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motions of Saturn are fully accounted for without im- most ingenious artifices the several unknown quantiplying any other than the attractions of known bod. ties were successively eliminated either directly or ies. Secondly, it could not be between Saturn and by repeated approximations. Moreover, in science Uranus; for if so, it must be very near Uranus, other- as in morals, the pathway of truth is easy and simple, wise it would at the same time disturb the motions of
and grows continually plainer and plainer, while that Saturn. But being very near to Uranus, it must be of error is thorny, and, as we advance, becomes at very small, otherwise it woulii disturb Uranus more every step more au more complicated. All who than it does. But a small planet, nearly at the same have attempted difficult solutions of mathematical or distance from the sun as Uranus, would be very un- physical problems, must have been aware what imexequal in its action on the latter planet, its disturbing pected facilities often suddenly appear in the resoluforce being great when in conjunction with it, but tion of complex expressions, which contain the hidvery small, or quite inseusible when at a great angu. den truth ; they must have been most agreeably surlar distance from it. No such changes in the actual prised, to see involved and apparently unmanageable perturbations occasioned by the body occur.* Hence, members of equations cancelling each other, and sudthirdly, the body must be beyond Uranus. Is its or. denly vanishing, and difficult expressions falling off bit near that of the latter planet, or remote from it ? at the right and left, and constantly sinplifying their It can not be very near, for then the same inquality work as they approach nearer and nearer to the final of action would be observed, as though it were on expression, which contains the naked truth. the other side of Uranus and near to it, which in
Hence the maxim, that Nature is very kind to equality does not exist. Nor can it be very remote for then it must of course be very large in order to
those who faithfully study her laws. produce the perturbations it does, and being very large, its effects would be visible on Saturn as well Such encouraging facilities seem to have inspired as on Uranus, as would be the case were its distance our young astronomer, in his difficult and laborious 89 great that the distance between these two planets undertaking, until he arrived at expressions for the is small in the comparison. Thus, were it ten times elements of the unknown planet, which gave its exas far from the sun as Uranus is, then the distance be- act place among the stars, its quantity of matter, the tween Saturn and Uranus would bear so small a ratio shape of its orbit, its distance from the sun, and the to the whole distance, that a body powerful enough to
period of its revolution. At the sitting of the Academy affect the latter so sensibly, would exert at least an on the 31st of August, these latest results were preappreciable attraction on the former. Now the other
sented :planets, as we recede from the sun, have their orbits
326° 32' placed at distances continually approximating to the
Longitude of the planet, Jan 1, 1847.
1-9300 ratio expressed by 2, the distances of each planet in
0.107 succession growing nearer aad nearer to double that
Time of revolution, of its predecessor. Thus Saturn is nearly twice as
Longitude of the perihelion,
284° 45' far from the sun as Jupiter, and Uranus more nearly twice as far as Saturn. Hence it was most reasonable
Major axis of the orbit, that of the earth
36.154 to expect, that the orbit of the planet sought, would be situated at twice the distance of Uranus ; that is,
He was therefore enabled to say, that the planet at about three thousand six hundred millions of miles
was then just passing its oppo:ition, and consequently from the sun. On trial, Le Verrier found that a planet whose orbit was thus situated, would fulfil the con
was most favorably situated for observation, and, on
account of the slowness of its motions, would remain ditions rendered necessary by the changes which the
in a very favorable position for three months afterperturbations themselves undergo, and that no other
wards. In order to test the correctness of these eledistance would do it. Hence it was inferred, that the
menis, the effect of a planet, having these conditions, unknown planet revolves around the sun at double the
was investigated in relation to the motions of Uranus, distance of Uranus. The distance from the sun be
in order to see how well the places of that planet, ing determined, and the orbit, like those of the other
determined by the aid of these corrections for many planets, being supposed nearly circular, its period or
different periods, would correspond to the places aotime of revolution might be found by Kepler's law,
tually observed at those times. We must bear in that the squares of the periodic times are proportioned mind, that the discrepancies between the calculated to the cubes of the distances. By this law its period and observed places, without these corrections, was would appear to be aflout 237 years. This was to be
enormous, sometimes amounting to 125 seconds of regarded as only a first step approximation. We
arc. The comparison was made in respect to shall find that the actual period is somewhat less than
thirty-three sets of observations, of which twenty-six this.
