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Four copies of notice fol. 4 news

papers at 25 each, Three copies to put up as hand-bille, Putting up notice for 14 days at 50

each day, Do. affidavit thereof fol. 2,50, copy

25 oath 124, Copy notice to annex to affidavit, Do. affidavit of services and dis

bursements for taxation fol. 2

copy and oath,
Taxation and attendance,
Copy taxed bill to file with Street

Paid Sutton and Folger for hand-

bills for Commissioners,
Do. affidavit of J. Leveridge as to

charges in bill fol. 4 $1, copy 50 oath 12),



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COUNSEL FEES. 1845. Attending the Special Term

of the Supreme Court at Albany, and moving the appointment of Commissioners,

50 00 Attending the May Term of the Su.

preme Court to oppose motion to strike out one of the Commissioners,

25 00 Sept. Attending the Special Term

of the Supreme Court at Albany to vacate proceedings, and to ap

point Commissioners anew, 75 00 Attending at Albany at the Decem

ber Special Term to dismiss pro

ceedings commencing in 1839, 50 00 Attending Commissioners at differ

ent times, and advising them as to legal questions that arose, attending the May Term of the Court upon the motion to confirm the report and argueing the same, it being opposed and attending at the July Term of the Court at Utica, to complete confirmation of report arguing in opposition to the objections made to the taxation of costs and attending at the subsequent Special Term, 1846, to complete confirmation,

750 00

Surveyors bill. Edward Ewen, Sur.

|| day of June instant, at ten o'clock in the forenoon of veyor, 192 days work for himself

that day. and assistant in making the neces

Dated New-York, June 4, 1846.
sary Surveys, Profiles, Rule, Maps

Damage Maps and Benefit Maps,

CHARLES A. WHITNEY, Comm'rs. at $4 per day,


Commissioners bill. William P. Hal-

lett, 143 meetings at $4 per meet-


1572 J. W.C. Leveridge, 143 mee

As filed in the Street Commissioner's office. tings at $4 per meeting. 572

Daniel Ewen, Surveyor's bill, .......$ 376 00 Chas. A. Whitney 143 meetings

Counsel and Attorney's fees, .........1,180 96 at $4 per meeting,

Room hire of the Commissioners, ..... 122 00 Room híre 76 meetings, at $2

Hufty, twenty-three meetings, at $4, .. 92 00 per meeting,


Whitney, sixty-one do. at $4,... 244 00 Stationary for Commissioners,

Leveridge, sixty-one do. at $4,... 244 00
R. C. Root & Co.,


200 00
J. T. Trow & Co.,
2.25 $1876 50 Printing,.............

519 00 Appraisers bill. John Carr and

Other expenses,.......

3 50 Isaac Lacas, 50 00 Appraiser's bill.....

40 00 Collectors Fees,

300 00 Printers bills,

$3,021 86 Morning News publishing the - 12 days notice,

The commissioners were appointed by a Rule of Daily Express, the like,

the Supreme Court, entered on the 4th day of SepEvening Post, the like,

tember, 1845, and were sworn into office on the 8th Commercial Advertiser, the like. Morning News, the ten days notice,

of September.
Daily Express, the like,

Evening Post, the like,

UPREME COURT.-In the matter of the appli-
Gazette and Times, the like,

D cation of the Mayor Aldermen and Communalty Morning News, publishing the 60

of the City of New-York, relative to extending Leroy days notice.

175 00

Street eastwardly from Hudson Street and Burton Daily Express, the like,

175 00

Street South Westwardly from its present termination Evening Post, the like,

175 00

at the line commonly known as the boundary line of Gazette and Times, the like,

175 00

Trinity Church, until the lines of the said Leroy Street Morning News publishing the 2nd

and Burton Street respectively meet or intersect each 20 days Notice,

17 20

other. Public Notice is hereby given that the costs Daily Express, the like,

17 20

and charge incurred by reason of the proceedings in Evening Post, the like,

17 20

the above entitled matter, will be taxed by WILLIAM Gazette and Times, the like,

17 20

PAXSON HALLET, Esq., one of the Clerks of this Attorneys costs, as per bill an

Court, at his office in the City Hall of the City of New nexed,

1331 63

York, on the 22d day of November instant, at 10 Counsel fees,

950 00

o'clock in the forenoon of that day. I

Dated New-York, November 4, 1846.

$6,128 33 WILLIAM PAXSON HALLET, ) The written objections made before Judge Ed.



CHARLES A. WHITNEY, monds, will probably be laid before the Legislature,

J. Leveridge Attorney. with other proceedings in this matter.



Daniel Ewen, Surveyor ..
UPERIOR COURT.-In the matter of the appli Counsel and Attorneys fees,.... 1,152 62

cation of the Mayor, Aldermen and Commonalty Commissioners fees, 35 meetings,
of the City of New York, relative to opening a certain |

room hire, $50...

470 75 new street, laid out under and by virtue of an act of

Other expenses $6,... the Legislature of the People of the State of New

Appraisers bill, ...

50 00 York, entitled “An Act to lay out a certain new Collectors fees, ........

100 00 Street in the 12th and 16th Wards of the City of New


359 60
York, and to keep open a part of the Bloomingdale
Road in said City, passed April 16, 1838,"-Public

$2,337, 97 notice is hereby given, that the costs and charges on the above entitled matter will be taxed by WILLIAM The Commissioners were appointed by a Role of PAXSON HALLET, Esq., one of the Clerks of this

the Supreme Court, entered the 4th day of SeptemCourt, at his office, in the City Hall of the said City

ber 1845, and took the oath of office on the 8th day of New York, on the 22d day of June instant, at ten o'clock in the forepoon of that day.

ll of the same September. Mr. Hallet, Commissioner, Dated New-York, June 4, 1846.

is the Clerk of this Supreme Court named in the WILL'M PAXSON HALLET, )


Costs as above.

