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will sufficiently appear from the letter printed below.* The original MS. of Brown's book is the property of the Misses Scofield, of Morristown, who allowed it to be used for this work under a contract. A copy of this, in the possession of Hon. Robert Gilchrist, ex-Attorney-General of New Jersey, was loaned to us, at their request, by him, he having originally called our attention to its worth. The value of these references (about thirty-five thousand in number) to the profession in the aggregate it would be difficult to estimate. The citations are entirely reliable, every one baving been carefully verified.
With respect to the first feature (which we may call the dictionary proper) much assistance has been derived from a recently published English Law Dictionary by Charles Sweet, Esq., † advance sheets of which have been furnished to us from time to time by special arrangement with the English publisher ; and much valuable matter has also been gleaned from the older dictionaries, glossaries and lexicons, of Blount, Brown, Cowell, Jacob, Spelman, Tomlin, Wharton, Les Termes de la Ley, Bell's Scotch Dictionary, and many others. A strenuous effort has been made to produce the most correct and extensive repository of the accepted meanings of both modern and ancient law terms extant, and at the same time to trench as little as possible upon the domain of the glossary, confining all obsolete matter, by means of brevity of statement and the use of small type, within the narrowest practical limits.
The number of maxims included will be found to be the largest ever presented in a single work, and comprise all those contained in WHARTON'S LAW LEXICON, together with many others obtained from various sources original and derivative.
The thanks of the authors are due to the officers of the New York Law Institute, the Brool:lyn Law Library, and the Jersey City Law Library, in which three institutions, by their kind permission, much of the labor here bestowed has been performed; and to Charles C. Black and James A. Gordon, Esqs., of Jersey City, for much valuable assistance in verifying the multitude of citations contained in the work.
S. R. NEW YORK, May 3d, 1883.
R. L. L.
SUMMIT, August 17. DEAR SIR: I return by Mr. Sylve your MS. book on “Adjudged Words and Phrases" with my thanks. I have run over the book and I think it calculated to be very useful to the profession in the pursuit of law points and explanations. You have shown a vast deal of labor and research and I wish you may meet with sufficient encouragement for the publication of it, as I think it would be well received by the profession. I am, with much respect, your obliged and obedient servant,
JAMES KENT. John R. Brown, Esq.
† A DICTIONARY OF ENGLISH Law, containing definitions of the technical terms in modern use, and a concise statement of the rules of law affecting the principal subjects, with historical and etymological notes. By CHARLES SWEET, LL.B., of Lincoln's Inn. LONDON: HENRY SWEET, 3 Chancery Lane, 1882.
TABLE OF ABBREVIATIONS
USED IN THE
CITATION OF LEGAL AUTHORITIES.
Acc.-Accordant. In the reports, denotes the 4.-Anonymous. See A.
agreement between one decided case and A. B.-Anonymous Reports at the end of Ben another in holding the same doctrine, in
loe's Reports, commonly called New Benloe. like manner as contra denotes the disagreeA. C.--Appeal Court, English Chancery.
ment of cases.
Act. Reg.- Acta Regia.
paper books of Ashurst, J., and other Judges, Ad. E.-Adams on Ejectment.
Ad. Eq.-Adams' Equity.
| Ad. Torts-Addison on Torts.
| Ad. & E.-Adolphus & Ellis' King's Bench A. & E.-See Ad. & E.; Adolph. & E.
Reports. A. & F. Fixt.-See Amos & F. Fixt.
Add. or Add. (Pa.)--Addison's Pennsylvania Ab. or Abr.-Abridgment.
Ct, of App.- Abbott's New York Court of Add. Torts--Addison on Torts.
| Admx.--Administratrix. Abb. For.-Abbott's Forms of Practice and Adolph. & E.-Adolphus & Ellis' King's Bench Pleading.
| Agn. Pat.-Agnew on Patents.
