Gambar halaman

able effects. There appears much probability in the burst forth in eruption on the same night, the coinci- ll and even the surfuce of perpetual snow, all support view first proposed by Mr. P. Scrope, that when the dence would be thought remarkable; but it is far organic beings. barometer is low, and when rain might naturally be more remarkable in this case. Where the three vents

SALINE INCRUSTATIONS. expected to fall the diminished pressure of the at. fall on the same great mountain chain, and where the ! I have several times alluded to the surface of the mosphere over a wide extent of couutry might well vast plains along the entire eastern coast and the up. i ground being incrusted with salt. This phenomenon determine the precise day on which the earth already raised recent shells along more than 2000 miles on is quite different from that of the salinas, and moro stretched to the utmost by the subterranean forces, the western coast, shown in how equable and con

extraordinary. In many parts of South America, should yield, crack, and consequently tremble. It is nected a manner the elevatory forces have acted. where the climate is moderately dry, these incrusta. however, doubtful how far this idea will explain the LAKE OF SALTWATER BECOME A FIELD OF tion occur ; but I have nowhere seen them so abun. circumstance of torrents of rain falling in the dry

dant as near Bahia Blanca. The salt here and in season during several days after an earthquake, un


other parts of Patagonia consists chiefly of sulphate accompanied by an eruption. Such cases seem to One day I rode to a large salt-lake, or salina, which of Soda with some common salt. As long as the bespeak some more intimate connections between the is distant of fifteen miles from the town. During the ground remains moist in these salitrales as the Spaatmospheric and subterranean regions.

winter it consists of a shallow lake of brine, which niards improperly call them. Mistaking this subIn the evening, Capt. Fitz Roy and myself were in Summer is converted into a field of snow white stance for saltpetre nothing is to be seen but an ex. dining with Mr. Edwards, an English resident, well salt. The layer near the margin is from four to five tensive plain composed of a black muddy soil, supknown for his hospitality by all who have visited inches thick, but towards the centre its thickness in porting scattered tufts of these tracts. On returning Coquimbo, when a sharp earthquake happened. I creases. This lake was two and a half miles long, through one of these tracts, after a weeks hot heard the forecoming rumble; but, from the screams and one broad. Others occur in the neighbourhood weather, one is surprised to see square miles of of the ladies, the running of the servants, and the rush many times longer, and with a floor of salt two and the plain white, as if from a slight fall of snow, bere of several of the gentlemen to the doorway, I could three feet in thickness, even when under the water and there heaped up by the wind into little drafts. not distinguish the motion. Some of the women af during the winter. One of these brilliantly white This laiter appearance is chiefly caused by the salts terwards were crying with terror, and one gentleman and level expanses, in the midst of the brown and being drawn up during the slow evaporation of the said he should not be able to sleep all night, or if he desolate plain, offers an extraordinary spectacle. A moisture round blades of dead grass, stumps of mud did, it would only be to dream of falling houses. The large quantity of salt is annually drawn from the || and pieces of broken earth instead of being crystal. father of this person had lately lost all his property at salina ; and great piles, some hundred tons in weight, || ized at the bottoms of the puddles of water. The Talcahuano, and he himself had only just escaped a were lying ready for exportation. The season for | salitrales occur either on level tracts, elevated only a falling roof at Valparaiso in 1822. Hle mentioned a working the salinas forms the harvest of Patagones, few feet above the level of the sea, or on alluvial land curious coincidence which then happened : he was for on it the prosperity of the place depends. Nearly bordering rivers. M. Parchappe found that the playing at cards, when a German, one of the party, the whole population encamps on the banks of the saline incrustation on the plain, at the distance of got up, and said he would never sit in a room river, and the people are employed in drawing out some miles from the sea, consisted chiefly of sulphate in these countries with the door shut, as, owing to his the salt in bullock wagons. This salt is crystallized of soda with only seven per cent of conimon salt inhaving done so, he had nearly lost his life at Copiapo. in great cubes, and is remarkably pure. Mr. Tren creased to 37 parts of a hundred. This circumstance Accordingly he opened the door; and no sooner had ham Reeks, has kindly analyzed some for me, and he would tempt one to believe that the sulphate of soda he done this than he cried out, Here it comes again, finds in it only 0.26 of gypsum, and 0.25 of earthy is generally in the soil from the muriate, left on the and the famous shock commenced. The whole party matter. It is a singular fact, that it does not serve surface during the slow and recent elevation of this escaped. The danger in an earthquake is not from the so well for preserving meat as sea salt from the Cape dry country. The whole phenomenon is worthy the time lost in opening a door, but from the chance of de Verd Islands, and a merchant at Buenos Ayres, attention of naturalists. Have the succulent saltits becoming jammed by the movement of the walls. told me that he considered it is fifty per cent" less loving plants which are well known to contain much

It is impossible to be much surprised at the fear valuable. Hence the Cape de Verd salt is constantly | soda, the power of decomposing the muriate? Does which natives and old residents, though some of them inported, and is mixed with that from these salinas. | the black fetid mud, abounding with organic matter, known to be men of great command of mind, so ge The purity of the Patagonian salt or absence from it yield the sulpher and ultimately the sulphuric acid ? nerally experienced during earthquakes. I think, of those other salina bodies fonnd in all sea water, is

A CLOUD OF LOCUSTS. however, this excess of panic may be partly attributed the only assignable cause for this inferiority, a conclu

After over two day's tedious journey, it was reto a want of habit in governing their fear, as it is not sion which no one I think, would have suspected, but

freshing to see in the distance rows of poplars and a feeling they are ashamed of. Indeed the natives which is supported by the fact lately ascertained,

willows growing round the village and river of Luxan. do not like to see a person indifferent. I heard of that those salis answers best for preserving cheese

Shortly before arriving at this place, we observed to two Englishmen who, sleeping in the open air during which contain most of the deliquescent chlowdes.

the South a ragged cloud of a dark reddish brown a smart shock, knowing that there was no danger. did The borders of the lake is formed of mud, and in

color. At first we thought that it was smoke from not rise. The natives cried out indignantly, “look this numerous large crystals of gypsum, some of

some great fire on the plains ; but we soon found that at those herotics, they will not even get out of their which are three inches long lie embedded, whilst on

it was a swarm of locusts. They were flying norththe surface others of sulphate of soda lie scattered

ward ; and, with the aid of a light breeze, they overabout. The Gauchos call the former Padre, del, sal, VOLCANIC ACTION EXTENSIVE IN ITS

took us at the rate of ten or fifteen miles an hour. and the latter the " Madre." They state that these OPERATIONS.

