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It will no doubt be readily admitted by both the
January 14, 1847. learned gentlemen whom I have quoted, above, that
Earthquake at Messenia, in Greece, day of the Earthquake at Rice Lake, Upper Canada, about 15 the atmosphere of the whole earth is connected and month not ascertained.
miles from Grafton Harbor. forms but one mass and is of various degrees of temperature, and that it is connected with the earth, and
July 10, 1846.
STEAMERS AND EARTHQUAKES. that our globe forms but one mass.
Earthquake at Deerfield, New-Hampshire.
On the 15th of January, the British government If this earth is disturbed, the atmosphere is also dis
July 29, 1846.
steamer Sphynx of 1050 tons burthen, nad 500 horse turbed, but the ability to measure the extent of the
power was wrecked on a reef of rocks on the Isle
Earthquake at Colongne, Prussia and throughout || disturbance, or to ascertain when it takes place in one
of Wight. section of the globe by the peculiar state of atsouthern Gernjany at abont 9 P. M.
The same day the Steamer Sirius, (the first British mosphere in another, is the great desideratum.
August 4, 1846.
steamer which crossed the Atlantic) was lost on the Since the commencement of the present year, a Earthquake at Ningpo and other places in China at il Irish coast and 12 persons who attempted to get on friend has sent me a copy of Darwin's Observation || about 5 o'clock in the morning.
shore were drowned. made during a voyage round the world, in which I
It will be seen the above that these steamers were
August 12, 1846. find the facts he recorded sustains the views I have
lost the day following the earthquake at Rice Lake. expressed as to a connection of convulsions with
Earthquake at Fincastle in Virginia at between 1 On the 25th and 26th of November the Steamer storms and as to several points being affected at the inte being affected at the 1 and 2 P. M.
Atlantic made a dreadful shipwreck in Long Island same time. He has not referred to equilibriums; and
August 14, 1846.
Sound, and in the above record of earthquakes it will it appears was not aware that Hecla, Vesuvius and
be seen that an earthquake traversed Scotland at a
Eruption in the Red Sea, in Asia, at about ten Ætna, although far apart, had been convulsed simul.
few minutes before 1 A.M., of the 25th of November, o'clock in the morning, in latitude 15°, 7' North, taneously, for he expressly states he was ignorant of
making but a few hours difference in time. long. 420,12' east, and on the same day an earthquake such fact. After my minute observatious had been
From the 19th to 21st of September the Steamer entered Tuscany, in Europe, from the sea at about 1 continued many months, accounts reached here that
Great Western was perilled in a terrific storm and on P.M., in latitude, 43°, 13', 11" north, long, 100, 24', Mount Hecla, in Iceland, which had been in a state
the 22d the Great Britain was mysteriously drawn east. These were simultaneous although 2500 miles of quiet since 1786, was on the 2d day of September,
upon the rocks and wrecked. An Earthquake is reapart. The difference in longitude makes the differ1845, terribly convulsed; I then stated in my pub
corded above, at Cape Haytian on the 15th of the same ence in time. lished observations that I was led to the conclusion
month. from the observations I had made that our atmosphere
August 22, 1846.
The Steamer Swallow was mysteriously drawn and earth would be extensively convulsed for a con Earthquake in Iceland, between the continent of upon a rock at Athens, in the Hudson River, and siderable length of time. The following shows that America and Europe.
stranded, on the 7th of April 1845, and that day and the bold opinion I then expressed has been awfully
August 25, 1846.
evening three earthquakes in succession convulsed sustained by facts.
Earthquake in many of the seaport and river towns
the city of Mexico.
On the 29th of November, 1846, the packet ship Sept. 2, 1845. in Maine, New-Hampshire, Massachusetts, and in some
Thos. P. Cope, was burnt by lightning which came Mount Hecla in Iceland, terribly convulsed for the of the river towns in Vermont, at about 5 o'clock in
down mixed with snow, in long. 65, lat. 41, 15. It first time since 1786. the morning.
will be seen in the above catalogue that an earthquake Sept. 20, 1845.
August 27, 1846.
was felt at Porto Rico the 28th of November, the day The northern shore of Lake Ontario, between Port ||
Earthquake in Tuscany, in Europe, at about 10 previous, Hope and Colborne, convulsed. The water of the ll o'clock in the morning.
There is reason to apprehend from the above relake on this shore receded rapidly for a few moments
Sept. 2, 1846.
corded facts, that the silicious points containing me.
tallic ingredients (in the water) become magnetized by and again returned with great force, and increased The Mountain Gunong Merrappi, in the Island of quantity and thus continued for some time. The shore
the shock of an earthquake and that an iron vessel, or Java, in the Eastern Archiphelago, convulsed, and the is bound by a horizontal strata of bituminous fossilifer
vessel of wood containing large quantities of iron and top of the mountain heated to redness. It had not ous lime stone wnich have embeded in it stone of a
floating in a dense fluid with a fluid of much lesser been agitated for a thousand years before. description that the heat of the lime kilns have no
density resting upon them, is drawn by the attraction Sept. 6, 1846.
of these points or rocks, so charged directly upon them. effect on. This locality was once convulsed and immense quantities of bitumen and mud discharged
Trinidad visited by an earthquake, also St. Vincent's
I make the suggestion and at the same time give overwhelming every thing living in its waters in and Grenada.
the above facts as my premises. one mass of destruction. I examined this locality for
Sept. 10, 1846. several days in 1844, and obtained numerous fossils that had been preserved by the chrystalization of the Trinidad shaken by an Earthquake.
RICE LAKE AND GRAFTON HARBOR. bitumen.
Sept. 12, 1846.
In the summer of 1844, my beloved daughter Mary, Nov. 25, 1845.
Earthquake at Deerfield, New Hampshire, at about (whose decease is recorded on the opposite page) and Earthquake at Deerfield, New-Hampshire, shook || Bunset.