Aik. (Vt.)--Aikens' Vermont Reports. Abb. (N. Y.) N. Cas.—Abbott's New Cases, Aird Civ. L.-Aird's Civil Law of France. New York Courts.
Al.-See Aleyn. Abb. (N. Y.) Pr. or.Abb. Pr.-Abbott's New Al. & Nap.- Alcock & Napier's King's Bench York Practice Reports.
and Exchequer Reports. Abb. (X. Y.) Pr. N. S. or Abb. Pr. N. S.- lla. or Ala. N. S.-Alabama; Alabama Su
Abbott's New York Practice Reports, New preme Court Reports.
Ala. Sel. Cas.-- Alabama Select Cases.
Alb. L. J.-Albany Law Journal. Abb. Tr. Ev.-Abbott's Trial Evidence.
Alc. Reg. Cas.--Alcock's Irish Registry Cases. Abb. U. S.-Abbott's United States Reports. Alc. & N.-Alcock & Napier's King's Bench Abb. U. S. Pr.-Abbott's United States Courts and Exchequer Reports. Practice.
Ald. Ind.--Alden's Index. Abb. Yearb. Jur.—Abbott's Year Book of Juris- Ald. Ques.-Aldred's Questions on Property prudence.
Law. Abd. & W. Inst.-Abdy & Walker's Institutes of Ald. & Van H. Dig.-Alden & Van Hoesen's Justinian.
Digest of the Laws of Mississippi. A'Beckett res. judg.-A’Beckett's Reserved Judg- Aldr. Hist.- Aldridge's History of the Courts ments.
of Law, Abr. Cas. Eq.- Equity Cases Abridged. | Aleyn-Aleyn's King's Bench Reports.
Alex. Ch. Pr.- Alexander's Chancery Practice. Ang. & A. Corp.-Angell & Ames on CorporaAlison Pr.-Alison's Practice of Criminal Law' tions. of Scotland.
Ang. & D. High.-Angell & Durfree on HighAlison Princ.-Alison's Principles of Criminal ways. Law of Scotland.
Ann, or Anne-Queen Anne; thus, 1 Ann. All. (Mass.) or Allen-Allen's Massachusetts denotes the first year of Queen Anne's Reports, Vols. 83–96, Mass.
Annaly-Annaly's King's Bench Reports.
Ans. Cont.-Anson on Contracts.
Anth. Ill. Dig.- Anthony's Illinois Digest. Alln. Part.-Allnatt on Partition.
Anth. L. S.--Anthon's Law Student. Alln. Wills-Allnutt on the Practice of Wills. Anth. (N. Y.)--Anthon's New York Nisi Prius Am. or Amer.-America, American, Americana. Reports. Am. Ch. Dig.-American Chancery Digest. Anth. Prec.-Anthon's Precedents. Am. Civ. L. J.--American Civil Law Journal. Anth. Shep.-Anthon's Sheppard's Touchstone. Am. Corp. Cas.-Withrow's American Corpor- Ap. Just.- Apud. Justinian; Justinian's Instiation Cases.
tutes. Am. Cr. Rep.-American Criminal Reports. App.-Apposition. Am. Dec.-American Decisions.
App. Cas.- Appeal Cases. Am. Dig.-American Digest.
App. Ev.-Appleton on Evidence. Am. Insolv. Rep.-- American Insolvency Re- App. (Me.)- Appleton's Maine Reports, (Vols. ports.
*** 19 & 20 Me.) Am. Jur.-American Jurist.
App. R. N. 2.- Appeal Reports, New Zealand. Am. L. J.-American Law Journal.
Arch. B. L.--Archbold's Bankrupt Law.
Arch. Cr. Pl.---Archbold on Criminal Pleading Am. L. Reg.-American Law Register.
and Evidence. Am. L. Rev.-American Law Review.