Commissioners Fees,.................4,920.00

Room Hire, ........................... 410.00
UPREME COURT.-In the matter of the appli-

Other Charges, ........

77.00 D cation of the Mayor, Aldermen and Commonalty Counsel Fees, ..........................3,977.76 of the City of New York, relative to widening Houston

Surveyors Fees,........................2,801.00 street on the north-easterly side, in the 11th Ward of the said City, from the intersection of the north Collectoe', Fees, ......................1,115.00 easterly side of Second street, with the south-easterly Clerk Hire, ......... ........... 250.00 side of Lewis street to the north-westerly corner of Tompkins street and Houston street --Public notice is hereby given, that the costs and charges incurred

$13,550.76 by reason of the proceedings in the above entitled

See Senate Document No. 100, of 1842, page 13, matter will be taxed by William Paxson HALLET, || Esq., one of the Clerks of this Court, at his office, in and the appendix of that document, page 85, 93, to the City Hall of the City of New-York, on the 22d 98, 119 to 123; 148, and 278-9.

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(Vol. I.....No. 47.

UNITED STATES PUBLIC STOCKS EXEMPT a rule, which shall limit its exercise, is undoubtedly FROM TAXATION BY INDIVIDUAL STATES among the most delicate and difficult duties, which

can devolve on those whose province it is to ex. AND CORPORATIONS.

pound the supreme law of the land in its application MR. Justice Story, in his Commentaries on the to the cases of individuals. This duty has more than Constitution, Vol. 2, pag. 492, says :

once devolved on this court. In the performance of

it wehave considered it, as a necessary consequence, “ In another case the question was raised, whether

from the supremacy of the government of the whole, a State had a Constitutional authority to tax Stock

that its action in the exercise of its legitimate powers issued for loans to the United States, and it was held should be free and unembarrassed by any conflicting

powers in the possession of its parts, that the powers by the Supreme Court that a State had not “ the

of a State, cannot rightfully, be so exercised, as to reasoning of the Court," was as follows:

impede and obstruct the free course of those mea. Is the Stock issued for loans lo the Government

sures which the Government of the United States

may rightfully adopt. of the United States, liable to be taxed by States and

" This subject brought before the court in the case Corporations ?

of M'Culloch, rs. The State of Maryland, when it “ Congress has power to borrow money on the was thoroughly argued, and deliberately considered. credit of the United States. The stock it issues is the The question decided in that case bears a near reevidence of a debt created by the exercise of this semblance to that, which is involved in this. It was power. The tax in question is a tax upon the con discussed at the bar in all its relations and examined tract subsisting between the government and the in by the court with its utmost attention. We will not dividual. It bears directly upon that contract while repeat the reasoning, which conducted us to the con. subsisting, and in full force. The power operates clusion this formed ; but that conclusion was, that upon the contract the instant it is framed, and must • all subjects over which the Sovereign power of a imply a right to affect that contract. If the States State extends, are objects of taxation ; but those, over and Corporations throughout the Union possess the which it does not extend, are upon the soundest prinpower to tax a contract for the loan of money, what ciples exempt from taxation. The Soveroignty of a shall arrest this principle in its application to every State extends to every thing which exists by its own other contract. What ineasure can government adopt, authority, or is introduced by its permission ; but which will not be exposed to its influence ?

not to those means which are employed by Congress * But it is unnecessary to pursue this principle to carry into execution powers conferred on that body through its diversified application to all the contracts, by the people of the United States. The attempt to and to the various operations of government. No use the power of taxation, on the means employed by one can be selected which is of more vital interest to the governinent of the union, in pursuance of the conthe community, than this of borrowing money on the stitution, is itself an abuse ; because it is the usurpation credit of the United States. No power has been con of a power which the people of a single State cannot ferred by the American people on their government, give. The States have no power by taxation or the free and unburdened exercise of which more otherwise, to retard, impede, burthen, or any manner deeply affects every member of our republic. In control the operation of the Constitutional laws, enac. war, when the honor, the safety, the independence of ted by Congress to carry into execution the powers the nation are to be defended, when all its resour vested in the general government. We retain the ces are to be strained to the utmost, credit must be opinions, which were then expressed. A contract brought in aid of taxation, and the abundant revenue made by the government in the exercise of its power of peace and prosperity must be anticipated to supply to borrow money on the credit of the United States, the exigencies, the urgent demands of the moment. is undoubtedly independent of the will of any State, The, people for objects, the most important, which can in which the individual who lends, may reside ; and occur in the progress of nations, have empowered their is undoubtedly an operation essential to the impor. government to make these anticipations to borrow tant objects, for which the government was created. money on the credit of the United States.' Can any It ought, therefore, on the principles settled in the thing be more dangerous, or more injurious, than the case of M‘Culloch, vs. The State of Maryland, to be admission of a principle which authorises every State, exempt from the State taxation, and consequently and every Corporation in the Union, which possesses from being taxed by Corporations, deriving their the right of taxation, to burthen the exercise of this power from States. power at their discretion.