Sept. 15, 1846.
myself visited the very locality which was convulsed down stone walls, cellar walls, stopped clocks, &c.
Earthquake at Cape Haytian, St. Domingo at about
on the Sth and 14th of January, as noticed above, and Dec. 23, 1845. 11 o'clock P. M.
made extensive collections of fossils from the bituEarthquake at Memphis, Ten., at half-past 9 P. M.
Oct. 18, 1846.
minous beds which have there been formed by ancient Jan. 30, 1846.
Earthquake at Boonsborough, Maryland, about 5 || eruptions. Here she was presented with a volume Earthquake at the Belgian Settlement of Santa P.M.
of the Holy Scriptures imprinted at London in 1599 Tomas, near the equator.
Oct. 23, 1846.
-248 years ago by a relative residing on the very Feb. 28, 1846. Convulsion in the earth or atmosphere at Tallahasse,
ground which overlays this bituminous formation, and Earthquake at Cincinnati at about 8 A. M.
Florida, about 1 o'clock P. M. No clouds in sight,
this very copy of the Sacred Book was at her bedside March 18, 1846.
Oct. 29, 1846.
when the vital spark was passing away to the realms Earthquake at Valparaiso, South America. Earthquake at Deerfield, N. H., at 9 P.M.
of light and when the ground on which the donor March 23, 1846.
Oct. 31, 1846.
resided was the theatre of a convulsion. Earthquake at Maysville. Ky., at 20 minutes before 1 A.M. Same day at half-past 7 A. M., Earthquake
Earthquake at Deerfield, N. H., in the night. at the town of Cuba, in the Island of Cuba.
Earthquake at Algiers in Africa. Day of the month || I had intended to have presented in this series of Earthquake at Catania, in Sicily. not ascertained,
the Municipal Gazette now issued from the press, my Nov. 12, 1846.
meteorlogical observations made hourly for the month April 28, 1846.
of August, September, October, November and DeEarthquake at Catania, in Sicily, and same day
Earthquake at Deerfield, N. H., at 20 minutes be
cember, 1846, and January 1847, together with those shock of an earthquake was felt at Santa Cruz, south fore 8 P.M.
made hourly at Saltville, Va., by W. P. Milnor, Esq., side of the Island of Cuba.
Nov. 28, 1846.
for the same months, and those made at Syracuse in May 30, 1846. Earthquake at Porto Rico, West Indies.
this State, by L. W. Conkey, Esq., for the same period,
compiled under each separate days' date, together Earthquake at Newburyport, and Salem, Mass.
Dec. 2, 1846.
with the accounts of earthquakes, thunder-storms, June 16, 1846. Earthquake at Deerfield, N. H.
hail-storms, hurricanes, rain-storms, &c., on the same Earthquake at Guadaloupe and Martinique.
days in various sections of the globe, but the labor of Earthquake at Marseilles, in France, date not ascer.
compiling is too great to be accomplished in season June 21, 1846.
for this issue. I shall endeavor to present the entire tained. Earthquake at Vera Cruz, Mexico.
record in the next number of this paper. Hourly obJanuary 8, 1847.
servations are rarely made in this country. June 25, 1846.
The threo Earthquake at Grafton Harbor, Colborne, &.c, localities I have named are in salt water districts, and Earthquake at Smyrna, in Asia. Upper Canada, at about 3 P. M.
the two latter, I think, were once volcanic.
From the Brooklyn Evening Star of Feb. 12, 1847.
LINES WRITTEX ON THE DEATH OF MRS. MARY 8. M. SEAMAN.
By her Friend, Julia C. RINGWOOD.
(From the New York Farmer and Mechanic' of Jan. 21.)
Died, at Brooklyn, on the 15th inst., after a painful and lingering illness, Mrs. Mary S. M. SEAMAN, wife of David K. SEAMAN, and daughter of Ebenezer and Mary S. Meriam, aged 25 years, 7 months and 24 days.
This afflicted dispensation has removed from the earth one of its loveliest daughters, and shrouded an affectionate circle of relations and friends in mourning. A few months since witnessed the plighted faith and fond vows of this young bride at the altar, and last Sabbath witnessed, before the same holy altar, the hallowed remains of that fair but attenuated forin, prepared for the bridal of Death. But, afflic. tive and sad as is this dispensation of Providence to the bereaved circle of surviving friends, they are not called to mourn as those who mourn without hope. The departed one was enabled calmly and sweetly to pass down into the dark valley, relying on the merits of her Divine Savior, and cheerfully yielding up her spirit into the hands of Him who gave it. It may be truly said of the deceased, that none knew her but to love and esteem her virtues, and there are none that knew her but will mourn her loss. We sincerely sympathize with our aflicted friend and correspondent, and trust that he will feel that she has but exchanged the affectionate solicitude of an earthly parent for the fullness of her heavenly Father's love.
SHE SLEEPS IN JESUS.
I saw her by the altar stand,
A young and a happy bride ;
To him who was her pride ;
She uttered forth the vow
I seem to hear it now.
Ere joy was changed to gloom :
All shrouded for the tomb;
Her bridal flowers were laid....
Now docked her for the grave.
Came to me by her grave-
And roses soon must fade."
Bright wings to her are given;
And MARY is in Heaven !
Strike music from each string ; Thousands of ransomed tongues and hearts
Make Heaven with anthems ring.
Thy home is in the skies;
With our weak earthly eyes-
Our sins on earth forgiven,
And dwell with thee in Heaven,
For the New York Municipal Gazette.
TO E. M.
MARGARETTE MONARY. Feb. 18, 1817.
The last verse of the lines in the first column of page 673, written by “ CORNELIA," was misprinted--we reprint the verse corrected.
It hath fled, on its viewless wings of light,
To the Maker who gave it birth;
Set not your affections on earth!