Arch. Just.--Archbold's Justice of the Peace. Am. L. T. Rep.- American Law Times Reports. Arch. L. & T.-Archbold on Landlord and Am. Lead. Cas.—Hare & Wallace's American Tenant. Leading Cases.
Arch. N. P.-Archbold's Nisi Prius Law. Am. Pl. Ass.-American Pleaders Assistant. Arch. Paup. L.–Archbold's Pauper Lunatics. Am. Prob. Rep.--- American Probate Reports. Arch. Pr. --Archbold on Practice. Am. Rep.-American Reports.
Arg.- Arguendo Argumentum. Am. Ry. Cas.-American Railway Cases. | Arg. R. of L.-Argyle's Reign of Law. Am. Ry. Rep.--American Railway Reports. Ark.-Arkansas; Arkansas Supreme Court ReAm. Tr. Cas. ---Cox's American Trademark Cases. ports. Amb.- Ambler's English Chancery Reports. Arkl.--- Arkley's Scotch Justiciary Court Reports. Amos Code - Amos on an English Code. Arms. M. & ().-Armstrong, Macartney & Ogle's Amos Const.-- Amos on the English Constitution. Irish Nisi Prius Reports. Amos Jur.- Amos on Jurisprudence.
Arn.- Arnold's Common Pleas Reports. Amos Reg. V.-Amos on the Regulation of Vice. Arn. Ins.-Arnould on Marine Insurance. Amos Sc. L.-Amos' Science of Law.
Arn. Mun. Corp.-Arnold on Municipal CorAmos & F. Fixt.-Amos & Ferard on Fixtures. porations. An.-Anonymous.
Arn. & H.-Arnold & Hodges' Queen's Bench And.-Anderson's Common Pleas and Court of Reports. Wards Reports.
Arn. & H. B. C.-Arnold & IIodges' Bail Court Anders. Ch. W.-Anderson on Church Wardens. Reports. Andr.-Andrews' King's Bench Reports. Arnot--- Arnot's Criminal Cases, Scotland. Andr. Dig.–Andrews' Digest.
Art.--Article. Andr. Prec. L.–Andrews' Precedents of Leases. Ashm. (Pa.)-- Ashmead's Pennsylvania Reports. Andr. Prec. M.--Andrews' Precedents of Mort | Asp.--- Aspinall's Maritime Cases. gages.
Ast.--Aston's Entries. Andr. Rev. L.--Andrews on Revenue Laws. Ath. Mar. Set.-Atherly on Marriage SettleAng. Adv. Enj.-Angell on Adverse Enjoy ments. ment.
Atk.-Atkyn's English Chancery Reports. Ang. Ass.-Angell on Assignments for Creditors. Atk. Conv.--Atkinson on Conveyancing. Ang. B. T.-Angell on Bank Tax.
Atk. Mark. Tit.-Atkinson on Marketable Titles. Ang. Carr.-Angell on Carriers.
Atk. P. T.-Atkyn's Parliamentary Tracts. Ang. Corp.-Angell on Private Corporations. | Atk. Sher.- Atkinson on Sheriffs. Ang. Ins.-Angell on Insurance.
Austral. Jur.– Ausiralian Jurist.
Ayck. Ch. F.-Ayckbourn's Chancery Forms and Bank. Inst.—Bankton's Institutes of Law of ScotOrders.
land. Ayck. Jur.-Ayckbourn's Jurisdiction and Prac- Bank. Mag.-The Banker's Magazine. tice.
Bankr. Reg.-National Bankruptcy Register ReAyl. Pan. Ayliffe's Pandects.
ports. Ayl. Par.- Ayliffe's Parergon Juris Canonici Bankr. Reg. Dig.- National Bankruptcy Register Anglicani.
Digest. Azuni Mar. Law-Azuni on Maritime Law. Bann. Lim.-Banning on Limitations of Actions.
Barb. Cr. Pl.-Barbour's Criminal Pleadings. B.