It is adınitted that the power of the government * " If the right to impose the tax exists, it a right

to borrow money cannot be directly opposed ; and which, in its nature, acknowledges no limits. It may

that any law, directly obstructing its operations, would be carried to any extent within the jurisdiction of the

be void. But a distinction is taken between direct State or corporation, which imposes it, which the

opposition and those ineasures, which may consewill of each State and Corporation may prescribe.

quently affect it ; that is, a law prohibiting loans to A power which is given, by the whole American

the United States would be void ; but a tax on them people, for their common good; which is to be exer.

to any amount is allowable. It is, we think, impos. cised at the most critical periods for the most impor.

sible not to perceive the intimate connection, which tant purposes on the free exercise of which the inter

exists between these two modes of acting on the ests, certainly, perhaps the liberty, of the whole may

subject. It is not the want of original power in an depend ; may be burthened, impeded, if not arrested,

independent Sovereign State, to prohibit loans to a by any of the organized parts of the confederacy. foreign government, which restrains the legislature

* In a society, formed like ours, with one supreme from direct opposition to those made by the United government for national purposes, and numerous States. The restraint is imposed by our Constitution. štate Governments for other purposes : in many res The Annerican people have conferred the power of pects independent, and in the uncontrolled exercise of borrowing money on their government ; and by many important powers, occasional interferences

making that government supreme, have shielded its ought not to surprise us. The power of taxation is action, in the exercise of this power, from the action one of the most essential to a State, and of the most of the local governments. The grant of the power extensive in its operation. The attempt to maintain | is incompatible with a restraining or controlling

power ; and the declaration of supremacy is a declaration that no such restraining or controlling power shall be exercised. The right to tax the contract to any extent, when made, must operate upon the power to borrow, before it is exercised, and have a sensible influence on the contract. The extent of this influence depends on the willof a distinct govern. ment. To any extent, however inconsiderable, it is a burthen on the operations of government. It may be carried to an extent which will arrest them entirely.

“ It is admitted by the Counsel for the defendants, that the power to tax stock must affect the terms, on which loans will be made. But this objection, it is said, has no more weight when urged against the application of an acknowledged power to government

stock than if urged against its application to lands sold | by the United States. The distinction is, we think, ar

parent. When lands are sold, no connection remains between the purchaser and the govermnent. The lands purchased become a part of the mass of property in the country, with no implied exemption from common burthens. All lands are derived from the general or particular government, and all lands are subject to taxation. Lauds sold are in the condition of money borrowed and repaid. Its liability to taxation, in any form it may then assume, is not questioned. The connection between the borrower and the lender is dissolved. It is no burthen on loans ; it is no impediment to the power of borrowing that the money, when repaid, loses its exemption, from taxation. But a tax upon debts due from the government stands, we think, on every different principle from a tax on lands which the government has sold. The Federlist has been quoted in the argument, and an eloquent and well merited eulogy has been bestowed on the great statesınen, who is supposed to be the author of the number from which the quotation was made. This high authority was also relied upon in the case of M'Culloch, vs. The State of Maryland, and was considered by the court: Without repeating what was then said, we refer to it, as exhibiting our view of the sentiments expressed on this subject by the authors of that work.

“ It has been supposed, that a tax on stock comes within the exemptions stated in the case of M.Culloch, vs. The State of Maryland. We do not think so. The Bank of the United States is an instrument essential to the fiscal operations of the government ; and the power, which inight be exercised to its destruction, was denied. But property acquired by the corporation in a State, was supposed to be placed in the same condition with the property acquired by an individual. The tax on government stock is thought by this court to be a tax on the contract, a tax on the power to borrow money on the credit of the United States, and consequently to be repugnant to the Constitution."

PUBLIC POLICY. The Deposits in Banks of Savings are not taxed, neither should they be, for in times of great distress, either from war, pestilence, famine, or extensive conflagrations, these institutions afford extensive relief.

MARINE INSURANCE COMPANIES. MARINE INSURANCE COMPANIES should also be exempt from Taxation. Storms have been unparalleled in their frequency and destruction, and the Stock is not by any means a desirable investment for capitalists. Public policy requires that such stock should be exempt from taxation.


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| down from failure of that staple. In the whole dis | Letter from W. P. Milnor, Esq. This enterprize is in giant hands—may it have tance I travelled over yesterday I observed that a

SaltviLLE, Washington Co., Va. 1 fungus growth has seized on all the cherry orchards good speed. Its completion will add twenty millions | which will quickly, this year, totally destroy the | MR. E. MERIAM.

February 1, 1847. S to the value of Real Estate in New-York,-will increase young and old irees--by next fall a dry rot will have its trade and commerce, and men who have the means

Dear Sir-Within I hand you my meteorlogical recseized on the whole woody fibers except one-twelfth inch thickness next the bark. This, to that des.'

ord for January 1347. During the month we had 3 of forming correct opinions, say it will be productive. cription of tree, will be no less destructive than the

inches and 26-100 of rain, of which 36-100 fell in Nature has made the path for it---man should improve || Potatoe disease is to that plant. On Gauley River,

day-light, and 2 inches and 92-100 at night. Fall of it.

snow during the month, 1 foot } inch. near Kenhawa and in the hurricane district of Western

Tennessee, the wild Irish potatoe can be obtained, On the 10th .... The prosperity of Boston may be counted up in

............4 inches. and in three years from it many varieties can be had

19th .................. the numerous Railroeds leading to that growing city. | fresh and renewed. Near Huntsville, Ala., can be

200h ... In Boston there is abundance of public spirit-in found in the mountain the indigenous Tomatto and

23d....................1. " in New-York there is but little.