The main body filled the air froin a height of twenty progenitive salts always occur in the borders of the

feet to that as it appeared, of two or three thousand On January the 15th, we sailed from Low's Harbour, salinas, when the water begins to evaporate. The

above the ground, " and the sound of their wings and three days afterwards anchored a second time in mud is black and has a feoted odour. I could not at

was as the sound of chariots of many horses running the bay of S. Carlos in Chiloe. On the night of the first imagine the cause of this, but I afterwarda per

to a battle ;" or rather I should say like a strong 19th, the volcano of Osorno was in action. At mid ceived that the froth which the wind drifted on shore

breeze passing through the rigging of a ship. The night the sentry observed something like a large star, was coloured green as if by contervae. I atteinpted

sky, seen through the advanced guard, appeared like which gradually increased in size till about three to carry home some of this green matter, but from

a mezzatinto engraving, but the main body was imo'clock, when it presented a very magnificent specta an accident failed. Parts of the lake seen from a

perious to sight, they were not however, so thick cle. By the aid of a glass, dark objects, in constant short distance appeared of a reddish colour, and this

together but that they could escape a stick waved succession, were seen in the midst of a great glare of perhaps was owing to some infusorial animalcula.

backwards and forwards. When they alighted they red light, to be thrown up and to fall down. The The mud in many places was thrown up by numbers

were more numerous than the leaves of the field, and light was sufficient to cast on the water a long bright of some kind of worm, or angeliduous animal. How

the surface became reddish instead of being green ; reflection. Large masses of molten matter seem very surprising it is that any creatures should be able to

the swarm having once alighted, the individuals commonly to be cast out of the craters in this part of exist in brine, and that they should be crawling

flew from side to side in all directions. Locusts are the Cordillera. I was assured, that when the Cor amongst crystals of sulphate, of soda and lime. And

not an uncommon pest in this country. Already, covado is in eruption, great masses are projected up what becomes of these worms when during the long

|| during this season several sınall swarms had come up wards and are seen to burst in the air, assuming many summer, the surface is hardened into a solid layer of

from the South, where, as apparently in all other

from fantastical forms, such as trees : their size must be salt. Flamingoes in considerable numbers inhabit

parts of the world, they are bred in the deserts. The immense, for they can be distinguished from the high this lake, and breed here ; throughout Patagonia in

poor cottagers in vain attempted, by lightning fires, land behind S. Carlos, which is no less than ninety northern Chile, and at the Galapagos Islands I met

by shouts and by waving branches, to avert the three miles from the Corcovado. In the morning the with these birds whereever there were lakes of

attack. This species of locusts closely reserables, volcano became tranquil. brine. I saw them here wading about in search of

and perhaps is identical with the famous Gryllus I was surprised at hearing afterwards that Acon food, probably for the worms which burrow in the

Migratorius of the East. cague in Chilie, 480 miles northwards, was in action mud ; and these latter probably feed on infusoria an on the same night; and still more surprised to hear / cafervone. Thus we have a little living world

SALT PETRE MINES. that the great eruption of Coseguina, (2700 mlles north within itself adapted to the inland lakes of brine. A At night I slept at the house of the owner of one of of Aconcague), accompanied by an earthquake felt minute crustaceous animal (cancer salinus) is said to the sale-pelre mines. The country is here as over 1000 miles, also occurred within six hours of live in countless numbers in the brine pans at Ly. | ductive as near the coast; but water having rather a this same time. This coincidence is the more remark m ington; but only in those in which the fluid has bitter and brackish taste, can be procured by diging able, as Coseguina had been dormant for twenty-six attained, from evaporation, considerable strength, ll wells. The well at this house was 36 yards years; and Aconcague most rarely shows any signs namely about a quarter of a pound of salt to a pint | as scarcely any rain falls it is evident the water is of action. It is difficult even to conjecture whether of water. Well may we affirm that every part of the || not thus derived ; indeed if it were it could not fail this coincidence was accidental, or show some sub world is habitable! Whether lakes of brine, or those to be as salt as brine, for the whole surrounding terranean connection. If Vesuviur, Ætna, and Hecla subterenean ones hidden beneath volcanic mountains country is iicrusted with various saline substauces. in Iceland, (all three relatively nearer each other than warm mineral springs, the wide expanse and depths We must therefore conclude that it percolates under the corresponding points in South America) suddenly of the ocean-the upper regions of the atmosphere, I ground from the Cordillera, though distant many

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leagues. In that direction there are a few small THE POTATO IN ITS NATURAL SOIL GROW. months 7 days and in the antumnal months 14 and villages, where the inhabitants having more water

ING WILD IN THE CHONOS ARCHIPHEL 21 day periods are distinctly marked, and the whole are enabled to irrigate a lit:le land, and raise hay on

are modified by the position or place of the moon in which the mules and asses employed in carrying the


its orbit; and about the equinoxes the storms and saltpetre are fed. The nitrate of soda was now sel. The wild potatoe grows on these islands in great winds from the south west and west materially affect ling at the ships side at fourteen shillings per hun. abundance on the sandy shelly soil near the sea beach. the weather, generally inducing irregularity along the dred pounds ; the chief expense is its transport to the The tallest plant was four feet in height. The tubars lands drained by the Mississippi River. dea-coast. The mine consists of a hard stratum be were generally small, but I found one of an oval shape In the past year at least 200 days of westerly winds tween two and three feet thick of the nitrate mingled two inches in diameter. They resembled in every. have prevailed in this section and about 26 days of the with a little of the sulphate of soda and a good deal of respect and had the same smell as English potatoes ; last 30 days the wind veered to the south west point. common salt. It lies close beneath the surface and but when boiled they shrunk much, and were watery I suppose it probable that during the south westerly follows for a length of one hundred and fisty miles the and insipid without any bitter taste. They are un winds, a strong electro inagnetic current set across margin of a grand basin or plain. This froin its out || doubtedly here indigenious ; they grow as far south. the Atlantic froin the African coast to the Charybean line, manifestly, must once have been a lake or more accoriling to Mr. Low, as latitude 50°, and are called coasts of South America and thence passing into the probably an inland arm of the sea as may be interred Aquinas by the wild Indians of that part : the Gulph and the interior land regions may have caused from the presence of iodic salts in the sea line stratum. Chilitan Indians have a different name for them. storms and prepared the exitants of earthquakes which The surface of the plain is 3300 feet above the l'a- || Professor Henslow, who has examined the dried will be developed in February and March next.