Barb. Dig.–Barbour's Digest of Barbour's New
York Reports. B.--Bancus; Common Bench. Book. See A. Barb. Eq. Dig.-Barbour's Equity Digest. B. C.-Bail Court. Bell's Commentaries on the Barb. Grot.-Barbeyrac's Grotius on War and Law of Scotland.
Peace. B. C. C.-See Bail Ct. Cas.
Barb. (N. Y.)-Barbour's New York Supreme B. C. R.-See Bail Ct. Rep.
Court Reports. B. Ecc. L.-Sce Burn. Eccl. L.
Barb. (N. Y.) Ch.--Barbour's New York ChanB. Just.--See Burn. Just.
cery Reports. B. Mon. (Kv.)—B. Monroe's Kentucky Reports. Barb. Part.--Barbour on Parties to Actions. B. N. C.-See Bro. N. C.
Barb. Puff.-Barbeyrac's Puffendorf on Law of B. N. P.-See Bull. N. P.
Nature and of Nations. B. P. B.-Buller's Paper Book.
Barb. Set-off-Barbour on Set-off. B. R.- Bancus Regis; King's Bench.
Barn. Barnardiston's King's Bench Reports. B. R. H.-King's Bench Cases tempore Hard- Barn. Ch.--Barnardiston's Chancery Reports. wicke,
Barn. Sher.—Barnes' Sheriff. B. & A. or B. & Ald.-See Barn. & A.
Barn. & A. or Barn. & Ald.—Barnewall & AlderB. & A. Cas.-See Barr. & Aus.
son's King's Bench Reports. B. & Ad.— See Barn. & Ad.
Barn. & Ad.-Barnewall & Adolphus' King's B. & B.--See Brod. & B.
Bench Reports. B. & C.-See Barn. & C.
Barn. & C.-Barnewall & Cresswell's King's B. & H. Dig. See Ben. & H. Dig.
Bench Reports. B. & H. L. Cas. See Ben. & H. L. Cas.
Barnes—Barnes Notes of English Practice. B. & L.-See Brown. & L.
Baron S. & Mort.-Baron on Bills of Sale and B. & P.-See Bos. & P.
Chattel Mortgages. B. & S.-See Best & S.
Barr. For. Conv.-Barry's Forms and Precedents Bab. Auc.- Babington on Auctions.
in Conveyancing. Bab. Set-off-Babington on Set-off and Mutual Barr. Ob. Stat.-Barrington's Observations on Credit.
Statutes. Bac. Abr.-Bacon's Abridgment.
Barr (Pa.)-Barr's Pennsylvania Reports. Vols. Bac. Comp. Arb.- Bacon's Complete Arbitrator. I 1-10 Pennsylvania State Reports. Bac, El. Com. L.--Bacon's Elements of the Com Barr. Ten.-Barry's Tenures. mon Law.
Parr. & Arn.--Barron & Arnold's Election Cases. Bac. Gov.-Bacon on Government.
Barr. & Aus.-Barron & Austin's Election Cases. Bac. Law Tr.--Bacon's Law Tracts.
Bart. Conv.-Barton's Elements of Conveyancing. Bac. Max.-Bacon's Maxims.
Bart. Eq.--Barton's Suit in Equity. Bac. Uses-Bacon on Statute of Uses.
Bart. Leg. Max.- Barton's Legal Maxims. Bag --Bagehot on the English Constitution. Bart. Prec.—Barton's Precedents of ConveyBail Ct. Cas.—Lowndes & Maxwell's Bail Court ancing. Cases.
Batem. Ag.-Bateman on Agency. Bail Ct. Rep.-Saunders & Cole's Bail Court Re- Batem. Auc.-- Bateman's Law of Auctions. ports.
Batem. Com. L.-- Bateman's Commercial Law. Bailev (S. C.) Eq.-Bailey's South Carolina Batem. High.--Bateman on Highways. Equity Reports.