Nicotianum Tobagoin a wild imperfect condition, and
on the Tennessee and Cumberland River Islands,

124 inches. James Boorman, Stephen Allen. Saul Alley and

can be obtained a peculiar Artichoke, resembling in On the night of the 15th and 25th, we were visited ethers are engaged in tlie Hudson River Railroad en

form tlie sweet potatoe, some samples being one foot with thunder and lightning. You will perceive the terprise. Such men are competent to accomplish in length. It seems not generally known that these mercury was down to zero on Friday the 8th at 5 P.

are natives of the United States ; on river banks this M.. and at same hour on Friday 22d, 30 below zero. what they undertake.

Artichoke vields 300 to 500 bushels per acre, and is The weather for the past month has been extremely

very difficult to eradicate. It is the great lard oil disagreeable. Our roads are almost impassable with BOSTON PUBLIC DOCUMENTS.

maker of the Southern swamps and promises to anni. but a sorry prospect for improvement for some time hilate the whole harpoon race of destructives.

to come. We are indebted to Charles B. Wells, Esq., of Bos.

There is a bur Artichoke of the South, which for Pigeons again made their appearance this morning ton for a package of the public documents of the city table use should be extensively cultivated-the moving in great quantities. It is attributed to the of Boston. These papers are valuable.

eatable core of the bur when boiled and trimmed is unusual beach mast.

large as a goose egg and of most delicate flavor.Mr. Shattuck has completed a report for the Com

Very respectfully yours,
The Artichoke family was the most ancient Lotus

"WM. P. MILNOR. mon Council of the City of Boston which is a valua family of the Egyptians and the Wild Onion colomon ble document. We intend to make extracts from it. amongst our'mountains, shoots up its stem doubled;

"A VOLCANO AT WORK." its top inclining downward, thus showing the original The industry of the people of New-England is the

We last week recorded a very wonderful convulof one of the inost common Egyptian hieratic characfoundation, under heaven, of their prosperity. ters. There is a large Onion, wild in our mountains,

sion of Lake Ontario. We have this week to men

tion one equally wonderful as having taken place in colled the Rhamps-it is strong and unpallatable.

Rice Lake, 12 miles to the North of this town. Last VIRGINIA CORRESPONDENCE. There are also numerous dyestuffs of vegetable and

Thursday the 14th inst., the lake was seen to be in mineral character dispersed and useless in vast districts, which are as good as the similar articles

great commotion, the ice (18 inches thick,) undulaFEBUARY 1st, Wytheville, Va. 1847. brought from foreign places. Why does not some

ting in every direction. Presently it burst with a

noise like thunder, and a large piece from the centre E. MERIAM, Esq.,

one look into these things ?

Within a few miles of this place are inexhaustible Dear Sir:-I came on horseback 60 miles in the

of the lake was, in a few minutes, thrown up in a beds of lead ore and many copper veins are found

pile to the height of ten feet, in which position it now past 24 hours over mud, water and icy roads. The

lies. This is no doubt related to the earthquake îhaw is complete and the arid winds from

there is silver in small amount in union with the lead the South

which caused the awful commotion in Lake Ontario West, like those in March, rapidly absorb the waters

and copper. Near this also is the famous glade iron
ore from which steel is made by a process similar to

at Grafton.-Coburg Star, Upper Canada, Wednesand even the remains of undisolved snow. making common iron. A gentleman near this owns

day, January 20, 1847. On my left as I came South East lay Walkers Mountain, and on my right lay the iron mountain, 50,000 acres of iron mountain land, on which are the

The following statement was written by me and behind which the blue peaks of the Alleghany and

published in the Brooklyn Evening Star of January richest and perhaps the most extensive iron mines in

the world ; for all which he asks only $5000. The Blue Ridge were visible.

20th, 1847 :The Alleghany South East of this cominingles with the Blue Ridge, while

rock salt and gypsam of this region you are already “My record book from the evening of the 14th inst. to the noon both these and the Cumberland range compose the

apprised appear to be inexhaustible, but here there of the 18th inst., is a blank. The wires performed their labor, but

are neither roads or other means for transportation of the eyes that had watched their mysterious pointings, were flooded great Appalachan Chain. All these ranges within this latitude, Southward.

these weighty articles. The coal beds near this are with grief, and the hand that traced the record was shaken with are now bare of snow, and this morning the birds

not promising, but the timber is most abundant over mental agony. and farm fowls by their voice and manners are rejoi. all the hills and mountains.

“Oftimes have I suggested in the columns of the Star, that the

I began this letter merely to apprise you of the aged of our race during the suspended periods of inactivity in the cing that spring has come. I observe however, that

air, which I denominated equilibriums, have passed away to rest. singular state of the weather. I fear severe winds the ivy and laurel of the mountain streams pays no regard to this premature experiment of the budding

have prevailed for a week past from the Charybean Alas, I am made myself, an afflicted witness of the grave character season.

of my own suggestion--for although I was unable to record the Their leaves are curled in the shape of Sea across the Mexican Gulph.

observations of the nightof Thursday the 14tb inst., still I watched

The surface ground is saturated with water and fingers, clinging close to the sustaining twigs, and still preserving the blackened hue indicative of porthe variable temperature of the air with almost with an anxious feeling the pointing of the wires, and they indi.

cated a long suspension of vitality in the atmosphere-a twelve uniform warmth of the crust surface of the earth tending cold. When the Spring really opens those leaves in twenty four hours will assume their deep

most favorably prepares the soil for the ensuing hour's equilibrium, during which time my dearly beloved daugh. Summer green, wide spread and erect to receive the crops.