were selected from observations made since 1781, It was easy to show that its orbit must be nearly coincident with the ecliptie, since the perturbations
when the planetary character of the body was first
made known, and seven from the records of previous occasioned by it were nearly all in the direction of the
observers, who had marked its place supposing it to ecliptic, and not at right angles to it; that is, they be a fixed star, from that of Flamsteed in 1690, to that were perturbations of longitude and not of latitude. To these extraordinary but apparently satisfactory
of Lemonier in 1771. The places of Uranus, deter
mined with the new elements, agreed with the results, the paper of Le Verrier presented to the places actually observed at these later periods, gene. French Academy at their sitting on the first of June,
rally within one or two seconds, and often within the conducts is. Being now fully convinced himself of
fraction of a second ; and with the earlier periods, the existence of the planet sought, and intent on find
with one exception, to within about seven seconds. ing its true place, this able astronomer still continued
These elements of the unknown body, were varied his laborious researches, until he was able to deduce, and the limits ascertained to which such changes mathematically, those conclusions which had before
could be carried, without involving a greater disarested chiefly on analogical evidence, or at least upon general inferences derived from the doctrine of uni
greement between the calculated and observed places,
and these limits were found to be included within a versal gravitation. Equations were formed between the irregularities of Uranus to be accounted for, and
very narrow compass. On every side the existence
of an unknown planet, having these elements, forced the elements of the body in question, both known
itself on the belief of Le Verrier, and he probably and unknown. These equations involved nine un- felt as confident of its existence before it was seen in known quantities, and their resolutions presented
the heavens, as he has done since. Still it became an difficulties apparently insurmountable ; but by the
important inquiry at last, whether there was any hope * This reasoning does not appear to be entirely
of ever seeing the interesting stranger, or whether conclusive, since if the two bodies in quest on both
after so much toil, the indefatigable student must revolve in its orbits nearly circular, and at nearly
rest his belief in its existence, solely upon his faith in
the immutable laws of truth, whose leadings he had equal distances from the sun, they might remain in the immediate vicinity of each other for many years.
followed into depths of space so profound, and must
take his dubious chance for fame in the weak belief of + Hence, the distance being double that of
the few, and the total incredulity of the many; In Uraun the periodic time of the latter being 84
estimating the probability that the planet would be years, we have 13 : 23 : : 842 : 23x842=8x842=square visible to the telescope, he reasoned thus. Uranus of the periodic time of the body sought. Therefore,
has an apparent diameter of four seconds, and since
the mass, or quantity of matter, of this planet is two the time itseli = 18x84=237.468 years.
and a half times less than that of the planet sought,
were the density of the latter known, we could easily find its volume, and then knowing as we do its disance, its apparent diameter would be easily determined. Now it is a known fact, that the densities of the planets decrease as we recede from the sun, and therefore the density of the body in question is probably less than that of Uranus,-a circumstance which would contribute to increase the comparative volume, and of course the apparent diameter. But even allowing the density to be as great as that of Uranus, the apparent diameter will be over three seconds, and consequently, the planet ought to be visible in good telescopes, and with a perceptible disk. If amon: the small stars situated in that part of the heavens where the planet is at present, a faint body be discerned having a perceptible disk, it will at once be recognized as the planet itself ; but if no such appearance should distinguish it from the small stars surrounding it, then a map of these must be carefully inspected; and if any one of the luminous points included in the map shifts its place, indicating a movement more rapid than belongs to any of the fixed stars, then that luminous point will be recognized as the body sought. It happened, fortunately, that charts of that region of the heavens were in the course of publication at Berlin, containing a perfect representation of all stars to the tenth magnitude ; and the very folio containing the constellation Capricornus, in which the hidden body was supposed to be, was then just issuing from the press. Le Verrier, therefore, wrote to M. Galle of Berlin, communicating his latest results, and requesting him to reconnoitre for the stranger, directing his telescope to a point about five degrees eastward of a well known star called Delta Capricorni.. So precise and complete were these directions, that the Prussian astronomer no sooner pointed his telescope to the region assigned, than he at once recognized the wondrous body. Its place was only 52 minutes of a degree distant from the position marked out for it by Le Verrier, and its apparent diameter was almost the same that he had assigned.
M. Galle's letter to Le Verrier announcing his discovery, reached the latter while an article of his on the latitude of the planet, was in the course of preparation for the sitting of the Academy on the 5th of October. This confirmation of all his hopes, is added to his paper in a modest postscript, in terms less evincive of exultation than might have been antici. pated. But the very phraseology of alle indicates that, previous to the actual discovery, he had himself but feebly embraced the idea of its existence. “The planet (says he) which you have described, really exists !" The congratulatory letters which now flowed in from the most celebrated astronomers of Europe, occupy a conspicuous place in the Comptes Rendus of Oct. 5th, being communicated to the Academy by M. Arago, accompanied by very interesting remarks on the history and importance of the discovery..“ Other astronomers (said M. Arago) have sometimes found, accidentally, a movable point, in the field of their telescopes, which proved to be a planet; but M. Le Verrier descried the new body withont having occasion to take a single look towards the heavens-he saw it at the point of his pen. He determined, by the power of the calculus alone, the place and the magnitude of a body situated far beyond the known limits of our planetary system ; of a body whose distance from the sun excseds 1200 millions of leagues, and which in our most powerful telescopes offers a disk scarcely perceptible. In fine. the discovery of Le Verrier is one of the most brilliant manifestations of the exactness of modern astronomical systems; and it will encourage the ablest geometers to search, with new ardor, for the eternal truths, which, according to an expression of Pliny, lie hidden in the majesty of theories.” M. Arago adds, that he had received from M. Le Verrier a most flattering commission---the right of naming the new planet, and therefore he proposes to call it Le Verrier. When Sir William Herschel first discovered the planet Uranus, he named it after his royal patron, The Georgian ; but this being an unpopular appel. lation in France. La Lande proposed to call it Herschel, and this name has continued in our own country to the present time. But, as the other planets have names derived from the ancient mythology, as Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn, it seemed to to the leading astronomers of the day, most accordant with sound analogy and good taste, to give it a cor