Batem. P. & C. L.- Bateman's Political and ConBailey (s. C.) L.- Bailey's South Carolina Law I stitutional Law. Reports.
Bates Dig. F. Ins.-Bates' Digest of the Law of Bain. M. & M.-Bainbridge on Mines and Fire Insurance. Minerals.
Batt. Sp. Perf.--Batten on Specific PerformBaker High.—Baker's Law of Highways in ance. England and Wales.
Batty-Batty's Irish King's Bench Reports. Baldw. Bankr.- Baldwin on Bankruptcy. Baxt. (Tenn.) - Baxter's Tennessee Reports. Baldw. Const.–Baldwin on the Constitution. Bay (S. C.)-Bay's South Carolina Reports. Baldw. Dig.–Baldwin's Connecticut Digest. Bayl. Bills-Bayley on Bills and Notes. Baldw. (U.S.)-Baldwin's United States Circuit Bavl. Cham. Pr.- Bayley's Chamber Practice. Court Reports.
Beam. Eq. Pl.-Beames on Equity Pleading. Balf.—Balfour's Practice of Law of Scotland. Beam. Ne Ex.- Beames on Ne Exeat. Ball Nat. B.-Ball on National Banks.
Beas. (N. J.)-Beasley's New Jersey Chancery Ball Prin.-Ball's Principles of Torts and Con- Reports. tracts.
Beat.- Beatty's Irish Chancery Reports. Ball & B.–Ball & Beatty's Irish Chancery Beaum. Sale-Beaumont on Bills of Sale. Reports.
Beav.-Beavan's Rolls Court Reports. Ballan. Lim.–Ballantine on Limitations. Beaw.--Beawes' Ler Mercatoria
Becc.-Beccaria on Crimes and Punishments. Big. L. & A. Ins. Cas.-Bigelow's Life and Acci-
| Bill. Aw.-Billing on the Law of Awards. Bee, or Bee Adm.-Bee's Admiralty Reports. | Bing.--Bingham's Common Pleas Reports. Bell Ap. Cas.-Bell's House of Lords Cases. | Bing. Desc.- Bingham on Descent. Bell C.-Bell's Scotch Court of Sessions Cases. Bing. Exec. Cont.- Bingham on Executory Bell Com.-Bell's Commentaries on Law of Scot- / Contracts. land.
Bing. N. C.- Bingham's New Cases, English Bell Cr. Cas.-Bell's Crown Cases.
Common Pleas. Bell. Del. U. S.-Beller's Delineation of Uni Bing. Real Est.- Bingham on Real Estate. versal Law.
Bing. & C. Rents-—Bingham & Colvin on Rents, Bell Dict. - Bell's Dictionary of Law of Scot &c. land.
Binn. Just.-Binns' Pennsylvania Justice. Bell Dict. Dec.-Bell's Dictionary of Decisions. | Binn. (Pa.)-Binney's Pennsylvania Reports. Bell H. L.-Bell's House of Lords Cases. Bird Conv.-Bird on Conveyancing. Bell Husb. & W.-Bell on Husband and Wife. Bird L. & T.--Bird on the Law of Landlords, Bell lilus.--Bell's Illustrations of Principles.
Tenants and Lodgers.
| Bish, Cr. L.--Bishop on Criminal Law. Bell Sess. Cas.-Bell's Cases in the Court of Bish. Cr. Pro.- Bishop's Criminal Procedure. Sessions.
Bish. Insolv. Dr.-Bishop on Insolvent DebBell Styles.—Bell's System of Forms of Deeds. tors. Bellew.--Bellewe's King's Bench Cases. Bish. Mar. W.-Bishop on the Law of Married Belt Sup. Ves.-Belt's Supplement to Vesey's Women. Reports.
Bish. Mar. & D.-- Bishop on Marriage and DiBelt Ves. Sen.-Belt's edition of Vesey Senior's vorce. Reports.
