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BY THE SAME AUTHOR

The Distribution of Wealth

x + 258 pp. 12°, $1.25

FROM THE PREFACE

In the present essay an adequate acknowledgment of indebtedness to others would require a history and criticism of theories of distribution, pointing out what seems to me to be of permanent value in the work of the leading economists, and showing reasons for disagreeing with their weaker and more transient arguments. This is a task which needs to be done, but for the present I am interested in the practical outcome of these theories.

Neither should the reader expect to find in this essay more than an outline. I have attempted to cut a straight line through a tangled jungle, and to give merely a glimpse into the maze of conflicting opinions. Each chapter herein might well be expanded into a volume; and this would necessarily be done were it not that I assume on the part of my readers a fair acquaintance with the problems and the extant discussions of the subject.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

I Value, Price and Cost. II The Factors in Distribution. III Diminishing Returns and Rent. IV Diminishing Returns and Distribution. V Statistical Data. VI Conclusion.

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
Publishers 64-66 Fifth Avenue New York

BY THE SAME AUTHOR

Proportional Representation

Second edition with chapters on the initiative, the referendum, and primary elections.

Cloth, 12°, $1.50

"The clearness and fullness of your history of representative government, including proportional representation, delights me. I know of no other writer on this subject who equals you."- GEORGE H. SHIBLEY, President, National Federation for People's Rule.

"A book which ever since its publication in 1896 has been the American authority on its subject."- The Public, Chicago.

"Forceful little treatise."-The Outlook.

"Professor Commons is one of the most intelligent and practical students of our political problems, and this new edition of an excellent book should receive the attention of the steadily growing class of Americans, men and women, who are interested in their duties and privileges of a great, but by no means perfected, republic."- Chicago Evening Post.

"Professor Commons has certainly succeeded in presenting the interests of all in an interesting and convincing way."- Boston Evening Transcript.

CONTENTS

CHAPTER

I. The Failure of Legislative Assemblies

II. The Origin and Development of Representative Assemblies III. The District System at Work

IV. The General Ticket, the Limited Vote, the Cumulative Vote

V. Proportional Representation

VI. Application of the Remedy

VII. "Party Responsibility" VIII. City Government

IX. Social Reform

X. The Progress of Proportional Representation

APPENDIX

I. The Distribution of Seats

II. The Legalization of Political Parties

III. Direct Legislation the People's Veto
IV. Referendum and Initiative in City Government

V. Proportional Representation from an American Point of

View

VI. Representation of Interests

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY

Publishers 64-66 Fifth Avenue New York

BY JOHN R. COMMONS

Professor of Political Economy in the University of Wisconsin

Cloth, 12mo, $1.60

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Straightforward and fearless examinations of fact.- Boston Evening Transcript.

"There is not a chapter which does not contain information which is practical and timely."- San Francisco Chronicle.

"Each chapter is a book in itself worthy of careful perusal. Written in his unusual, vivid and interesting style."- Post Dispatch, St. Louis.

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"No person interested in economic or in labor history can afford to be without this volume."- Amer. Acad. Polit. and Social Science.

"Full of vitality and optimism. Writes with the experience of one who has himself taken a leading part in the scientific investigation of social conditions; but, even in the midst of details, he never loses sight of the democratic ideal."- Economic Review, London.

"Few books on labor that have appeared lately are so fertile with ideas as this."— Indianapolis News.

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
Publishers 64-66 Fifth Avenue New York

BY JOHN R. COMMONS
University of Wisconsin

"The colonial race elements are considered, brief chapters are given to the negro and recent immigrants, and industry, labor, city life, crime, poverty, and politics are treated in their relation to the maintenance or destruction of democracy. Professor Commons's purpose appears to be to summarize the latest available data upon his subject and leave conclusions largely to the reader. In line with this purpose is a valuable list of authorities consulted. It is certain that the book will be of great service to ministers, sociologists, and all who are concerned in the problems of the day." Chicago Interior.

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Cloth, 12m0, 242 pages, $1.50
Standard Library, $.50

'The work is scientific as to method and popular in style, and forms a very useful handbook about the American population." - Dial.

"Well fortified throughout by statistics, and evidencing a wide range of observation, the great merit of the volume is its sensibleness."— Nation.

"While not profound, it is a brief and concise treatment of serious public problems, and is characterized by the good judgment and general sanity which are evident in Professor Commons's works in general. The general point of view and conclusions of the book are undoubtedly sound, and it will serve a useful purpose in introducing to many the serious study of our racial and immigration problems. To one who can spend but a brief time in reading along the line of these problems, but who wishes a general survey of them all, there is no book that can be more heartily commended. - CHARLES A. ELLWOOD in The American Journal of Sociology.

"This is an extremely valuable study of the greatest problem which the United States has to solve to-day; perhaps greater than that of all the ages that have preceded it, namely, the assimilation of large numbers of dissimilar races into a composite race. . . . To-day in the city of New York sixty-six different tongues are spoken. A century hence there will probably be only one. And throughout the country there are communities in which the English is not the dominant language. But the railroad, the post office, and the telegraph, as they bind them in interest, will bind them in speech. It is in this view that the book is of inestimable value."— American Historical Magazine.

"Professor Commons has long been a diligent and penetrating student of industrial conditions in this country, and particularly of the labor movement. His investigations in this latter field have brought him face to face with the situation that confronts the arriving immigrant, and he has been led to inquire into the varying abilities of different races to make use of the opportunities presented in this land for their advancement. We do not recall another book of its size that presents so much important and essential information on this vital topic."— Review of Reviews.

...

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY

Publishers

64-66 Fifth Avenue

New York

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