Extract from a letter written by DEAR Mary to
her Sister Eliza, dated Cobourg U. C., June 17, 1844.
DEAR SISTER :-Last week I visited Port Hope -it is a beautiful place, so many groves in its neighbourhood with pretty white cottages peeping through the trees giving to it a picturesque and romantic appearance; there are also many Church edifices, mostly upon the hills, which add much to the beauty of the place—but there is one draw-back upon the village which sadly mars its prosperity-viz : the numerous distilleries in its neighbourhood—these generate the very spirit of evil which casts the blight of poverty, misery and wretchedness upon many-yes, upon many a family within the reach of the poisonous fluid which those establishments send forth. The very name of this place—“ Port Hope" ought to banish such destructionists from its borders, for there is little hope of reformation of the drunkard while the machines for making inebriates are tolerated. In my last letter from Cobourg I mentioned that the worm was making ravages among vegetation, but the worm of the “Still" is a thousand times more destructive, for it not only consumes the staff of life but actually feeds on mortal flesh, and not even satisfied with these but also devours the human mind that yields to its influences."
The waters of Lake Ontario are of great depth and very transparent. About a mile from the shore and four miles west of this place is Gull Island, upon which a light-house has been erected. Mr. S. informs me, that within the last 15 years he has visited it when there was nearly an acre of ground, or more properly speaking rock (for it is all solid rock) visible above the water, and now it is entirely covered even where the rock is highest to the depth of 15 inches.
Extract from a letter written by Dear Mary to
her Sister Eliza, dated Colborne Upper Canada, May 24, 1844.
DEAR SISTER :-" While we were at Rochester we visited Mount Hope CEMETRY. The ground itself is beautiful about one hundred acros enclosed and laid out in good taste—it is the most singular piece of ground I ever saw-indeed it would be difficult to find a place like it-it is a continuous succession of small elevations--the highest of which is called the pinnacle, commands a most beautiful view of the country for miles around. It was Sunday when we visited the Cemetry—on that day no car. riages or horses are allowed to be driven through the grounds ; all seemed peaceful and quiet-but the birds were warbling so wildly and yet so sweetly, that an imaginative person might almost imagine them the spirits of the departed hovering over their last resting places--the Cemetry itself I can best describe by using the words of * * * when speaking of Mount AUBURN. IT IS THE GARDEN OF Graves."
In Colborne there is one well but 11 feet deep ; another close by it was sunk to the depth of 50 feet without reaching water, and a well was sunk at Cobourg to the depth of 150 feet with the same result. There are salt springs to the west of this place a few miles, the water of which is said to produce a pail of salt from four pails of the saline waters. I should think that these springs could be worked to a profit but am not chemist enough to determine this fact.
Copy of a note written in September 1846 by Dear Mary to her Sister ELIZA.
Dear Sister:-Did Mother tell you about our arrangement to visit GREENWood ?-perhaps not, well this is our plan-Jans expected her Father yesterday, but he did not arrive so we are not sure of all going. David has engaged two horses for one carriage and he has also another carriage for Mr. Marvin, and we expect him over with two more horses, and we wish you to go with us.-David says there will be plenty of room, so will you not go ?
In great haste,
EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENCE. penury of the lower classes; the fluctuations of British The fine white suowy mist has fallen all day driven commerce (and consequent rises and depressions in the
by most furious blasts of wind in close succession. 357 Roxbury Square, Waterloo Roads, I
price of labor) are the unavoidable causes of the want This is the first Northwester I have witnessed EDINBURGH, June 1st, 1846. of employment too often found in this country, and I
worthy of notice this winter-i: is a wind of great My Dear Friends: am satisfied that as long as there is so vast a manu
strength moving 40 or 50 miles hourly and has been In accordance with a promise I made to you before facturing and so proportionably small agricultural area
indeed a wintry storm. I left New-York, that I would write a letter to you, I exposed to dross residues of foreign markets, there
I apprehend an Eastern or South Eastern wind has cheerfully comply. I must first beg to be excused will be reverses in the state of the manufacturers
swept the Gulph and may have greatly endangered for the great delay of this letter, and assure you that I reverses that are beyond the control of the wisest go
southern coasting vessels within the last 60 hours. have only just arrived in Edinburgh the day before vernment. The Corn law is so nearly expired, that
But my observation of weather has been always of yesterday. I believe that it was understood that I all hope of its recovery by the protectionists is at an local character never exainining correllative eflects in was to write when I settled in Scotland, and I have end. If the principles of free trade so commenced remote places. on that account reserved my letter to the present should be reciprocated by the United States Govern
The freeze now operates from the air upon the time. I hope that it has not proved any cause of dis- | ment, I have no doubt that it would be very beneficial
surface of the ground, the latter having as yet no appointment to you. I remained so long in England to the two nations equally, and be the commencement
tendency to abstract heat, but is rather giving out heat after my arrival, and then in Scotland, in parts where of a new era in the world, capable of exerting a
to the air. it is was utterly impossible to write a definite or satis wholesome influence on the nations adopting it, and
I have heretofore stated to you that at the same time factory letter. I hope these unavoidable delays will an honor to the originator. The real influence of the
zones of heat and cold in various degrees do extend be sufficient excuse for my not sooner writing by your repeal of the Corn law in Great Britain cannot at
fro:n the South West toward the North East con. very kind request. present be told until it has been in operation, but so
trolled to a strong extent by varieties of elevation After I saw you in New-York, (thinking that I was great a step must have a great effect.