Bish. Stat. Cr.-Bishop on Statutory Crimes. Ben. Adm. Pr.--Benedict's Admiralty Practice. Bisp. Pr. Eq.-Bispham's Principles of Equity. Ben. Aver.-Benecke on Average.
Biss. Est., or Biss. Life Est.-Bisset on Estates Ben. Br. Cr.-Benedikt on Brains of Criminals. for Life. Ben. (U. S.)--Benedict's District Court Reports. Biss. Part.-Bisset on Law of Partnership. Ben. & H. Dig.–Bennett & Heard's Massachu-Biss. (U. S.)--Bissell's Circuit Court Reports. setts Digest.
Bitt. Pr. Cas.-Bittleston's Practice Cases. Ben. & H. L. Cas.--Bennett & Heard's Leading Bl. Com.-Blackstone's Commentaries. Cases.
Bl. D. & 0,- Blackham, Dundas & Osborne's Ben. & Sl. Dig.-Benjamin & Slidell's Louisiana Irish Nisi Prius Reports. Digest.
BI. H.-Henry Blackstone's Reports. Benj. Sales— Benjamin on Sales.
Bl. Law Tr.- Blackstone's Law Tracts. Benl.-Benloe's King's Bench Reports.
BI. R.-William Blackstone's Common Law Benl. & D.-Benloe & Dalison's Common Pleas Reports. Reports.
Bl. Ten.-Blount's Tenures. Benn. Diss. or Benn. Pract.-Bennett's Proceed- Black (U. S.)-Black's Supreme Ct. Reports. ings before Masters in Chancery,
Blackb. Sales-Blackburn on Sales. Benn. Fire Ins. Cas.--Bennett's Fire Insurance Blackf. (Ind.)—Blackford's Indiana Reports. Cases.
| Blacks. Com.--Blackstone's Commentaries. Benn. & H. Cr. Cas.--Bennett & Heard's Lead Blacks. R.- William Blackstone's Common Law ing Criminal Cases.
Reports. Benn. & H. Dig.–Bennett & Heard's Massachu- Blackw. Tax T.-Blackwell on Tax Titles. setts Digest.
Blake Ch. Pr.-Blake's New York Chancery Benth. Jud. Ev.-Bentham's Judicial Evidence. Practice. . Benth. Leg.-Bentham's Theory of Legislation. Blan. Life An.-Balison Life Annuities. Bert.- Berton's New Brunswick Reports. Blanch. & W. Mine Blanchard & Weeks on Bess. L. Prec.-- Besson's Law Precedents.
Mines. Best Ev.---Best on Evidence.
Bland (Md.)-- Blands Maryland Chancery ReBest Pres.-Best on Presumptions.
ports. Best & S.-Best & Smith's Queen's Bench Re- Blansh. Lim.-Blanshard on Limitations. ports.
Blatchf. Pr. Cas.-Blatchford's District Court Betts Adm. Pr.-Betts Admirality Practice.
Prize Cases. Bev. Hom.-- Bevil on Homicide.
Blatchf. (U. S.)-Blatchford's Circuit Court ReBibb (Ky.)-Bibb's Kentucky Reports.
ports. Bickn. Cr. Pr.--Bicknell's Criminal Practice in Blatchf. & H.-Blatchford & Howland's AdmirIndiana.
alty Reports. Big. Bills-Bigelow on Bills, Notes and Checks. Bli. or Bligh-Bligh's House of Lords Reports. Big. Cas. B. & N.-Bigelow's Cases on Bills and Bli. N. S. or Bligh N. S.-Bligh's House of Notes.
Lords Reports, New Series. Big. Estop.--Bigelow on Estoppel.
| Bliss Code-Bliss' New York Annotated Code. Big. Fraud--Bigelow on the Law of Fraud. Bliss Code Pl.-Bliss on Code Pleading. Big. Over. Cas.-Bigelow's Overruled Cases. Bliss L. Ins.-Bliss on Life Insurance.