton? 14. What is said of the campaign of 17707 1. For what was a new convention called i

organized, by unanimously electing Matthew Tilghman, President. The committee, appointed to prepare and report a declaration of rights, and form of government, was composed of Messrs. Tilghman, the President, Carroll, Paca, Carroll of Carrollton, Plater, Chase and Goldsborough.

2. On the 6th of September, the convention divided Frederick county, cutting off from it the counties now named Washington and Montgomery. The pressure of public business prevented the consideration of the bill of rights, and the constitution, which the committee had reported. This subject, therefore, was postponed, that they might give their attention to the condition of the troops, and the deficiency of all the material of war.

3. Ample supplies were determined upon, the committee of safety was ordered to import four thousand stand of arms, as many gun locks, fourteen cannons, twenty tons of powder, and forty tons of lead, to be purchased with wheat, tobacco, flour and other Maryland produce.

4. The quota of troops set down by Congress, to be furnished by Maryland, was eight battalions, numbering four thousand men, one-tenth of the whole army. This was larger in proportion than that levied on the northern States; still, Maryland,

Questions.—1. What committee was formed, and who composed it? 2. What counties were set off? What was said of the bills proposed by the committee? 3. What was the committee ordered to do? 4. What was Maryland's quota? What is said of this quota ?

STATE GOVERNMENT.

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in her zeal for the general welfare, made no effort to get her quota reduced, but immediately took steps to furnish the troops.

5. On the 8th of November, after much deliberation, the new constitution of the State was finally agreed to, and elections were ordered to carry it into effect. The election took place in November 25th, 1776.

6. The government was composed of three distinct branches—the legislative, the executive, and the judiciary. The legislative authority was vested in a Senate and House of Representatives. The House of Delegates was composed of members from the counties, from Baltimore, and from Annapolis. The Senate consisted of fifteen members. The executive authority was in the hands of the governor. The judiciary was composed of the courts of the State.

7. Every voter was required to be the owner of fifty acres of land in the county in which he resided, or to possess property within the State to the value of thirty pounds current money. Delegates must own property to the value of five hundred pounds; Senators a thousand pounds; and the governor must possess a freehold of lands and tenements, of the value of a thousand pounds, and have resided three years within the State, prior to his election.

Questions.—5. When was the State constitution finally agreed to? 6. How was the government divided ? 7. What were the qualificar tions of voters? Of senators ? Of governor ?.

By the bill of rights, the conscience was left as free and untrammelled as in the days of Leonard Calvert.

8. The first State Legislature, met on the 5th of February, 1777. The first business that occupied their attention was the recruiting service. During the retreat from Long Island, the Maryland troops had been so reduced, that Smallwood's battallion, and the seven independent companies, which had. entered the service fourteen hundred strong, had been worn down to a mere captain's command, and in the face of this great loss, it required corresponding exertions to fill up the quota of eight battalions.

9. To favor enlistments, every recruit was exempted from arrest for debts under twenty pounds, and his property was entirely freed from attachment and execution. To provide blankets for the soldiers, every family was obliged to give up onehalf of their surplus articles of that kind for the use of the army.

10. On Friday, the 21st of March, 1777, Thomas Johnson was proclaimed first republican Governor of Maryland. The announcement was hailed by a salute from the military. Annapolis was the scene

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Questions.—7. What about freedom of conscience? 8. When did the first State legislature meet? What was the condition of Maryland troops? 9. What was done to favor enlistments? How were blankets provided ? 10. Who was first republican governor of Maryland ?

MARYLAND LINE.

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of great festivities on the inauguration of the new government. The general and county committees of safety surrendered up their powers and ceased to exist. The State was under the law of the constitution.

CHAPTER VII.

CAMPAIGN OF 1777Increase and Division of the Mary

land Line- Battle of the Brandywine-Deborre-Battle of Germantown Success of the Marylanders John Eager Howard— Marylanders not supported Howe's Attack.

1. The Maryland line, having been increased to seven battalions, was divided into two brigades. One, composed of four battalions, was placed under command of Smallwood, now promoted to the rank of Brigadier General. The commander of the other was General Deborre, a French officer, in the service of the confederacy.

2. On the 25th of August, the British army landed at the head of Elk river, and began their march upon Philadelphia. The Americans took post behind the Brandywine, and on the 10th of September, the British advanced to force their

Questions.-1. How was the Maryland line divided? Who were the officers? 2. When and where did the British land? Where did the Americans post themselves ?

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