and of the character of the stratified rocky crust of going to be delayed longer than I wished by the The Oregon nolice of the United States has been
the earth. Sometimes these belts are numerous and Hottinguer,) I went on board a ship for London, to received, but I believe no step has been taken on it
extending hundreds of miles in length, but they are sail that very day, but meeting with some delay I then yet; there has been a rumor that the Boundary has subject to equations with one another and often great thought it better to return to my old berth in the been settled, but I think not, as no official account has
circular districts manifest a sudden collapsing into Hottinguer, which I did on the day of sailing, and il yet found its way among the people ; I hope it may extreme coldness certain electromagnetic vicissi. only two hours before. We had a very stormy pass i be settled in an amicable manner, and I think that
tudes of the air and the terrene superstructure always age of twenty days, but I was not in the least sick, but the British Government have not been behind in attend such extensive changes of temperature. The enjoyed very excellent health. Before commencing doing their part to that desirable end; you may hear
barometer often exhibits evidence that such change my studies in Scotland, I thought to enjoy a few weeks 1 of some ultimatum from official quarters by this
is about to happen and the barometrical sinking of journey, and remained some time in England, and steamer. The India war has completely closed, and
the mercury is as often the result of interior alterathen went to the west of Scotland. peace is at present restored; there is however some
tion of specific weights as of superior atmospheric Though the voyage was most prosperous, yet there indication of some rupture somewhere, by the great variation of pressure. It is these interior effects in was one consideration which obtruded itself-pamely: and continual preparations for war, with the real ob
the earths crust which upon the approach of an earththat to revisit my native land, my parents, and my ject I am unacquainted. A new branch of royalty
quake make the air musky and so often force a light warmest friends. This same ocean, with its billows; appeared in England last week. I like your weather
shower nf rain and which also disturb the polarizing these same waves, with their terrific endurance, must better than here; it is too rainy, though at present it
action of the needle and the barometrical grade. be hazarded, and the thousands of miles over the briny | is very warm and dry. We are so much further east
There is no doubt winds are but demonstrations of deep must be retraced-considerations, which though that our time is about four and a half hours faster than chemical equations in the sea of atmosphere analothey inspired hopes, also elicited fear. yours, so that we are much earlier risers. The nights
gous to the tide relations of the ocean under gravitaThe transmission of a stranger from America to a are quite different here to what they are in your coun
ting tendencies. Every wind, every tide, every country older in discovery, the site of deeds recorded try, being quite light at ten o'clock in the evening,
storm or earthquake must have its counterpart reprein ancient and modern history, the birthplace of revo- and again at two in the morning, the four hours being sented by greater or less concentrativeness at the antilutions, civil and religious, and the early residence of only twilight. Though I keep myself as easy as pos
podes or elswhere and hence your method of enquirour Anglo-Saxon forefathers. These topics will form sible, yet I very often wish myself a little nearer ing into such Physical phenomena will after extended Bufficient material for study for the short time of stay home. I very fortunately found a Canadian in Edin analysis be admitted to be well founded-many conin this country, and the time I can devote to these burgh, who lived quite near my father's, and with
nections will be found to be simultaneous as is the subjects. whose friends and neighbors I am well acquainted.
pulsation of the heart throughout the animal body Just before coming to Edinburgh, I visited the birth He is the only person with whom I am acquainted in
while other connections occur successively like the place and the last resting place of a talented but Edinburgh, except the professors, and is going to return passage of fluids from one to other parts of the living unlettered bard of Scotland-Burns. There are re with me in the spring if we are spared; so you see I body. flections of a very interesting character connected have one long year yet to be away, at the end of
The point of interchange between negative and powith this individual-the consideration that the un. which, perhaps, I might be inclined to stay altogether, sitive polarities of Electro-magnetism is neutral as to lettered mind may rise superior to the difficulties but I can assure you that is not my intention now. I attractions and repulsions and as one or other of and privations of this life, and engrave their names am now in the Royal Infirmary in this city, and in the
these states of centrality or dispersion gains ascen. in the book of fame, and in the affections and lite University, This is the most splendid city that I ever
dency over atoms or properties of atoms, so will be rature of future generations must be, and is a bright saw, abounding with monuments and public buildings, the sensible developements. Luminosity is one of polar star to those on whom fortune has not smiled, four or five hnudred years old ; they interest me very
the sequences of excess in either the repletive or the and on whose minds literature has not shed its cheer much and call up many associations which I have
privitive states of atoms or properties suddenly ining beams. I have employed my leisure in investi learned in history and find verified here. This being
duced. The ancients conceived the whole globe to gating the school system of this country, and I think the great site in Scotland where the martyrs suffered possess powers of individualization somewhat analothere is no place where learning is more universal ; for the cause of a Protestant church in the time of the gous to those manifested in a living animal. Not one it is almost impossible for any class, from the poorest reformation; many popish superstition and cruelty,
atom was esteemed to change its condition without to the richest, to remain in a state of absolute igno and of their victims, still remain, and many of great
inducing instant and consecutive changes in other rance. I think some of the principles might yet be antiquity. I am very sorry that I have no news of any atoms both in near contact and remotely situated. introduced into America with manifest advantage. more consequence to the lady readers than the dry
And granting the truth of this last position, it is plain Science is no longer a being of the closet and the li. details of the news of a foreign country, but in the that in meteorology immense complexity of causation braries of the rich and opulent, holding itself aloof in absence of any thing else I was obliged to resort to exists, so that in judging of weather predictions, we mysterious abstraction from the general mass of man the general news of the country. * *
can only compare groups of passing phenomena and kind; but it mingles with the common affairs of life, E. MERIAM.
not all their minor relations, in approximating the and shines for all, it shines on all. It is found in the
truth. smithy and at the forge; it is in the factory, the
The animal instincts, a part from rational induction, foundry and the machine shop; it is in the mine, apon
VIRGINIA CORRESPONDENCE. form the main basis for weather predictions impenda the farm, and in the kitchen; it now enables the
WYTHEVILLE, FEBRUARY 3, 1847.