specimens which I brought home, says, that they The trade wiods are not wholly dependent upon TERRIBLE HAIL STORM.

are the same with those described by Mr. Sabine the chemical daily influence of the sun, but in part

from Valparaiso, but they form a variety which by arise from certain reactive forces set in motion by efSeptember 16th. To the seventh posta at the foot some botanists, has been considered as specifically forts at equations between tropical and polar general of the Sierra Tapalguen, the country was quite level, distinct. It is remarkable that the same plant should chemical results. The same forces which cause the with coarse herbage, and a soft peaty soil. The hovel be found on the sterile mountains of central Chile, trade winds partially interrupted expend part of their was here remarkably neat, the posts and rafters being where a drop of rain does not fall for more than six energy in giving the sea current called the Gulph made of about a dozen dry thistles-stalks bound to. months, and within the damp forests of these Southern stream. But much the greater share of those forces gether with thongs of hide; and by the support of Islands.

entering the land surface of South America penetrate these ionic-like columns, the roof and sides were

to its volcanic mountains and wending northward thatched with reeds. We were here told a fact, which


through the Isthmus of Panama crosses Mexico and I would not have credited if I had not had partly

December 21, 1846. the Rio Grande through Arkansas and arriving this ocular proof of it, namely, that during the previous E. MERIAM, Esq.

side of the Mississippi river in a zone several hundred night, hail as large as small apples and extremely hard,

Dear Sir.-I received two numbers of the New. li miles wide becomes divided. The greater share of had fallen with such violence as to kill the greater

York Farmer and Mechanic-it is a well conducted these wiud and earthquake forces takes a northward number of the wild animals. One of the men had

journal, and better stored with modern views of course up the Mis-issippi while the remainder turns already found thirteen deer (cervus campestris) lying things than any similar journal I have read.

eastward extending over all the horizontal limestone dead, and I saw their fresh hides. Another of the

The progressive democracy of knowledge has more

regions of Kentucky and Middle Tennessee and crossparty, a few minutes after my arrival bronght seven freedom in your mixed atmosphere than in the Quake:

ing the Eastern parts of Ohio follows the South shores inore. Now I well know that one man without dogs city or the tea city down east.

of Lake Erie and Ontario towards the sea and across could hardly have killed seven deer in a week. The

Your approbation of the new Constitution of New. it to a junction with the Gulph stream, men believed they had seen about fifteen dead os

York with a strong touch of Radical Whigism, in But judging by the uniform tracks of Galph Hurritriches, part of one of which we had for dinner ; and

vites both yourself and Spencer tu fall in and hold : canes which passing through Mississippi and Arkanhe said that several were running about, evidently

well the reins for guiding the Democratic Phaeton. sas into the western end of Tennessee there divide, blind in one eye. Numbers of small birds, as ducks,

The Whigs have the wrong Telescope now as they part going north ward or vorth eastward and the rehawks and partridges, were killed. I saw one of the have had for the last fifty years, with the exception

mainder passing east mounts over the Cumberland latter with a black mark on its back, as if it had been of a few months.

mountaiu and thence advances along the valleys bor- struck with a paving stone. A fence of thistle stalks

Those that have eyes to see ought to use them. dering on the Alleghany range, I would infer that the round the hovel was nearly broken down, and my

If Congress bring back the boundary to the Neuces electro magnetic forces pursue the same direction. informer, puuting his head out to see what was the River you will soon see an Empire Republic between

In the Indian Ocean the monsoons for six months maiter, received a severe cut, and now wore a ban24 and 42 degrees from the Gulf to the Pacific, made

on this side the Equator blow south easterlv, at the dage. The storm was said to have been of limited by the progressive Whigs and Democrats.

same time a countercurrent beyond the Equator blows extent. We certainly saw from our last night's bivouac,

The die is cast, and the Rubicon is crossed for attain south westward and during the ensuing six months a dense cloud and lightning in this direction. It is

ing commercial supremacy over the assiatic trade. with a short rest about the change the monsoous marvellous how such strong animals as deer could

The interests of twenty millions of people is ' come from the north east and beyond the Equator thus have been killed ; but I have no doubt, from

stronger than when our number was only three mil the counter current rons toward the south east. the evidence I have given, that the story is not in the lions, and how will it be twenty years hence?

The position of the Mediterranean and Black seas least exaggerated. I am glad, however, to have its

Land, land, wherever the rain falls has been the with the arid state of Central Africa and Arabia credibility supported by the jesuit Dobrizhoffer,

watch word of the Saxon ancestry for 2,500 years have much to do with generating the currents from who was speaking of a country much to the north

past, and will the young ones now change habits ? the west, while the Hymalayan mountains and table ward, says, hail fell of an enormous size, and killed a

The above letter drew from us some remarks under

plains and heated sands of Southern Asia give directvast number of cattle ; the Indians hence called the

ion to the monsoon from the Malabar regions while place, Lalegraicavalca, meaning “ The little white the head of Comparative Meteorology" on pages

the ocean surface south of the Equator invite the things." Dr. Malcolmson also informs me, that he

641 and 642 of this series of the Gazetle, to which countercurrents. witnessed in 1839, in India, a hail storm, which killed numbers of large birds, and much injured the

To keep up these energetic movements of winds, we referred our learned correspondent in a letter we

clouds and waters, an incalculable force is constantly cattle. These hail-stones were flat, and one was ten addressed to him.

warring against the opposing stillness ordered and inches in circumference, and another weighed two

Abingdon, January 12th, 1847.

vainly attempted to be imposed by the attraction of ounces ; they ploughed up a grand walk like musket E. Meriam, Esq.,

gravitation. Who can estimate the gross amount of balls, and passed through the glass windows, making Dear sir,

such force? The tides on opposite sides of the world round holes but not cracking them.