ter-she who was a part of us, commenced that sleep which was

the entering into rest, and ere the sun had marked the hour of noon,

The high market values of all commodities and genial influences. A German to-day said the Spring

plentiness of cash will arouse even the most indolent her blessed spirit had winged its flight. has not come yet, for on this day annually the ground

E. M." hogs leave their hybernating beds, and after examin.

and we may expect superabundant harvests. Grain The letter of Mr. Milnor, as above shows the state ing the sky go back if the next six weeks is to be

and meat are now very plenty, but the holders not of the atmosphere at Saltville, which has an altitude cold, and so they have done this day. Finding a

being in debt have the advantage over buyers through of 1882 feet on the 15th of January, the day succeed burning heat in the suns rays at two o'clock to-day I

out the South and West. This state of things it is ing this convulsion. placed Fahrenheit's thermometer (a very fine one) in it to the great sea board marts. Speculators find it

which causes Cotton and Tobacco to flow so languidly I have to-day and yesterday received several newsthe direct sunshine upon a plank wall with a warm

papers from Canada containing the account of this breeze from the South West passing over it. On a l

hard to get the staple articles into their hands without convulsion. north exposed brick wall it showed 50 degrees, and giving the extremest verge of anticipated values.

Feb. 8, 1847.

E. MERIAM. exposed as mentioned it rosa to 111: in filty minutes

The planter holds the key for the first time. and seemed stationary whilo Reamers scale shewed

Feb. 2.—This day is overcast with slow moving

MORTALITY IN THE CITY OF BOSTON...1846. in the same situation 35 degrees. It is not freezing |

clouds from the South West-the temperature at 2

P. M. was 56° Fahrenheat-a light white frost this The number of deaths in the City of Boston during this evening ; the sky is hazy, rather whitish with

the year 1846, was 3,389—of which 698 were under bright moonshine.

morning, and a perfect thaw. There will be rain The South and Southwest clouds

to.night and snow to-morrow nightthere has been one year, and 303 still born. this winter generally are of the Mexican Gulph kind

Between 1 and 2 years, -dense cumbrous, sometimes black, at others glazed

no sleet this winter-the snow dissolving speedily in 435; 2 and 5 years 239; 5 and 10 years 252; 10 and

all cases. The lead mines company have run a level with light as in Summer, often flying swiftly, and

20,136 ; 20 to 30 383; 30 to 40, 354 ; 40 to 50, 188; sometimes becalmed high up in the sky-above them,

1500 feet at a cost of $20,000 under their mines. This 50 to 60, 145; 66 to 70; 108; 70 to 80, 86; 80 to 90, have been fewer than usual, of the flaky light curling

way is horizontal into the hill all the distance in 50; 90 to 100, 10.

secondary limestone, and is about 6 feet deep and 6 Consumption 485 ; Fevers, 416 clouds sailing in different courses at various eleva

Dropsy, 205; tions. feet wide with a railway along it.

Dysentry, 52; Diseases of the Bowels 251 ; Infla

In the cavities The winter of 1806-7 was like this, after which for

are many splendid metalic chrystallizations that were ination of the Bowels 58 ; Diseases of the heart, 42;

never before exposed to human vision or the light of Measles, 150 ; Small Pox, 92; Hooping Cough, 38 ; five or six years fine crops of cotton were yeilded in day. regions where subsequently the cotton gins rotted

The lead is soft and of purer quality than any

Appoplexy, 22 ; Paralasis 30 ; Old Age, 79 ; AU from the North West. Yours,

others, 1473.


A few feet below the bed of the river for many miles | in producing something else. As a farmer, I of course Letter from Thomas Spencer, Esq.

above this place, there is a deposite of beautiful white pay some attention to the improvement of stock, and

gypsum, to an unknown depth. A few years ago a have introduced from your region, an Ayrshire calf, Saltville, WASHINGTON Co. Va.,

gentleman attempted to penetrate through the # Merino sheep and improved swine. Do you meddle January 17th, 1847.

gypsum, at a point about fitteen miles above this, with such things, if so, you might, in your kindness EsteenED FRIEND :-Your kind letter of 24th with the expectation of finding salt or brine. He aid me in my future operations. I was not only December was received by due course of mail. I sunk a shaft about eight feet square to the depth of .! gratified in the receipt of the papers and pamphlets should bave replied at an earlier day, but for engage six hundred and seventy five feet and abandoned it, you sent me as an evidence of your remembrance of ments which have absorbed all my time, and a part not having passed through the gypsum.

me, but greatly in the perusal of many of the commuof the time I have been absent. You are laying me Now it seems to me that Clynch and Walker's nications, not only gratified, but edified. Your comunder renewed obligations constantly by furnishing mountains were once in close proximity and that munications bearing on lightning, &c. are very satisme with New-York papers which I receive by almost they have been split apart and sundered a ditance of factory, and more than usually interesting to me, as I every mail.