ing, but, experience and reasoning inay extend such poorest peasant to contemplate the material system,
investigations so as to reach conclusions having much from the planets in the sky to the riches in the bowels ! E. MERIAM, Esq.
of remote certainty counected with them. It is my in the earth, and make them almost subservient to Dear Sir:- I wrote you the state of the weather || opinion that chemistry has not yet entered its real his own ends. Finally it makes this life a thousand yesterday, predicting a snow storm. At 8 o'clock,
| theatre of profitable research. In modern times its times more comfortable and desirable to the mass of | P. M., on last night the thermometer was at 56 and
votaries may be said to have been chiefly engaged in mankind. I do not mean in any way to detract from! this morning at 6 A. M. at 50 with the wind from the | examining figures of chrystallization without enquirthe praise due to the American system, but I have | West-all night it had been from the South West, ing into those simple and complex properties which been particularly struck with the utility and univer in a strong gale. At 8 o'clock the wind suddenly force atoms into certain arrangements in preference Bality of the Scottish system.
veered from the North West and has so continued to assuming other configurations. Chemists have yet I have been endeavoring to ascertain the reason of with increasing force till now 10 P. M.
to examine and compare the non-materialized prothose unhappy states of social life in which so many At half-past 7 o'clock this morning the snow began perties which were congenetal with atomic existance, of the laboring classes in Great Britain are thrown, ll to fall in thin frosty mists the temperature being 35 but which may and do subsist without dependence and I am happy to state that the accounts received in at 9 o'clock A. M. 25 at 11 o'clock, A. M. and at 3 il upon the parental atoms. Properties too, whi America of the melancholy destitution of so many in- || P. M. 20 and at this time 9 o'clock is 18 above zero only attain seperated and peculiar powers for selfdividuals, are greatly exaggerated. I am convinced !! Fahranheit, and by morning it will be down to 10 conservation, but also, become capable of action upon that any executive exaction is not the cause of the degrees above zero.
atoms and upon other conclaves of pure properties.
Without enquiries of this cast the philosophic chemist and great bags of cotton, yerba, and other valuable || of dust which darkened the sky, at last he gained the and Physiologist never can develope the true condi merchandise, were scattered on the shore. During street. As shock succeeded shock at the interval of tion of those phenomena representing organic life or my walk around the islaud, I observed that numerous a few minutes, no one dared approach the shattered those other phenomena called light, gravitation, and fragments of rock, which, from the marine productions ruins; and no one knew whether his dearest friends Electro-magnetism common to both animated and adhering to them, must recently have been lying in or relations were not perishing in the want of help. inanimate states of being.
deep water, had been cast up high on the beach. One Those who had saved any property were obliged to I write to give you the state of our miserably bad of these was six feet long, three broad, and two thick. keep constant watch, for thieves prowled about, and weather and I guess at this time you too have North The island itself is plainly showed the overwhelin at each little trembling of the ground, with one hand westers roaring over your city-I hope no fires have ing power of the earthquake, as the beach did that of they beat their breasts and cried “misericordia!" and this day seized on our cities or towns.
the consequent great wave. The ground in many then with the other filched what they would from the Feb. 4th.—Thermometer 5 o'clock A. M., this parts was fissured in north and south lines, perhaps ruins. The thatched roofs fell over the fires, and day, was 8 degrees above zero and at 8 o'clock 12 caused by the yielding of the parallel and steep sides flames burst forth in all parts. Hundreds knew themand at 10 o'clock 14th the Northwest and Northwinds of this narrow island. Some of the fissures near the selves ruined, and few had the means of providing continued all last night-the sky is clear and bright cliffs were a yard wide. Many enormous masses had food for the day. to-day. I suspect this Northwest storm crossed all already fallen on the beach, and the inhabitants thought Earthquakes alone are sufficient to destroy the prosthe region from the lakes Southward to Vicksburgh that when the rains commenced far greater slips would perity of any country. If beneath England the now and was too violent every where for much snow to happen. The effect of the vibration on the hard, pri inert subterranean forces should exert those powers, fall this side of the Mississippi. It is a sequence of mary slate that which composes the foundation of the which most assuredly in former geological ages they the warm and long prevailing gulph winds which island, and was still more curious: the superficial parts have exerted, how completely would the entire conencircled the Southern United States and hence it is of some narrow ridges were as completely shivered dition of the country be changed. What would beprobable this Northwester has crossed the Blue as if they had been blasted by gunpowder. This effect come of the lofty houses, thickly packed cities, great Ridge and entered upon the ocean at least as far as which has been rendered conspicuous by the fresh manufactories, the beautiful public and private edifices. the line of the Gulph Stream.
fractures and displaced soil, must be confined to near If the new period of disturbance were first to comYours respectfully, the surface, for otherwise there would not exist a block mence by some great earthquake in the dead of the
of solid rock throughoutChiloe, nor is this improbable, as night how terrific would be the carnage. England
it is known that the surface of a vibrating body is affected would at once be bankrupt; all papers, records, and DARWIN'S OBSERVATIONS.
differently from the central part. It is perhaps owing accounts, would from that moment be lost. Govern
to this same reason that earthquakes do not cause quite ment being unable to collect the taxes, and failing to TERRIBLE EARTHQUAKE.
such terrific havoc within deep mines as would be maintain its authority, the hand of violence and rapine February 20th.—This day has been memorable in expected. I believe this convulsion has been more would remain uncontrolled. In every large town fathe annals of Valdivia for the most severe earthquake effectual in lessening the size of the island of Quiriquina mine would go forth, pestilence and death following experienced by the oldest inhabitant. I happened to than the ordinary wear and tear of the sea and weather in its train. be on shore, and was lying down in the wood to rest during the course of a whole century.