Your acceptable favor of January 2d is received, at the same time represent the power exerted, and EARTHQUAKE RUINS.

with several newspapers containing your remarks on volcanic heavings indicate the mighty efforts for ba temperature, &c.

lancing and equating these terrene breathings of the There is also another and very different class of Since the 14th December to the 7th of this inonth chemical world we walk upon and think so stableruins, which possesses some interest, namely, those the weather in this region has been remarkably tem and motionless. of old Callao, overwhelmed by the great earihquake perate and uniform with light frosts or none at all. li Now if these positions have foundation in nature of 1746. and its accompanying wave. The destruc. The next 42 hours succeeding 2 o'clock P. M. of the || you perceive that all their lesser classes of incidents tion inust have been more complete even than at 7th the thermometer fell from 74 degrees above to ? must be no less true, among which all atmospheric or Talcahuano. Quantities of shingle almost conceal the degrees below zero at this place, and 71 to zero at weather variations are embraced. If it be true that foundations of the walls, and vast masses of brick Saltville.

tide elevations at the antipodes answer each other in work appear to have been whirled about like peb In all the 24 preceding days, the earth copiously! gross, so do also every particle of the waters, although bles by the ritiring waves. It has been stated that sent forth calorifying influences, when as above stated 8000 miles apart, answer one to the other as certainly the land subsided during this memorable shock. I a collapse ensued, during which the ground not only i as the complex atons of all iny hand unite in obeying could not discover any proof of this ; yet it seems || refused to impart heat, but abstracted it from the air, 1 the intent with which I indite these lines. Admit far from improbable, for the form of the coast must so that in four hours, soft deep mud became so frozen this to be true and how can it be said that your certainly have undergone some change since the as to sustain a horse and next day loaded waggons. observations upon swelling and collapsing states of foundation of the old town, as no people in their The rocks to day dissolve the snow next their surface | atinospheric temperature indicate nothing? As well senses would willingly have chosen for their building especially such as are deeply embeded in the crust of might the sceptic say maguetic polarity is accidental place the narrow spit of shingle on which the ruins the earth, which I did not so soon expect. In winter and without parentage of multiplied causation. But now stand since our voyage M. Tschudi has come to the changes commonly occur by seven or by fourteen the march of common sense observation is now, in the conclusion, by the comparison of old and modern day periods, while the analogous changes in summer, every Christian land, collecting facts and making imaps, that the coast both north and south of Lima has are 14 to 28 day times, attended by similitudes of | ductions which if not examined and rightly connected certainly subsided.

vapor and other atmospheric changes. In spring with existing theories and systems of physical philosophy, will overset them, burying their merits with demerits, to the great injury of progressive science.

I need not say that I commend your careful attention to such facts as you refer me, in the papers received from you. In my last letter to you I gave the Geological outlines of the inclined fractured edges on the slope of Walker's mountain, extending down to Saltville on the one side, and northwestward I described the slope of sandstone ascending 2700 feet high to the summit of Clynch mountain. The latter is the surface sandstone under which lies the red sandstone, and while the fractured edges of the rocks of Walkers' shew they have been upheaved from a depth of above 4000 feet, the base of the Clynch mountain must, on the Saltville side, have had a corresponding depression else the superstratal sandstone could not in the saliferous bed come into contact with the basal upheaved rocks of Walker's mountain as we now find them. There must have been a disruption along the valley between them, not less than a mile in depth and above a hundred miles long and when the gap received much of the diffractured superior rocks it came together at the valley level crushing and disjointing much massive material. It is the irregular parcels of rucks near this great crevice which seems to have produced some differences of opinions among the numerous geologists who have inspected the place, but by crossing the valley at several distant places from the summit of one mountain to the other, the true construction can be ascertained and the local irregulari. ties be explained.

I mentioned that here the geological conformation is too low down in the series of rocks for coal to exist. In the superstructure of the Alleghanies and especially in the Cumberland mountain coal abundantly appears. In the Alleghany chain I have seen no granite nor in any range of these mountains not directly attached to the Blue mountain, which overlooks the Atlantic slope from Virginia circling westward toward Vicksburgh. All south and east of the Blue inountains contain old rocks as well as vast formations of recent rocks, but here no rocks above the ancient secondary are found. It is very strongly presumptive that the rock salt here was composed out of saliferous material dissolved from the red and marly beds when broken up about 800 feet under the surface, at the time the present mountains were formed. At the same time also, the Gypsum was made and commingled with it, by very extensive decomposition of adjacent limestone, in heated lakes. After that period much dæbris was cast upon it, covering up the mammoth or mastodon skeletons under the action of currents from the north west crossing Clynch mountain, at a point 2000 feet higher than Saltville, but, when this last event occurred no considerable diffraction of rocks or changes of valley and hill surfaces occurred. To my mind thousands of proofs exist for one opposed to the belief, that both the early and later general changes of the terrene crust were caused by foreign masses approaching too near the earth to permit its waters to remain as now on the face of the globe. The waters generally were vaporized and subsequently descended to the earth, causing immense floods whilst the equatorial diameter was recovering its lost position.

From the description of the world in Adam's day it is manifest Moses conceived a belt of waters (somewhat like Saturn's rings) composed the waters in the open heavens far above the waters composing the seas. Nor is it less plain that in Noah's time he de. scribes those waters as descending upon the earth nor is it improbable that Saturn's thin muddy and watery rings will fall to his body, by the lesser influence of some foreign body which caused the elevation. Under such circumstances volcanic and oceanic action wonld not remain neutral, but still their results would not be on a scale to form uniform hills and mountains for hundreds and thousands of miles in length, as we now find them. To derange these more enlarged effects is the province of local volcanic and oceanic operations as the surface of all countries attests.

When there is a return of the causes once leaving monuments over all the earth of fiery heats and frozen seas, the rainbow and its concometant seasons will not exist as now and man himself will not then be the witness of terrene things as at the present time.

Yours, * Remarks of the Rev. Mr. Colton, Chaplain of the United States Ship Congress made in relation to the effects of the climate of the Westorn parts of the Con

tinent, bordering the great Pacific, which we have racter bends before these new and until now untried before quoted, were cominunicated in a letter written energies for evil or for good, and doubtless for good by that Gentleman to the Editors of the Journal of these changes are granted by an overruling Provi. Commerce, and by them published in that Journal. dence ; yet all these mighty influences would sud.