eight or ten miles, by some mighty and terrific power, had just taken down my rods in repairing iny This is the most changeable climate that I ever the idea of which overwhelins ine, and that a vast dwellings, and am extremely anxious to make the witnessed. During one week we are iu the midst of || and deep chasın was consequently formed between protection against lightning as perfect as can be. Our a severe winter with the thermometer at zero, while them, which has been for unknown ages the recepta- climate is one of thunder storms. There is something the succeeding week is like May or June, and we have | cle of these immense deposites of gypsum and salt 1 in the bluff on which I reside subjecting it particularly had some weather this winter as warm as much of wluich are known to exist here, and these lime-stone to be struck, as the pine trees just back of my dwel. that which we experienced last July, By Mr. Milnor's ll hills of several hundred feet high and several miles in ing are more frequently riven than elsewhere in this metorological observations for December (which you || circumference, seem to have been tossed about like region. Will you aid me in arrangement ? My roof have probably reeeived) you will notice the weather ll playthings, and (geologically) have been left wrong is fifty feet long and forty wide. Two chimneys was mild and warın during some of the last days of || side up, some standing on edge, some leaning

side up. some standing on edge, some leaning one extend a few feet above the roof, six feet from the the year. Similar weather continued until Thursday way and some another way. For to use a word in a gable ends to the inner part of the chunney. evening the 7th instant when the thermometer at 7, geological sense there is nothing in place in this “ The foundation of my house is about one hundred 8, 9 and 10 o'clock marked 9° and at 11 o'clock 7.1°. || vicinity, and I learned that an eminent geologist who !! feet from ordinary high tide of a salt water river, from On the following morning at 6 o'clock it stood at zero, spent some time in this country a few years ago, the ground to the top of the house, is thirty eight feet, and did not rise above 17° during the day. At 10 expressed the opinion that “ Walker's Mountain' in and the chimneys are about four feet higher than the o'clock at midnight it again fell to 8o. Saturday its present position, is upside down.

top of roof. There is a gentle declivity from the front however was rather warmer and on Sunday the iher I perceive that frequent accounts of earthquakes door to high water mark. Now if I undertake to mometer showed an equilibrium of twelve hours and storms in distant parts are rendering what you put up wire, such as I understand you to recommend, duration, including eleven o'clock in the morning to had previously said and written of certain conditions how shall I support it above the chimney top; how 11 o'clock at night, during which time it stood at 34o. of the atınosphere as connected with these phenomena; manage to fix it at the point at which it should diverge It snowed during the day from daylight in the morne prophetic. The stores of knowledge which human ! to the wires, as I presume it must run over the road ing to four o'clock in the afternoon. On Monday the science are continually untolding seem to he boundless. il which is in front of the house, twenty feet from the thermometer varied frum 17 to 31°; on Tuesday from They are apparently a sea without a shore, and by door there are two large trees, just over the road, 12 to 320; on Wednesday 13 to 42°; Thursday 34 to their vastness proclaim the ignorance and littleness of through the branches of which the wire might be 44°, remaining stationary at 44° from ten in the man, and the wisdom and unlimited greatness of God. || supported, if right. While I seek your instrnction in morning to four P. M. It was also stationary at 400 I have not forgotten the geological specimens that I i general how to fix the wires, my chief difficulty nine, ten and eleven o'clock in the evening and was I promised to collect for you. I will present them in i would be in supporting the wire in a perpendicular found at the same point at six o'clock the next morn due time.

line above the house top, without attaching it to a pole. ing where it remained until eight A. M. During the I do not comprehend the arrangement of your If so attached, how to fix it without rendering the pole day it marked as high as 63° and was at 51° at 10 and # “ meteorological wires and how they indicate the U liable to be struck. Again how to attach it to the house 11 o'clock P. M. and was also found at 51° the next || temperature of the atmosphere, and why at certain and confine it where it is to bend off, or diverge, morning Saturday the 16th inst, and continued at 51 times they mark the same degree as the thermometer, without risking the passage of the lightning at that until nine o'clock in the morning. During the night and at other times are at so great a disagreement point to the house. Will you be kind enough to however, of Friday we had a severe rain storm of two with it.

instruct a grateful pupil and inform me what would be or three hours duration, during which time the wind

Respectfully yours,

the cost of enough of such wire as is suitable, perfectly blew a hurricane from the south west and the thunder

THOMAS SPENCER. to protect my house, and whether I may trouble you was very hard and lightning vivid, and what ap E. MeniAm, Esq.

to obtain it for me. I regret shus trespassing on your peared to me to be remarkable was, that at eleven

kindness, but the importance of the subject will plead o'clock of that night, when I retired, there was a

with you my excuse. Might I add to this tax the perfect calm and the stars shone with unusual brill


solicitation that you would forward me a specimen iancy, there not being a cloud to be seen in any part Extracts from a letter wiitten by a Clergyman, re number or two of the Monthly Farmer and Mechanic, of the heavens. It was as fine and beautiful a sky as

siding in the State of Georgia.

and also of the Foreign Cultivator, which I perceive I ever beheld, and such au one as I love to gaze upon

January 28th, 1847. are publisiied by Wm. H. Starr, the editor of the N. in admiration.

“ It is no doubt well we cannot foresee, and that I

Y. Farmer and Mechanic, sent me by you. Any other Yesterday and to-day the thermometer bas marked did not. My career has been a painful one, disease has

papers of the kind which you think would interest me about 44° most of the time, although it was down to disqualified me from occupying inportant stations,

would be thankfully received. I subscribe to the the freezing point this morning, but the day has been after I have been instruinental in establishing them.

