Gambar halaman
PDF
ePub

to submit to the military dogma inter arma leges silent.* Military men, whose business is violence, are apt to confound physical power with legal and moral right. For that reason a republican people are always jealous of military rule, and keep it subordinate to civil authority. The military is the servant of the civil power, and when the master yields to the servant, liberty is gone, and tyranny is the result.

10. The committee of safety, however, considered the presence of Eden dangerous, and gave him notice to depart, which he did, on board the “Fowey,” dispatched by Lord Dunmore to receive him.

11. Dunmore was threatening Maryland with his vengeance, and the militia was ordered to the coast to cut off bis communication with the disaf. fected. At the same time the convention set about organizing the flying camp, called for by congress. The quota to be furnished was three thousand four hundred and five men.

12. Michael Cresap died of fever, in New York, in the fall of 1775, and was buried with military honors in Trinity Church Yard.

* In the din of arms the laws are silent.

Questions.-9. What is said of military men ? What is the office of the military? 10. What was done with Eden? 11. What was Dunmore threatening? Where were the military ordered? What camp did the convention organize? 12. When did Cresap die?

MICHAEL CRESAP.

129

"

13. Here it may not be out of place to notice the aspersions that have been cast upon the character of this popular border Captain. His name is associated with that of Tah.gah-jute, or Logan, in the “speech " said to have been delivered by this savage to Lord Dunmore. This speech is given, in school books, as a specimen of Indian eloquence, and thus is familiar to every school boy and school girl, and the name of Cresap is associated in their minds with the murder of women and children.

14. In the first place, this “speech ” never was delivered. It is merely the reported conversation of this savage with a trader, who committed it to paper, after having gone to a camp, six miles distant from the scene of the conversation, and read it to the council of Lord Dunmore.

15. Secondly, In charging the murder upon Cresap, it was false in its allegations. The murder took place on the banks of the Ohio river, and Cresap, at the time, was at his own home, in Alleghany county. Cresap had always opposed the attack on Logan's settlement, and had twice by his counsels saved it. But when he and his men had gone, it was cruelly destroyed by others.

Questions.—13. With whose name is his associated ? 14. What is said of “speech ?" 15. What is said of the murder, and where was Cresap at the time?

The trader who wrote out, and read the “

speech," himself acknowledged that he corrected Logan, at the time he made the charge against Cresap. "Careless writers, down to the present day, continue to regard the Indian's message, delivered from memory, as a genuine speech solemnly delivered in council, and reiterate its assertions as to the innocent Cresap." *

COPY OF A REVOLUTIONARY ENLISTMENT PAPER.

I William Worthington do voluntarily inlist myself into the sixth Maryland Regiment, commanded by Colonel Otho HOLLAND WILLIAMS, in the service of the United States of America, to continue during the war, and to be subject to such Rules and Articles as are or shall be established by Congress. Witness my hand this 9 day of August 1780

William Worthington

Received the 9th day of August 1780 of Captain James Bruff, the sum of Two hundred Dollars being the bounty ordered to be paid the non commissioned officers and soldiers who inlist during the war.

William Worthington

* Brantz Mayer.

DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE.

131

CHAPTER III.

DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE,Vain Hopes of Set

tlement-Rebels or Freemen-Order issued by the Convention of Maryland-Charles Carroll of CarrolltonState GovernmentDisposition of Troops.

1. For a long time the people of America hoped and thought they could obtain their rights without severing their allegiance to the mother country. But the course of England in pouring troops into the country to conquer, rather than conciliate, aroused the spirit of hostility, and taught them that they had not only to resist encroachments upon their rights, but that they must advance to the position of independence. They must be either subdued rebels or triumphant freemen. Their victories during the last year convinced them that they had a reasonable hope for the latter. Maryland was in full sympathy with these feelings.

2. On the 28th of June, 1776, the convention of Maryland unanimously withdrew the instructions previously given to her delegates in Congress, “ to disavow all design of independence,” and ordered that they should unite on behalf of the province in declaring the colonies free and independent, reserving to the State, however, complete internal sovereignty.

Questions.-1. What did the people for a long time hope? What raised the spirit of hostility ? What did they learn? 2. What did the Maryland Convention order?

3. Charles Carroll was chiefly instrumental in obtaining the passage of this act. He had been on a mission to Canada with Chase and Franklin, to induce that province to form a union with the United Colonies, for their mutual interest and common destiny. On his return, he found the Maryland delegates hampered with the “instructions" mentioned above. The loss of a single hour might deprive his beloved State of a share in the glorious act then about to be performed. In these circumstances he and his friends brought all their energies, eloquence and arguments to bear upon the Convention in favor of the immediate repeal of the old instructions, and in favor of the new.The new instructions were received on the 2d of July. On the 4th of July, together with Matthew Tilghman, Thomas Johnson, Jr., William Paca, Samuel Chase, Thomas Stone, and Robert Alexander, he was chosen delegate to Congress.

4. On the 2d of July, the Declaration of Independence had been prepared, and was introduced. On the 4th, it was adopted, but was not signed until the second of August. Carroll, having been chosen delegate after its passage, might have avoided the signature which would have been the evidence of bis treason, bad America failed. As it was said there were several Charles Carrolls, and

Questions.—3. Who was chiefly instrumental in this? When was be chosen delegate to congress? Who else were chosen? 4. On what day was the Declaration of Independence adopted?

« SebelumnyaLanjutkan »