Mr. Colton, in that letter written at Valparasio, May denly cease or be immensely interrupted by any 5, 1846, says:- · The climate of Peru, has a singular great disturbance in the present institutions of Brazil effect on the color of the different races-it bleaches and our own country. All the earth ought at present the black man into the Mullatto, and bronzes the white to guard and protect those institutions as they are. It man into the Indian. It dwarts the European in was the wealth of New England that stocked the stature in the second and third generation, and de South with slaves and it was the uncongeniality of the prives him of fire and energy. The native youth, in climate and products in the northern states and not their boyhood, exhibit intelligence and force, but as the donations of humanity that liberated those states they grow np they become teeble in body and irre from slavery. Even now the most humane abolisolute in mind."

tionist searches alter the cheapest cotton, sugar, toI believe it was said in the United States Senate bacco, rice and other slave grown products without a by some member of that intelligent body-that compunction for not leaving in some charity liberat. Mexico is destitute of great men. That climate is not ing box, one stiver, as a conscience offering to hucongenial to the developement of intellect.

manity. Out of the expansions of commerce agriThe Rev. Mr. Colton, has, since he penned the culture and manufactures, gains are made for buil. letter of May 5, 1846. became a sort of Executive ding splendid church edifices and bells and orizons Magistrate, in a City on the Western Coast of America, chime in the contracted understanding of volaries which was forcibly taken possession of by Captain who glory in their own absolute purity (inglorious Slockton, an officer commanding a United States Ship arrogance) and send up prayers of indignation against of War in the Pacific

their neighbours. ABINGDON, January 17th, 1847.

I have seen much of the Indian, the Negro and the E. MERIAM, Esq.,

Caucasian White and well know that wherever the Dear Sir,

latter comes in contact with the former, submission I beg leave to differ with you in the opinion that

and a protective care or extinction becomes their inethe caucasian or white germanic race of mankind will

vitable doom. In all the adventurous action of the deteriorate after a few generations by habitation upon

Germanic races of mankind whilst searching the the Western side of North America. The able work

earth for the most commodious homes we find them of Dr Lawrence and the truly excellent and elaborate

always selecting rich soils irrigated by great rivers book of our own countryman Dr. Samuel G. Morton

or from regular rains by the clouds; they do not upon the characteristics of the various races and con

willingly remain in countries of great aridity or restitutions of mankind demonstrate wonderful per

quiring irrigation by much hand labor, prefering to manence of organization and intellect. Without com

fight for better places. It is because of the irregumixture of blood, every variety retains distinctive

larity of seasons, except in small portions of Califorfeatures, for thousands of years, with slight modifica

nia, that all the lands beyond the Rocky Mountains tions for changes of climate and facilities of subsis

and the Rio Grande are all suited to sláve products tence. A few hundred thousand Anglo Saxons occu

by tillage and no Southerners would ever dream of pying the million of square miles beyond the rocky subjecting those regions to slavery provided their mountains, will within a few generations, humanize

home relations were unmolested by political dragothe wild savages now roaming like Buffaloes for men of the north. Apart from this danger constantly scanty and insecure sustenance, not by the mere fact

threatened, there is not and never can be ihe slightest of conquest, but by commixture of blood. Not all the

motive for the extension of slave representation beyond Indians of the world, it possessed at once, with the

the Rio Grande, yet even there under any future riches and the steam navigation of the Mississippi val

events that can happen, the Caucasian will exercise ley could preserve and much less extend those sour his dominent sway over the mixed blooded races for ces ot affluence and power even for the poor term of

ages to come, whether as hunters, shepards graziers one or two years. Nor would all the black race,

sailors, day laborers, or tillers of the soil. educated as many are, be able by themselves to carry

The physical and intellectual endowments and esout the expanding energy of the same machinery

pecially the pliability of his constitution to all latitudes beyoud the term of ten or twenty years. Their social

enables hiin to hold supremacy until by admixture of and obedient tempers can imitate, admire and patern

blood his pure cast being lost, new hordes of the Cauafter the plans of direct superiors and from an instinc

casians seeing the defect, step forward and assume tive regard to affairs of one year in advance, they will

the direction of affairs, elevating the mass and again carefully preserve seeds and plant, cook and weave,

commingling with it. But the commercial appetite yet are mentally incapable of conducting and preser

of our people for the hoarded gold and silver which ving civilizatiou and its complex appendages.

it has for ages accumulated in China will impel a The late rapid increase of population and the ame long and constant migration and renewal of the pure liorating processes for advancing the political and Germanic blood along the western coasts, so that I social condition of all mankind demand the occupa

judge your apprehensions of the deterioration of the tion of all lands and climates adapted to the general

Saxon blood in the west will be as groundless as it good. A few marauding hunters claiming the regions

has proved according to some French Savans that the from the Californian Peninsula to Beerings Straits

races of all animals rapidly deteriorated upon the must allow others to add value to the lands and

American contenent.* forests and waters, to breath the free air and to open

Within the next twenty years our population will ports and roads adapted to advancing the interests of

be doubled and the reasons which has within a short all.

period cast into the Mississippi valley ten millions of Whilst all Mexico is destined to be the cumulative

souls will in no great lapse of years place twenty milreservoir of the free Moorish family of this continent,

lions beyond the Rocky Mountains. No country has it is quite as certain that millions of the Tatar, the

prospered more than England during the three last Chinese and Malayan varieties of men must seek re

centuries and her colonial system is well known to generation and christianity along the western wilds of

have been the chief means of advancement to all her our continent and among the Polynesian fields of the

power. Pacific.

Even grant that an independent republic will at The cheap products by slave labor in Brazil and last exist beyond the Rocky Mountains, is it not of the United States is an instrument in the hands of an vast moment to rear it up under our tuition, with our all wise providence, more potent for civilizing and language, our principles and our system of trade and christianizing all the world in a short period to come, manufactures. How else can a proper system of rail. than all the ecclesiastic and all the money power of roads and other interior relations be preserved ?-tlie the earth united to effect the same purpose. The occupation of the Western Ports as surely commands tobacco, leather, hats, raw cotton, coffee, sugar, rice the trade of China and of Polynesia and dismantles corn and meat yielded by slave labor, under the pes English marine in that quarter as any event that has tilential air of bounteous soils are supplied to stea, not been verified. If a nation will not send forth mers of the land and ocean so cheap as to arrest the young hives the parent home must sink and die by finger labor of all semnicivilised and crowded tribes | reason of its own want of common foresight. The and nations. Pins, needles, hosiery, blue and checked genions of our institutions requires a broad verge for cottons and all manufactures, spring forth by the en the action of disappointed and pent up spirits. We chanted million fingered steam apparatus of a few cannot have standing armies to keep down turbulent factories. Every thing of the social or political cha- " migratory spirits.