Fariners' Library and Monthly Journal of Agriculture, mild and pleasant and there is nothing to remind one My field in * * * * was all that I could have

American Agriculturist and Albany Cultivator, but in that it is mid-winter but the nakedness of the forestwished it, but congestive fever drove me from the

occasional papers sent me, of which I was ignorant, I trees.

country, and here I am again in this retired field, with have found articles of much interest, and in none more I wish that I was more of a geologist, for I am a little Aock, in ministering to which, the Lord has

so than those sent me by yourself; they have been exceedingly puzzled by the general aspect of every blessed me abundantly. Almost every youth in my

put with papers to be preserved for my sons. thing around me with reference to that science. Three congregation, has become a member of the church

“ Could you not be tempted to visit our sunny South. miles north of me I see the “ Clinch Mountain" with under my ministry. My family consist of the wife of

Though not as interesting as your mountain regions, an elevation of nearly three thousand feet capped with my youth, two sons and three daughters, on earth,

you might find something to interest you:-novelty at red and white sand-stone, to the depth of several and three in Heaven. My wife's health is feeble ;

least you would find, but of its interest I conld give hundred feet. This mountain extends in a north children stout, rosy, healthy. My own health is fair,

no security,-a hearty welcome to the home of your easterly direction to New River, about sixty miles so long as I lead an active, industrious out of door-life. #

friend I can pledge. distant. It also extends in a southwesterly direction This has led ine to farming, not planting, as an induce

Yours, most sincerely.” into Tennessee, I believe about a hundred miles. It ment to exercise, and as a help in supporting my

E. MERIAM, Esq. belongs to the Cumberland range. A few miles south family, which has become necessary, from my outlays

REMARKS.-We have taken the liberty lo publish the above exof me I see “ Walker's Mountain." It lies nearly in supporting my family in Florida, and it is an occu

tract from the letter of our excellent friend, believing that he will parallel with Clynch, and is composed of similar pation in which I find pleasure, and would delight, if

not find fault with us for doing so it is a letter that will be read materials but is not quite as elevated. The valley I could only have a northern farm, with northern

labourers. My desire to farm, not plant, and raise between these two mountains is filled with limestone

with satisfaction by many good people.

The enquiries as to lightning conductors, I will endeavor to hills varying from one to four or five hundred feet something valuable in preference to cotton, induced

answer in the after pages of this volume and in those pages wbich high, which from their peculiar form are called me to try Benne, and to communicate with you. As my plants were scattered, and few, I cannot say what

record the statistics of 1846 and the commencement of 1847. • Kuobs." In the midst of these “ Knobs" the Holston

lam satisfied from the examination I have inade of the opera River is winding its serpentine course in many places the produce would be per acre. I have about half a

tion of lightning on board of ships, steamboats, &c., that a wire bushel of seed, and could send you a quart or two for encircling mountains for miles, to gain a very small advance in a direct line. You might well suppose trial at the oil mill, or any other use, you please. If

lightning rod never fails to give full protection if it terminates in that a river, in forcing i18 way through such a country, you wish it, please say so. I will plant a patch this !!

the water, and rises above the object sought to be supported.

The size of the surface protected does not depend on the would present many lofty and beautiful cascades, but season, carefully ascertain the labour, cost of cultiit is not so. It is a navigable stream, and large vation, and produce, and no doubt will have some

height of the point of the rod-twenty feet is probably as far as it quantities of salt manufactured at this place, is borne bushels next fall for experiinent at the mill, if you

woutd be safe to rely on the indiuence of the rod. upon its bosom, to find a market in Tennessee and should think it well to try it. Our planters think of On board of public armed ships no case has occurred where the Alabama, although it is considerably “ down hill" all nothing but rice, cotton, &c. and consequently there immense weight of metal, guns, anchors, &c. bave withdrawn the the way.

is an over production. My desire is to be instrumental | lightning from the little rod. This fact speaks volumes.



On the Division of Towns and Counties. JOHN YOUNG. Mr. Townsend,

Mr. Hall.

Mr. Morris,

On Agriculture.

Mr. J. B. Smith, Mr. Einmons.

Mr. Beekman,
Hon. Addison GARDNER, Lieutenant-Governor and
President.... Rochester, Monroe County.

On Commerce and Navigation.
First Senate District.

Mr. Jones,

Mr. Ruggles.

Mr. Beers,
David R. Floyd Jones, Edward Sanford,

On Manufactures.
George Folsom,
John Townsend.

Mr. Barlow,

Mr. Van Schoonhoven.
Second Senate District.

Mr. Clark,
Joshua B. Smith, Saxton Smith,

On Medical Societies and Medical Colleges. Robert Denniston, Harvey R. Mor is.

Mr. Backus,

Mr. Barlow.
Third Senate District,

Mr. Beekman,
Stephen C. Johnson, Wm. H. Van Schoonloven

On Privileges and Elections. John P. Beekman, Ira Harris.

Mr. Hall,

Mr. Hand.
Fourth Senate District.

Mr. Crook,
Orville Clark,
Samuel Young,

On Engrossed Bills.
Augustas C. Hand, Thomas Crook.

Mr. Lester,

Mr. S. Smith.
Fifth Senate District,

Mr. Townsend,
Thomas Barlow,
Joshua A. Spencer,

On Indian Affairs.
Enoch B. Talcott, Nelson J. Beach.

Mr. Folsom, . Mr. Ruggles.
Sixth Senate District.

Mr. Beach,
Clark Burnham,
Thomas J. Wheeler,

On Expiring Laws.
George D. Beers, Samuel H. P. Hall."

Mr. Emmons.

Mr. Van Schoonhoven.
Seventh Senate District.

Mr. J. B. Sinith,
Albert Lester,
Richard H. Williams,

On Public Expenditures.
Henry J. Sedgwick, Abraham Gridloy.

Mr. Sanford.