Shortly after the shock a great wave was seen from myself. It came on suddenly, and lasted two minutes, The next day I landed at Talcahuano, and after the distance of three or four miles, approaching in the but the time appeared much longer. The rocking of
wards rode to Conception. Both towns presented middle of the bay, with a smooth outline ; but along the ground was very sensible. The undulations ap
the most awful interesting spectacle I ever beheld. the shore it tore up cottages and trees, as it swept peared to my companion and myself to come from
To a person who had formerly known them, it pos onwards with irresistible force. At the head of the due east, and whilst others thought they proceeded sibly might have been still more impressive, for the bay it broke in a fearful line of white breakers, which from south west; this shows how difficult it some.
ruins were so mingled together, and the whole scene rushed up to a height of 23 vertical feet above the times is to perceive the direction of the vibrations. possessed so little the air of a habitable place, that it highest spring tides, their force must have been proThere was no difficulty in standing upright, but the was scarcely possible to imagine its former condition. digious; for at the fort a cannon, with its carriage, motion made me almost giddy : it was something like The earthquake commenced at half past eleven o'clock estimated at four tons in weight, was moved fifteen the movement of a vessel in a little cross ripple. or I in the forennonTf it had hannened in the middle of
in the forenoon. If it had happened in the middle of feet inwards. A schooner was left in the midst of the still more like that felt by a person skating over thin the night, the greater number of the inhabitants, which ruins two hundred yards from the beach. The first ice, which bends under the weight of his body. A in this one province amount to many thousands, must wave was followed by two others, which in their bad earthquake at once destroys our oldest associa have perished, instead of less than a hundred : as it retreat carried away a vast wreck of floating objects. tions: the earth the very emblem of solidity, has was, the invariable practice of running out of doors at In one part of the bay a ship was pitched high and moved beneath our feet like a thin crust over a fluid. the first trembling of the ground alone saved them. dry on shore, and was carried off, again driven on One second of time has created in the mind a strange In Conception each house, or row of houses, stood by shore, and again carried off. In another part, two large idea of insecurity, which hours of reflection would not itself a heap or line of ruins, but in Talcahunao, owing vessels anchored near together were whirled about, have produced. In the forest, as the breeze moved to the great wave, little more than one layer of bricks, and their cables were thrice wound round each other; the trees, I felt only the earth tremble, but saw no tiles, and timber, with here and there part of a wall though anchored at a depth of thirty-six feet, they were other effect. Capt. Fitz Roy, and some officers were left standing, could be distinguished. From this cir. for some minutes aground. The great wave must have at the town during the shock, and there the scene was cumstance, Conception, although not so completely traveled slowly, for the inhabitants of Talcahuano had more striking, for although the houses, from being desolated, was a more terrible, and if I may so call it, time to run up the hills behind the town and some built of wood, did not fall, they were violently shaken, picturesque sight. The first shock was very sudden. sailors pulled out seaward, trusting successfully to their and the boards creaked and rattled together. The The mayor-domo at Quiriquina told me, that the first boat riding securely over the swell if they could reach people rushed out of doors in the greatest alarm. It notice he received of it was finding both the horse he it before it broke. One old woman with a little boy, is these accompaniments that create that perfect horror rode and himself rolling together on the ground. four or five years old, ran into a boat, but there was of earthquakes, experienced by all who have thus been
Rising up, he was again thrown down. He also told me no body to row it out, the boat was consequently as well as felt their effects. Within the forest it was that some cows which were standing on the steep side dashed against an anchor and cut in twain; the old a deeply interesting, but by no means an awe exciting of the island, were rolled into the sea. The great woman was drowned, but the child was picked up phenomenon. The tides were very curiously affected. wave caused the destruction of many cattle ; on one some hours afterwards clinging to the wreck. Pools The great shock took place at the time of low water; low island, near the head of the bay, seventy animals of salt water were still standing amidst the ruins of the and an old woman who was on the beach told me that were washed off and drowned. It is generally thought houses, and children making boats with old tables and the water flowed very quickly but not in great waves this has been the worst earthquake ever recorded in chairs, appeared as happy as their parents were mi. to high water mark, and then as quickly returned to Chiloe; but as the very severe ones occur only after serable. It was, however, exceedingly interesting to its proper level; this was also evident by the line of
long intervals, this cannot easily be known; nor, in observe how much more active and cheerful all apwet sand. This same kind of quick but quiet move deed, would a much worst shock have made any great peared than could have been expected. It was rement in the tide happened a few years since at Chiloe, difference, for the ruin was now complete. Innu marked with much truth that from the destruction during a slight earthquake, and created much causeless merable small tremblings followed the great earth being universal, no one individual was humbled more alarm. In the course of the evening there were many qnake, and within the first twelve days no less than than another, or could suspect his friends with cool. weaker shocks, which seemed to produce in the three hundred were counted.
ness-that most grievous result of the loss of wealth. barbour the most complicated currents, and some of After viewing Conception I cannot understand how Mr. Rouse and a large party which he kindly took great strength.