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The Commissioners for Widening the )

other publishers having agreed to accept it, we de Bloomindale Road from Twenty



Fifth street to the intersection of ) THE STATE CONVENTION, the Seventh Avenue,


To Edward Ewen, Dr.

City and County of New York, 19. Wm. Burroughs BURTIS SKIDMORE ESQ., OF NEW-YORK. For 193 days' work for self and assistant, in making

Jr. being duly sworn, says that he is a clerk in the the necessary surveys, profiles, rule maps, damages UPERIOR COURT-In the matter of the appli

office of the Morning News, a daily paper, printed

maps, and benefit maps, at $4 per day.... $792 00 D cation of the Mayor, Aldermen, and Common

and published in the City of New York, and that tho ality of City of New York, relative to opening a cer

charge of one hundred ninety-eight 45-100 is correct

City and County of New-York, ss. :-I, Edward tain new street, laid out under and by virtue of an

and true.

WM. BOROUGHS, Jr. Ewen, do solemnly swear, that the above amount of act of the Legislature of the State of New York, en

Sworn before me this 1st day of June, 1846, $792, is just and true.

EDWARD EWEN. titled “ An Act to lay out a new street in the Twelfth

Wx. H. GRISWOLD, Com'r of Deeds. and Sixteenth wards of the city of New York, and Sworn, at the City of New York, this to keep open a part of the Bloomingdale Road in said 29th May, 1846, before me,

J. Leveridge, Esq. city," passed April 16, 1846.

D. M. COWDREY, Commissioner of Deeds, To the NEW-YORK COMMERCIAL ADVERTISER, Dr. Tako Notice, that the costs and charges in the

1845. Aug. 7—To advertising new street, above entitled matter will be taxed by the Circuit

New-York, April 18. 1846.

12th and 16th Waris, $2, 205, Judge of the First Circuit, at his office, in the City Messrs. C. A. Whitney and others, Hall of the city of New-York, on the Twenty-sixth

Commrs. on Bloomindale Road, 3

City and County of New-York, 88.: Thomas E. day of September, instant, at nine o'clock in the fore

To R. C. Rook, Dr.

Gaison being duly sworn, says that the amount on

the other side is correct. noon.

Thomas E. Gaison. 1845. Dated September 9, 1846.

Sworn before me this 1st June, 1846,
May 21, 1 bottle of Red Ink,

JOSEPH STRONG, Commissioner of Deeds. 1 com. Pens,

50 J. W. C. LEVERIDGE, Commissioners. CHAS. A. WHITNEY, S.

1 gr, cap Book Paper,


John Leveridge, Esq.
J. Leveridge, Attorney.
Sept 10. 3 qre. ruled cap Paper,

To the EVENING Post, Dr. 1846.

1845. Aug. 7-To adv. Bloomingdale Road, 1 qr. cap. d fd.

8.66 2p 200

8 60 Before the Hon. J. W. EDMONDS, Circuit Judge Jan. 11. 3qrs. folio post, ruled to pat, 75 2 25

1846. Feb. 20— “ (legal charge $442.80) 60t 75 00 of the First Circuit at his Chambers in the City

Aprl 17. 2 grs. foolscap Book,

March 25— "

6.25 21p 11t 6 25 Hall of the City of New York. " “ 1 do. Paper ruled $ cts.

April 20— "

17.20 41 200 17 20 In Re. )

- 6 25

Legal charge $464.85 agreed upon. Bloomingdale Road. NOTICE OF TAXATION.

$207 05 Charles A. Whitney and others, Com'rs,

City and County of New-York, ss.: On this the SURVEYOR'S BILL, ALLOWED.

To John F. Trow & Co. Dr. first day of June, 1846, before me camo Jag. A. How,

1845. May 31.-To 100 Circulars for Commissioners who being duly sworn, says that he is the principal This affidavit shows that he is not the same Ewen

Bloomingdale Road,

$2 25 clerk in the office of the Evening Post, published in that was engaged in the other surveys, and that the

the City of New-York, and that the sum of four hun. service has been performed. The other Surveyors

dred and sevonty-four dollars 85-100 charged on the certify as to the value of the services..

New-York, August 29, 1845. other side is the legal charge for said advertisements,
Commissioners for Bloomingdale Road, ?

but that the sum of two hundred and seven 05-100 These affidavits state distinctly the service of 148

Messrs. W. P. Hallett and others, 3

is the amount agreed upon with the Commissioners days of six hours each, and there is nothing against

To MORNING News, Dr.

for said advertisements, and that the snm of two hun. this but surmise, and even that surmise is answered

dred and seven 05-100 is correct and true. For publishing notice: a new street, by the fact that they were first appointed in May

J. A. How. 2 sgrs 20t,

1 Sworn before me this 2d day of June, 1846. Term, rendered some service before September, and also rendered service after 20th February, and their City and County of New-York, 88.: William Bur.

Julius SHERWOOD, Com'r of Deeds. Book of Minutes produced before me. shows the par roughs, Jr. being duly sworn, says that he is a clerk in ticular days.

New-York, May 18, 1846. the office of the Morning News, and that the written Room hire is deducted by the Commssioners, the

Commissioners of Estimate,
bill of eight 60-100 dollars is correct and true.
rest allowed as charged.

Messrs. Hallett, Leveridge, & Whitney,
William BURROUGHS, Jun.

1845 To New-York Daily Express, Dr. COLLECTORS FEES, ALLOWED Sworn before me this 1st day of June, 1846.

August 7, 1846. To advertising applicaThe amount was not disputed and the Statute is

William H. GRISWOLD, Com'r of Deeds.

tion to open and widen Bloomingdale explicit in charging the owners benefitted, the expense

road, 1st 20 days notice

$8 60 of making and collecting the assesment. In the matter of the

Feb. To advertising that Commissioners
Appraisers and Printers Bill, unquestioned.
Widening and Opening Bloomingdale Road, }

had completed their assessment &c.