Mr. Wheeler.
Eighth Senate District.

Mr. Denniston,
Frederick F. Backus, Gideon Hard,

On Incorporation of Citics and Villages. Carlos Emmons, Francis H. Ruggles. Mr. Wheeler,

Mr. Gridley.

Mr. Folsom.

On Public Buildings.
Isaac R. Elwood, Clerk, Congress Hall.

Mr. Spencer,

Mr. Johnson. John P. Lott, Deputy Clerk, Franklin House. Mr. Beach,

On the Poor Laws. - Deputy Clerk.

Mr. Beekman, Charles Bryen, Sergeant-at-Arms, head of Schuyler

Mr. Williains. Street.

Mr. Sedgwick,

On Charitable and Religious Societies. Jared S, Halsey, Door-keeper, Franklin House.

Mr. Clark, Martin Miller, Assistant Door-keper. Greenbush.

Mr. Emmons.

Mr. Buraham, Burgess Wands, Janitor, 14 Daniel Street.

On Public Printing. John H. Finnegan, Mesenger, Arbor Hill,

Mr. Beers,

Mr. Talcott.
Joseph Courtney, Jr. Messenger, 30 Dallius Street. | Mr. Hard,

On Retrenchment.
JANUARY, 184 7.

Mr. Townsend,
On Claims.

On Grievances.
Mr. Johnson,
Mr. Einmons.

Mr. Van Schoonhoven, Mr. Crook.
Mr. Wheeler,

Mr. J. B. Smith,
On Finance.

Joint Library Committee.
Mr. Young,
Mr Harris.

Mr. Jones,

Mr. Harris.
Mr. Jones,

Mr. Folsom,
On the Judiciary.
Mr. Hand,

Mr. Spencer.
Mr. Lester,
On the Militia.

Mr. Clark,
Mr. Ruggles.

From the County of Albany.
Mr. Burnham,

Valentine Treadwell, John I. Gallup,
On Canals.

Robert D. Watson, John Fuller.
Mr. Denniston,
Mr. Brach.

From the County of Allegany.
Mr. Sanford,
On Pailroads.

Samuel Russell.

Grover Leavens,
Mr. Hard.
Mr. Willia ns.

From the County of Broome.
Mr. Beekman,

Oliver C. Crocker.
On Roals and Bridges.

From the County of Catlaraugus.
Mr. Burnham,
Mr. Rriggles.

Rufus Crowley, Joseph E. Weeden.
Mr. Crook,

From the County of Cayuga.
On Literature.

Jolin T. Ratbbun, William I. Cornwell.
Mr. Sedgwick,
Mr. Young

Samuel Bell,
Mr. Folsom,

From the County of Chautauque.
On State Prisons.

Madison Burnell, Charles J. Orton.
Mr. 8. Smith,

Mr. Ciridley. Mr.[Backus,

From the County of Chernung.

William Maxwell.
On Banks and Insurance Companies.
Mr. Talcott,
Mr. Morris.

From the County of Chenango.
Mr. Beers.

Ransom Balcom, David McWhorter.

From the County of Clinton.
Rufus Henton.

From the County of Columbia.
John S. Gould,

William M. Miller. From the County of Cortland. Timothy Green.

From the County of Delaware. Jonathan C. Allaben, Donald Shaw.

From the County of Dutchess. Epenetus Crosby, Walter Sherman. Aves I. Vanderbilt,

From the County of Erie.
Horatio Shumway, William H. Pratt,
Obadiah J. Green, John D. Howe.

From the County of Essex.
William H. Butrick.

From the County of Franklin.
Joseph R. Flanders.

From the Counties of Fnlton and Hamilton. Darius Moore.

Frem the County of Genessee.
Heman Blodgett, Alonzo S. Upham.

From the County of Greene.
Almeron Marks, William V. B. Adams.

From the County of Herkimer.
Abijah Beckwith, Jefferson Tillinghast.

From the County of Jefferson. John Boyden,

Samuel J. Davis. John D. Davison,

From the County of Kings.
Abraham D. Soper, Ebenezer W. Peck.
John A. Emmons,

From the County of Lewis.
Thomas Baker.

From the County of Livingston.
William S. Fullerton, Andrew Sill.

From the County of Madison. Peter Van Valkenburgh, George T. Taylor.

From the County of Monroe. William C. Bloss, John McGonegal. John B. Smith,

From the County of Montgomery. Gamaliel Bowdish, Andrew S. Gray.

| From the City and County of New-York. Wilson Small,

Charles Baxter,
Alexander Stewart, Michael Walsh,
David J. Chatfield, Lyman Candee,
Daniel E Sickles, James C. Rutherford,
John H. Bowie,

Alexander M. Alling,
John E. Develin,

Dennis Garrison,
Norman B. Smith, Edward R. Carpentier,
Henry Keyser,

Uzziah Wenman.
From the County of Niagara.
Benjamin Carpenter, Christopher H. Skeele.

From the County of Oneida.
John Dean,

Isaac Curry,
Abel E. Chandler, Nathan Burchard.

From the County of Onondaga.
Manoah Pratt,

John Lakin, William Henderson, Joseph Prindle.

From the County of Ontario. Emery B. Pottle, Ezra Pierce.

From the County of Orange. William C. Hasbrouck. Joseph Davis. Hudson McFarlin,

From the County of Orleans. Abner Hubbard.

From the County of Oswego. Orrin R. Earl,

M. Lindley Lee. From the County of Otsego. Cyrus Brown,

William Temple. Francis U. Fenno.

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