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3. Every order, resolution, or vote, to which the con-Joint resolu.

tions, except currence of the senate and house of representatives may

for adjourn. be necessary (except on a question of adjournment) shall ment, to receive be presented to the president of the United States; and the same sancbefore the same shall take effect, shall be approved by tion as bills. him, or being disapproved by him, shall be re-passed by two thirds of the senate and house of representatives, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a bill.



The congress shall have power

Congress havo 1. To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and ex-power to lay

&. cises; to pay the debts, and provide for the common defence and general welfare of the United States; but all duties, imposts, and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States:

2. To borrow money on the credit of the United To borrow States:

money. 3. To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and to regulate among the several states, and with the Indian tribes: Commerce.

4. To establish an uniform rule of naturalization, and To establish the uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies, through-rule of natural.

ization, &c. out the United States :

5. To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of To coin money, foreign coin, and fix the standard of weights and meas- &c. 6. To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting punishing

To provide for the securities and current coin of the United States :

counterfeiters. 7. To establish post-offices and post-roads :

To establish 8. To promote the progress of science and useful arts, post-offices, &c. by securing, for limited times, to authors and inventors, To promote the exclusive right to their respective writings and dis-science, &c. coveries : 9. To constitute tribunals inferior to the supreme To constitute

inferior tribu. court : To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and offences against the law of Nals, &c. nations:

10. To declare war, grant letters of marque and to declare war. reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on land and water:

11. To raise and support armies ; but no appropria- To raise armies. tion of money to that use, shall be for a longer term than two years: 12. To provide and maintain a navy:

To provide a

navy. 13. To make rules for the government and regulation to make rules of the land and naval forces :

for governing 14. To provide for calling forth the militia to execute army and navy.

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To provide for the laws of the union, suppress insurrections, and repel calling forth

invasions : the militia. To provide for. 15. To provide for organizing, arming and disciplinorganizing the ing the militia, and for governing such part of them as militia, &c. may be employed in the service of the United States, re

serving to the states, respectively, the appointment of the officers, and the authority of training the militia, ac

cording to the discipline prescribed by congress: To exercise ex.

16. To exercise exclusive legislation, in all cases clusive jurisdic- whatsoever, over such district (not exceeding ten miles tion over a ter- square) as may by cession of particular states, and the not exceeding acceptance of congress, become the seat of government 10 miles square of the United States, and to exercise like authority over

all places purchased by the consent of the legislature of the state in which the same shall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dock yards, and other need

ful buildings And To make all 17. To make all laws which shall be necessary and to the executivy proper, for carrying into execution the foregoing powof their powers.

ers, and all other powers vested by this constitution, in the government of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof.*

SECTION 9. Importation of 1. The migration or importation of such persons as certain persons not to be pro

any of the states, now existing, shall think proper to adhibited until af. mit, shall not be prohibited by the congress, prior to the

year one thousand eight hundred and eight; but a tax or duty may be imposed on such importation not exceed

ing ten dollars for each person. The writ of ha.

2. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not beas corpus re- be suspended, unless when, in cases of rebellion or in


vasion the public safety may require it. No bills of at.

3. No bill of attainder, or ex post facto law, shall be tainder, or ex Direct taxes ac.

4 No capitation, or other direct tax shall be laid uncording to cen- less in proportion to the census or enumeration herein

before directed to be taken. No export duty, 5. No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported nor preference from any state. No preference shall be given, by any of one state to regulation of commerce or revenue, to the ports of one another, in

state over those of another; nor shall vessels bound to or from one state be obliged to enter, clear, or pay du

ties in another. Money to be 6. No money shall be drawn from the treasury, but expended by legal appropria

in consequence of appropriations made by law; and a tions only.

regular statement and account of the receipts and expenditures of all public money, shall be published from time to time.

*4 C. R. 317.

ter 1808.

post facto laws. passed.



7. No title of nobility shall be granted by the United No titles of noStates; and no person holding any office of profit or bility can be trust under them, shall, without the consent of the con- the United gress, accept of any present, emolument, office, or title States; nor can of

any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign its officers acstate.

cept presents,

&c. SECTION 10.

[See amend

ments, art. 13.] 1. No state shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or Powers withconfederation; grant letters of marque and reprisal; coin drawn from the

states individ. money; emit bills of credit; make any thing but gold

ually. and silver coin a tender in payment of debts; pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts; or grant any title of nobility.