60 days, To John CARR & Isaac LEWIS.

175 00

March To advertising for objections, 10 This is charged according to the Rev. Stat. which May 28, 1846—To services in the above matter

days, was repealed by the act of 1840, which makes no

6 25 as appraisers,

$50 00 April To advertising the 2nd 20 days provision for these services. I confess I had my


17 20 doubts, still under the act of 1839 the attorney was City and County of New-York, s8 : Isaac Lucas be June 20.' To advertising 14 days notice entitled to a compensation, and the only question was ing duly sworn, saith that he and John Carr were em taxation of costs,

4 95 as to the rate at which it should be measured. The ployed by the Commissioners in the above matter as

City and County of New-York, 89. Kneeland law of 1839, and the rule of the Supreme Court appraisers, and that the foregoing sum of fifty dol. Townsend, in the office of the New-York Daily Exadopted thereon contemplated the “ Existing laws," lars is a reasonable and proper charge for such servi. press, being duly sworu, says, that the above bill for that is, the Revenue Statute, as the standard, and as ces therein.

ISAAC LUCAS. advertising in the matter of opening and widening the Superior Court have allowed that rule to stand Sworn to before me this 28th day of May, 1846, Bloomingdale road, amounts to iwo hundred and more than six years since the passage of the act of

Alp. MONTGOMERY, Com'r of Deeds.

seven dollars and five cents, is correct, and further 1840, I suppose they intend it shall so operate, and I

he says not, also the additional item of four dollars govern myself accordingly. The clerk is entitled to only 50 cents for entering

New-York, May 19, 1846.

and ninety-five cents.

Sworn this 20th day of June, 1846, before me, a rule, whether it is ten or ten hundred folio long.

Commissioners for opening Bloomingdale Road
To enter these rules must cost the State $40 or $50 |
Messrs. Wm. P. Hallett and others,


Commissioner of Deeds, at least, but if they choose to do it for 50 cents, the

To Morning News, Dr. John Leveridge, Esq.,
owners will not complain. That item is deducted.
1846. Feb. 20—To advertising notices,

W. P. Hallett,

J. W.C. Leveridge,
32 folios, 60 times, $393 60

I know nothing about the amount of service ren-

Chas. A. Whitney,
March 26 "

2 " 10 "

6 25 dered or necessary. The counsel for the Corporation

1846 April 20 "

To the office of the Gazette & Times, Dr. 4 1 2016

20 “ 17 20 makes oath to the correctness of the charges, and

Feb. 20. To advertising Bloomthers acquainted with the nature of the business con

ingdale Road, 26 f 600 $442 20 $175 00 firm him. Against this, I have nothing but surmise,

$417 05
March 20 “ " 24f 5t

6 25 and to that I cannot yield in opposition to the evidence

April 20 " " 4f 200
The charges in the bill dated Feb. 20, 1846, was pub-

$17 20 before me.

lished with an understanding between the Com

State of New York, ss, On the first day of June, BILL OF COSTS AND FEES missioners and the publisher of the News, that

13 46, before me, came Henry G. Evans, who being In the matter of Widening the Bloomingdale Road

the price to be paid shall not exceed that which

duly sworn gays, that he is the publisher of the Gazette

and Times a Daily Newspaper, published in the City from 25th Street to 7th Avenue...... feet.

other offices should agree to publish it for. The
Commissioners having settled upon $175, and the ll and ninety eight 45-100 dollars, is correct according

of New-York, and that the above bill of one hundred

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to agreement entered into between the Proprietor of Do, affidavit handbills had been post

Do. affidavit of John Turuer as to the said Gazette and Times, and the Commissioners e d, fol. 2 and copy,

notice having been put up and mentioned in 'said bill.. Oath, 12.; copy of handbills to an

copy, 75; oath ,12}; copy of noSworn to before me this first day of June, 1846. nex to affidavit,

25 : 6 00 tice to annex, 373:

- 1 25 1 25 C HERRY G. Evans.

Motion made.

To posting the first 20 days hand-
F. A. How, Commissioner of Deeds.
Motion to appoint commissioners, 62}

bills, daily, for 20 days, and the 60 Mr. J. W. C. Leveridge, New-York, Sept. 22, 1845. | Brief and fee on motion to appoint

days' handbills, for 60 days, daily, To Folger and Sutton, Dr.,


3 621

making 80 days, at 50-100 per day, 40 00 40 00 To printing and furnishing 200 letter Do. rule appointing commissioners,

May Term, 1846. sheets application for reports in 12th

fol. 74 and copy,

Motion to confirm report, as amended, 62 625 and 16th wards, $3,25 Counsel perusing and amending, 1 25

Brief atty and counsel fee, on motion
Paid clerk entering rule and for cer-

to commissioners, same being opSUPREME COURT.

tified copy,

5 18

P3 62% 3 624
In the matter of the application
Notice to the commissioners of their

The Court overruled the objection, of



except as to taxation of costs, and The Mayor, Alderman and Common Dn. oath of commissioners, fol. 4 and

directed the costs to be taxed, and alty of the City of New-York, relativo

copy, 1.50; oath, 121,

1 62 40 80 confirmation to stand over until to opening a certain new street, laid,

The commissioners proceeded to

July term, for that purpose. out under and by virtue of an act of discharge their duties, and finished

Do, rule therein, fol. 3 and copy, 1 124 the Legislature of the People of the J. LEVERIDGE, their estimate and assessment.

Clerk entering rule and for certified State of New York, entitled " An act Attorney and Do. notice that commissioners had

87} to lay out a New Street, in the Twelfth i Counsel. completed their assessment, (pub

Copy of rule as certified to serve on and Sixteenth Wards of the City of

lished 60 days,) fol. 33 and copy, 12 373

Ř. Mott, Esq.,

375 2 37 New-York, and to keep open a part ot | Costs. Four copies of notice at 4.12 each,

Clerk of the Supreme Court entering the Bloomingdale Road, in said City," )

for printers,

'16 50

original report, fol. 10, 37, and for passed April 16, 1838. Oue copy for printers to print hand

certified copy thereof,

:37 38 bills by,

$ 3 621 Retaining fee.

4 12 33 00 Clerk of the Supreme Court entering 28 28

Do. of abstract of assessment to file Dft. petition, fol. 75 and copy,

original report, as amended, fol.