the greater number of inhabitants escaped unhurt. under his protection, lived for the first week in a March 4th.-We entered the harbour of Conception, The houses in many parts fell outwards, thus forming garden beneath some apple trees. At first they were while the ship was beating up to the anchorage, I in the middle of the streets little hillocks of brick as merry as if it had been a picnic; but soon afterlanded on the Island of Quiriquina. The major-domo work and rubbish. Mr. Rouse, the English consul, wards heavy rain caused much discomfort, for they of the estate quickly rode down to tell me the terrible told us that he was at breakfast when the first move were absolutely without shelter. news of the great earthquake of 20th: “ That not a ment warned him to run out. He had scarcely In Capt. Fitzroy's excellent account of the earthhouse in Conception or Talcahuano (the port) was reached the middle of the court-yard when one side quake, it is said that two explosions, one like a column standing; that seventy villages were destroyed, and of his house came thundering down. He retained of smoke and another like the blowing of a great that a great wave had almost washed away the ruins presence of mind to remember, that if he once got on whale, were seen in the bay. The water also apof Talcahuano; of this latter statement I soon saw the top of that part which had already fallen, lie would peared everywhere to be boiling, and it became abundant proofs, the whole coast being strewed over || be safe. Not being able, from the motion of the black, and exhaled a most disagreeable sulphuroius with timber and furniture, as if a thousand ships had ground, to stand, he crawled up on his hands and smell. These latter circumstances were observed in been wrecked. Besides chairs, tables, book-shelves, knees; and no sooner had ha ascended this little emi the Bay of Valparaiso during the earthquake of 1822; &c., in great numbers, there were several roofs of | nence, than the other side of the house fell in, the they may, I think, be accounted for by the disturbance cottages which had been transported almost whole. | great beams sweeping close in front of his head. With of the mud at the bottom of the sea, containing organio The storehouses at Talcahuano had been burst open, his eyes blinded, and his mouth choked with the cloud
s blinded, and his mouth choked with the cloud | matter in decay. In the Bay of Callao, during a colin day, I noticed, that as the ship dragged her cable over the bottom, its course was marked with a line of bubbles. The lower orders in Talcahuano thought that the earthquake was caused by some old Indian woman, who, two years ago being offended, stopped the vol. cano of Autuco. This silly belief is curious, because it shows that experience has thought them to observe that there exists a relation between the suppressed action of the volcanos and the tremble of the ground. It was necessary to apply the witchcraft to the point -where their perception of cause and effect failed and this was the closing of the volcanic vent. This beliet' is the more singular in this particular instance, because, according to Captain Fitzroy' there is reason to believe that Autuco was no ways effected.
The town of Concepcion was built in the usual Spanish fashion, with all the streets running at right angles to each other; one set ranging S. W. by W., and the other set N. W. by N. The walls in the former directions certainly stood better than those in the latter; the greater number of the masses of brickwork were thrown down towards the N. E. Both these circumstances perfectly agree with the general idea of the undulations having came from the S. W. in which quarier subturenean noises were also heard ; for it is evident that the walls running S. W. and N. E. which presented their ends to the point whence the undulations came would be much less likely to fall than those walls which, running N. W. and s. E. must in their whole lengths have been at the same instant thrown out of the perpendicular ; for the undulations, coming from the s. W. must have extended in N. W. and S. E. waves as they passed under the foundations. This may be illustrated by placing books edgways on a carpet, and then, after the manner suggested by Michell, imitating the undulations of an earthquake ; it will be found that they fall with more or less readiness, according as their directions more or less nearly coincides with the line of the waves. The fissures in the ground, generally, though not uniforinly extended in a S. E. and N. W. direction, and therefore corresponded to the lines of undulation or os principal flexure. Bearing in mind all these circumstances, which so clearly point to the S. W. as the chief focus of disturbance. It is a very interesting fact that the island of S. Maria, situated in that quarter, was, during the general uplifting of the land, raised to nearly three times the height of any other part of the coast.
The different resistance offered by the walls, according to their direction was well exemplified in the case of the Cathedral. The side which fronted the N. E. presented a grand pile of ruins in the midst of which door cases and masses of timber stood up, as if floating in a stream some of the angular blocks of brickwork were of great dimensions, and they were rolled to a distance on the level plaza like fragments of rocks at the base of some high mountain. The side walls running S. W. and N. E., though exceedingly fractured, yet remained standing, but the vast buttresses at right angles to them, and therefore par. allel to the walls that fell were in many cases cut clean off, as if by a chisel, and hurled to the ground. Some square ornaments on the copying of these same walls were moved by the earthquake into a diagonal position. A similar circumstance was observed after an earthquake at Valparaiso, Calabra and other places, including some of the ancient Greek temples. This twisting displacement at first appears to indicate a varticose movement beneath each point thus affected ; but this highly improbable. May it not be caused by a tendency in each stone to arrange itself in some particular position with respect to the lines of vibration, in a manner somewhat similar to pins on a sheet of paper when shaken. Generally speaking, arched doorways or windows stood much better than any other part of the building. Nevertheless, a poor lame old man, who had been in the habit, during trifling shocks, of crawling to a certain door way, was this time crushed to pieces.