2. No state shall, without the consent of the congress, lay any imposts or duties on imports or exports, except the states can

Powers which what may be absolutely necessary for executing its in-exercise only spection laws; and the net produce of all duties and im- under the sanc. ports laid by any state on imports or exports, shall be tion of congress for the use of the treasury of the United States; and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and control of the

congress. No state shall, without the consent of congress, lay any duty of tonnage, keep troops or ships of war, in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with another state, or with a foreign power, or engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will not admit of delay.*


SECTION 1. 1. The executive power shall be vested in a presi

Executive dent of the United States of America. He shall hold his


er vested in a office during the term of four years, and, together with president, &c. the vice-president, chosen for the same term, be elected as follows:

2. Each state shall appoint, in such manner as the legislature thereof may direct, a number of electors, equal Electors of preto the whole number of senators and representatives to president, &c. which the state may be entitled in the congress; but no senator or representative, or person holding an office of trust or profit under the United States, shall be appointed an elector.

3. [Annulled. See Amendments, art. 12.]

4. The congress may determine the time of choosing the electors, and the day on which they shall give their determine the votes; which day shall be the same throughout the time of choosUnited States.

ing electors of * 8 C. R. 541. 6 C. R. 480. 54. 190. 223. 9 C. R. 314. 4. C.

president &c. R. 54. 209. 5 C. R. 1. 237. 391. 3 C. R. 253. 472. 304. 7 C. R. 335. 350.

of the United States.


The president 5. No person, except a natural born citizen, or a citto be natural izen of the United States, at the time of the adoption zen in 1788; of this constitution, shall be eligible to the office of presaged 35; and 14 ident; neither shall any person be eligible to that office, years a resident who shall not have attained to the age of thirty-five

years, and been fourteen years a resident within the

United States. In case of va. 6. In case of the removal of the president from office, cancy in the or of his death, resignation, or inability to discharge the dent, the vice powers and duties of the said office, the same shall depresident to act, volve on the vice-president; and the congress may, by

law, provide for the case of removal, death, resignation, or inability, both of the president and vice-president, declaring what officer shall then act as president, and such officer shall act accordingly, until the disability be re

moved, or a president shall be elected. Compensation 7. The president shall, at stated times, receive, for of the presi- his services, a compensation, which shall neither be indent.

creased nor diminished during the period for which he shall have been elected ; and he shall not receive, within that period, any other emolument from the United

States, or any of them. The president

8. Before he enter on the execution of his office, he to take an oath. shall take the following oath or affirmation. Form of the

9. “ I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of president of the United States, and will, to the best of my ability, preserve, protect, and defend the constitution of the United States."



His powers.

1. The president shall be commander in chief of the army and navy of the United States, and of the militia of the several states, when called into the actual service of the United States ; he may require the opinion in writing, of the principal officer in each of the executive departments, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices; and he shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons for offences against the United States, except in cases of impeachment.

2. He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the senate, to make treaties, provided two thirds of the senators present, concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the advice and consent of the senate, shall appoint, ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls, judges of the supreme court, and all other officers of the United States, whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by law. But the congress may, by law, vest the appointment of such inferior officers as they think proper, in the president alone, in the courts of law, or in the heads of departments.

3. The president shall have power to fill up all vacancies that may happen during the recess of the senate, by granting commissions which shall expire at the end of their next session.

SECTION 3. 1. He shall, from time to time, give to the congress, His duties. information of the state of the union, and recommend to their consideration, such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary occasions, convene both houses, or either of them, and in case of disagreement between them, with respect to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper; he shall receive ambassadors, and other public ministers ; he shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed ; and shall commission all the officers of the United States.

SECTION 4. 1. The president, vice-president, and all civil officers President, &c. of the United States, shall be removed from office on

removeable on

impeachment impeachment for, and conviction of, treason, bribery, or and conviction. other high crimes and misdemeanors.


SECTION 1. 1. The judicial power of the United States shall be Judicial powers

vested in a suvested in one supreme court, and in such inferior courts

preme court, as the congress may, from time to time, ordain and es- &c. tablish. The judges, both of the supreme and inferior Judges to hold courts, shall hold their offices during good behavior, and their offices dushall, at stated times, receive, for their services, a com-ring good behapensation, which shall not be diminished during their vior, &c. continuance in office.*

SECTION 2. 1. The judicial power shall extend to all cases in law Extent of the and equity, arising under this constitution, the laws of judicial power. the United States, and treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority ; to all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls; to all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction ; to controversies to which the United States shall be a party ; to controversies between two or more states, between a state and citizens of another state, between citizens of different states, between citizens of the same state claim

* 7 C. R. 242. 244.

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