212, and for certified copy thereof, 30 19 Counsel perusing and amending, 1 25

in street commissioner's office, fol.
33 154
91 and copy,

34 13

Do. affidavit of commissioners, fol. 2
P. of dft. as to commissioners to an
nex to petition fol. 2,copy and oath, 87
Copy to file in street commissioner's

and copy, 75; 3 oaths, 37); 1 12

office, Copy of petition and affidavit to file, 9 68

11 374

Do. affidavit to appraiser's bill, fol. 1
Do. affidavit of Jacob S. Warner, fol.
Motion to appoint commissioners,

and copy,

2 and copy, 75; oath 12%; 874

Oath, 123,

124 169 19 Brief and fee on motion to appoint

Do, affidavit of George B. Smith, fol. commissioners,

3 62

4 and copy, 1.50; oath, 12.1; Do. rule appointing commissioners,

1 624

1197 781 Do. affidavit of John Ewen, fol. 3 and

Do. costs, fol. 22 and copy, 8 25 fol. 67 and copy, Counsel perusing and amending, 1 25

copy, 1.12; and oath, 12); 1 25

Copy for street commissioner's office,
Do. affidavis of 8. S. Doughty and

and also for taxation,

5 50 Paid clerk entering rule and for certified copy,

Copy of the bills of other expenses 14 82

copy, fol. 3 and copy, 1.124; and

oath, 12); Notice to the commissioners of their

1 25

for street commissioner's office,

and also for taxation, Do affidavit of Elias S. Smith, fol. 2

2 871 appointment,

75 46 741 At the May Term, 1845, F. S. Kin

and copy, 75; and oath, 12; 87}

Do. notice of first taxation, fol. 2 and
Do. potice for objections, fol. 2 copy,

copy, pey, Esq., upon affidavit and notice

published 21 days,

Four copies of notices for 4 newspaof motion, moved the Court to Four copies for printers, at 25 each, 1 00

pers, at 25 each,

1 00
change a commissioner; brief and
fee in opposing motion,
3 62

3 624
One copy for printers to print haud-

Three copies to put up as handbills,
bills by,

25 53 38 The name J. W. Muligan, one of

Putting up notices for 14 days, at 50

Objections having been made to the commissioners, was striken

each day,

7 00

26 13 out and W. P. Hallet substituted the estimate and assessment of the

Do. of affidavit of John Turner, fol. 2, by the Court. * * * * * commissioners, they amended same.

50; copy thereof, 25; copy of noDo. abstract of assessment as amend- .

tice to annex to affidavit, 25; Do. rule for substitution, fol. 2 and

ed, fol. 91 and copy,

34 13
oath, 12.1;

I 12}
Clerk entering and for certified copy,
Copy to file in street commissioner's

Paid postage,

11 37 45 50 !! Do. alfidavits of R. V. Leveridge as &c., Do. notice of amended abstract

to posting, fol. 1, 25; copy, 12;. Notice to W.P. Hallet of his appoint

having been filed, published 20

oath, 12!:

50 days, fol. 3 and copy,

1 12
85 02.)

Do. affidavit of services aud disburse-
Do. report of commissioners, fol.

ments for taxation, fol. 3, 75; copy, ment,

1037 and copy,

388 88

37 ; oath, 12); Do. oath of commissioners, fol. 4 and

Copy to file, copy, &c.

129 63

Do. affidavit of J. Leveridge as to
Do. report of commissioners, as

charges in bill, fol. 4, 1.00; copy, Three oaths,

37.5 2 12
amended, fol. 212 and copy, 75 50

50; oath, 12); These proceedings were vacated,

1 62 Copy to file,

26 50

Attending the taxation, 2 attendances, 50 and a new application made.

Copy of original abstract, to file in

Do, affidavit of John Turner as to
September 4, 1845.
Drafts to found motion to vacate, fol.

clerk's office,

11 37

fols. in proceedings fol. 3,75, copy Copy of amended abstract, to file in

371, oath 124, 2 and copy,

clerk's office,

11 37 648 37 Copy of taxed bill to file with St.
Do. affidavit of publication of 60

Commissioner, 87 90 Oath, 12); motion to vacate, 62);

days' notice for 4 printers, 75 each

Paid Printer for hand-bills for appli. 75

and copy, fol, 2,Brief and fee on mution, $3.62; do.

· 3 003 00

1 25
Do. of afidavit of George D. Cooper

Paid Printer for hand-bills to be put rule, fol. 2 and copy, 75; 4 374 'as to notice having been put up 60

up 60 days,

9 55 19 60 Clerk entering rule and for certified

days, fol. 2 and copy.

Printers fees for publishing notice * copy,

Oath, 12); copy of notice to annex,
Serving rule on commissioners,

of taxation of costs 14 days, in 4
25 6 00

4 25 Do. petition, fol, 75, and copy,

5 00

newspapers $4.95 each notice for
28 13
Do. affidavit of John Turner as to

22nd June.

19 80 Counsel perusing and amending, 1 25

notice haviug been put 60 days, Do. affidavit as to commissioners to

Do. affidavit of publication fol. 1

fol. 2 aud copy, annex, fol. 2 and copy,

and copy, 75 Oath, 123; copy of petition and affiOath, 123: copy of notice to annex,

The like for three other newspapers 4.12);

4 25 davit to file,

at 37% each, 9 50 39 63

5 00

1 12 | Do. affidavit of publication of 10 Do. notice pursuant to statute of in

Motion at notice that confirmation days' notice for 4 printers aud

of report completed,

3 623 tention to apply to Court for the

:copy, at 75 each,

3 00 3 00 Do. of rule on motion fol. 2.50, appointment of commissioners for Do. aliidavit of John Turner as to no

Clerk entering rule, and for cer2 and copy, tice having been put up and copy,

tified copy 50,

100 25 03 Copy for 4 printers, at 25 each, 1 00

75; oath, 12); notice to annex, 23 ; 1 12 Copy for printers to print handbills by, 25

1 12}

Do. costs for 2 taxation fol. 2 copy, 7 50
Do. affidavit of publication of 20
Do. affidavit of 4 printers, 2 fol. each

Copy for Street Commissioners

days' notice for 4 printers and 1 copy,


3 00
copy, at 75 each,

300 300 || Like for taxation,

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