I have not attempted to give any detailed description of the appearance of Concepcion, for I feel that it is quite impossible to convey the mingled feelings which I experienced. Several of the officers visited it before me, but their strongest language failed to give a just idea of the scene of desolation. It is a bitter and humiliating thing to see works which have cost man so much time and labour overthrown in one minute, yet compassion for the inhabitants, was almost instantly banished by the surprise in seeing a
state of things produced in a moment of time which subterranean connection between those two points. one was accustomed to attribute to a succession of Chiloe, about 340 southward of Concepcion, appears ages, in my opinion, we have scarcely beheld, since to have been shaken more strongly than the intermeleaving England, any sight so deeply interesting. diate district of Valdivia, where the volcano of Villari
In almost every severe earthquake, the neighbour ca was noways effected. Whilst in the Cordillera in ing waters of the sea are said to have been greatly front of Chiloe, two of the volcanoes burst forth at the agitated. The disturbance seems generally, as in the same instant in violent action. These two volcanoes, case of Conception, to have been of two kinds ; first at and some neighboring ones, continued tor a long time the instance of the shock the water swells high up on in eruption, and ten months afterwards were again inthe beach with a gentle motion, and then as qnietly fluenced by an earthquake at Concepcion. Some men retreats. Secondly, some time afterwards, the whole cutting wood near the base of one of those volcanoes, body of the sea retires from the coast and then returns did not perceive the shock of 20th, although the whole in waves of overwhelming force. The first movement surrounding province was then trembling; here we seems to be an immediate consequence of the earth have an eruption relieving and taking the place of an quake affecting differently a fuid and a solid, so as earthquake as would have happened at Concepcion, that their respective levels are slightly deranged, but according to the belief of the lower orders, if the vol. the second case is a far more important phenomenon. cano of Antuco, had not been closed by witchcraft. During most earthquakes, and especially during those Two years and three-quarters afterwards Valdivia and on the West coast of America. It is certain that the Chili were again shaken, more violently than on the first great movement of the waters has been a retire 20th, and an island in the Chonos Archiphelago was ment. Some authors have attempted to explain this permanently elevated more than eight feet. It will by supposing that the water retains its level whilst the give a better idea of the scale of these phenomena, if the land oscillates upwards ; but surely the water (as in the case of the glaciors) we suppose them to close to the land even on a rather steep coast, would have taken place at corresponding distances in Europe partake of the motion of the bottom: moreover, as then would the land from the North Sea to the Mediturged by Mr. Lyell, similar movements of the sea erranean have been violently shaken, and at the have occurred at islands far distant from the chief same instant of time a large tract of the eastern line of disturbances, as was the case with Juan Fer coast of England would have been permanently elenandez, during this earthquake, and with Madeira vated, togethe: with some out lying islands, a train of during the famous Lisbon shock. I suspect (but the volcanoes on the coast of Holland would have burst subject is a very obscure one) that a wave, however forth in action, and an eruption taken place at the produced first draws the water from the shore on bottom of the sea, near the northern extremity of which it is advancing to break, I have observed that Ireland ; and lastly, the ancient rents of Auvergne this happens with the little waves from the paddles of Cantal and Mount d'Or, would each have sent up to a steamboat. It is remarkable, that whilst Talcahuano the sky a dark column of smoke, and long have reand Callao, near Lima, both situated at the head of mained in fierce action. Two years and three-quarlarge shallow bays, have suffered during every severe ters afterwards, France, from its centre to the Euglish earthquake from great waves Valparaiso seated Channel, would have been again desolated by an earthclose to the edge of prefoundly deep water, has never quake, and an island permanently upraised in the been overwhelmed, though so often shaken by the
The space from under which volcanic matter on the interval of even half an hour, and from distant islands
on the 20th was actually erupted, is 720 miles in being affected similarly with the coasts near the focus
one line, and 400 miles in another line at right angles of the disturbance. It appears that the wave first
to the first; hence, in all probability a subterranean rises in the offiing; and as this is of general occurrence
lake of lava is here stretched out, of nearly double the cause must be general. I suspect we must look
the area of the black sea. From the intimate and to the line where the less disturbed waters of the
complicated manner in which the elevatory and erupdeep ocean join the water nearer the coast, which
tive forces were shown to be connected during this has partaken of the movements of the land, as the place
train of phenomena, we may confidently come to the where the great wave is first generated. It would conclusion that the forces which slowly add by little also appear that the wave is larger or smaller accor
starts uplift continents, and those which at successive ding to the extent of shoal water which has been agi.
periods pour forth volcanic matter from open orifices, tated together, with the bottom on which it rested.
are identical. From many reasons, I believe that the The most remarkable effect this earthquake was
frequent quakings of the earth on this line coast are the permament elevation of the land ; it would pro
caused by the rendings of the strata necessarily conbably be far more correct to speak of it as the cause.
sequent on the tensions of the land when upraised, There can be no doubt that the land around the bay of
and their injections by fluidified rock. This rending Concepcion was upraised two or three feet; but it
and injection would, if repeated often enough (and deserves notice, that owing to the wave haviug oblite
we know that earthquakes repeatedly affect the same rated the old lines of tidal action on the sloping sandy
areas in the same manner), from a chain of hills; and shores I could discover no evidence of this fact,
the linear island of St. Mary which was upraised
thrice the height of the neighboring country, seems to except in the united testimony of the inhabitants, that one little rocky shoal now exposed was formerly
be undergoing this process. I believe that the solid covered with water. At the island of S. Maria,
axis of a mountain differs in its manner of formation about 30 miles distant, the elevation was greater ;
from a volcanic hill only in the molten stone having on one part Captain Fitzroy found beds of putrid
been repeatedly injected instead of having been remuscle-shells still adhering to the rocks, ten feet above
peatedly ejected. Moreover I believe that it is imhigh water mark, the inhabitants bad formerly dived
possible to explain the structure of great mountain at low water spring tides for these shells. The ele
chains, such as that of the Cordillera, where the strata vation of this province is particularly interesting,
capping the injected axis of Plutonic rock, have been from its having been the theatre of several other
thrown on their edges along several parallel and neighviolent earthquakes, and from the vast numbers of
boring lines of elevation excepton this view of the rocks sea shells scattered over the land up to a height of
of the axis having been repeatedly injected, after intercertainly 600, and I believe of 1000 feet. Ať Val
|| vals sufficiently long to allow the upper parts or wedges paraiso, as I have remarked, similar shells are found
to cool and become solid; for if the strata had been at a height of 1300 feet ; it is hardly possible to
thrown into their present highly inclined, vertical, doubt that this great elevation has been affected
and even inverted positions by a single blow, the very by successive small uprisings, such as that which
|| bowels of the earth would have gushed out, and instead accompanied or caused the earthquake of this year,
of beholding abrupt mountain axis of rock solidified and likewise by an insensible slow rise which is
ll under great pressure, deluges of lava would have
flowed out at innumerable points in every line of ele-
These convulsions have been very numerous during the last few the shore. These facts are remarkable because this!
months. The Brooklyn Evening Star, which has published my
meteorlogical observations for a considerable length of time, fur. island during the earthquake of 1751, was then also nishes the most conclusive evidence that earthquake disturbaffected more violently than other places at an equal |
ances, however distant, are indicated on Brooklyn Heights by
observations made and published almost simultaneously with the distance from Concepcion, and this seems to show somo happening of the distant disturbance.