responding appellation ; and they, therefore, after in proportion to the quantity of matter, and inversely resolve the Calculus itself into the elementary princi
as the square of the distance, that the invisible cords proposing a number of mythological names, fixed
ples of mathematics which it employs, in one or other which bound the stranger to the planet Uranus were upon that of Uranus, (the most ancient of the gods,)
of its processes, we shall find that the whole of this and this name has generally prevailed. But Ărago, followed back through the depths of space, until they science is inwoven in its fabric; and it follows, that
revealed in the wide expanse of heaven, the very spot for the sake of securing the desired honor to Le Ver
a confirmation of the truth of the method of Fluxions, where it lay concealed. The law of gravitation, thererier, proposes to restore the same to Herschel, and
is, at the same time, a confirmation of the exact, eterthat the planet Pallas also shall be named from its fore, answers completely to the test proposed by Lord nal truth of the entire science of mathematics. discoverer Olbers. The names Janus, Neptune and Bacon, that before a new discovery can be considered In the third place, the discovery of Le Verrier's Oceanus, have also been proposed by others; and good, nature should respond to it through all her works. planet, proves that the other planets of our system are time only can decide which of the names will finally Non canimus surdis, respondent omnia silvæ It is correctly weighed. It is only on the supposition that prevail. said that Newton, when engaged in his first computa
the quantity of matter in Jupiter and Saturn is exactly For a time the contest for the honor of this achieve.
determined, that it could be inferred that their united tion on the motions of the moon instituted for the ment, seemed likely to awaken the ancient national
actions upon Uranus, to disturb his motions, was inrivalries of France and Great Britain. The English purpose of verifying his theory of gravitation, seeing, sufficient to account for his irregularities ; nor, had astronomers claimed that a young mathematician of as he approached the end of the solution, that all was
there been any essential error in the estimates of tho Cambridge. Mr. Adams, had, without the least know
masses of those planets, could it have been determined coming out in exact numerical conformity to the doc- what amount of error remained to be accounted for ledge of what M. Le Verrier was doing, arrived at the same great result. But having failed to publish trine, was so overwhelmed with the great consequeu
by the hidden body. his paper until the world was made acquainted with ces of the discovery, that he grew nervous and was
In the fourth place, we derive from this discovery the facts through the other medium, he has lost much
new confidence in the uniformity of the laws of nalure. unable to complete the computation, but was obliged of the honor which priority of discovery would have
This doctrine, now so generally taken as an axiom, to hand it over to a friend to finish it. These consegained for him, although great admiration may ever
is by no means self-evident, nor has it always been quences were, indeed, well fitted to overpower even
actually believed. The ancient schools of philosophy be felt for his genius and capacity. In the history the mind of Newton, since the simple truth which was
taught just the opposite doctrine, averring that we
could never know from what takes place in our world, of great discoveries and of great inventions, it is a beginning to shine out with perfect clearness in his riathematical expressions, unveiled nothing less than
what laws prevail in distant worlds; that motion itself remarkable fact, that the same idea has frequently the hidden mechanism of the Universe, and would
was one thing on earth, and perhaps quite another thing
in the skies. Such a beliet was the natural fruit of occurred to two individuals nearly at the same time. give to the astronomer the power, almost divine, of looking through all time, present, past and future.
their mythology-a religion which distributed the sevThus it is still a question, whether Newton or Leih- But probably, Newton himself did not at once com
eral parts of the natural world to different divinities, prehend in his mighty grasp all the great consequences
Jupiter being lord of the air, Neptune of the sea, and nitz first devised the method of Fluxions; and the of the truth he was approaching. The astouishing
Pluto of the realms below; while various subordinato greatest single discovery in Chemistry, that of oxy- reach of the principle of universal gravitation can
deities controlled particular kingdoms in the great scarcely now, after the lapse of one hundred and fifty
empire of nature, Èolus presiding over the winds, gen gas, was made almost simultaneously by Priestly
years, be fully comprehended, since almost daily, and Urania over the starry sphere. In these distant
like a sounding line sent out into the depths of creain England, Scheele in Sweden, and Lavoisier in
and independent realms, therefore, it was natural to tion, it is disclosing to us new wonders respecting the France. The explanation is easy. The secret rests worlds hidden in the abyss of space. How vast and
believe that different laws prevail as different monarchs unexpected are the results it has afforded in our knowl- rule ; but the religion of the Bible, teaching as it does in the Eternal Mind, and is withheld from the view
edge of the grand machinery of nature! It accounts the doctrine of one God, leads us to anticipate the
for all the celestial motions, whether of planeis, comof man, until, in the progress of society, all things are ets, or stars ; it teaches how to weigh the sun and
grand result, proclaimed by all the discoveries of ready; then the curtain is withdrawn, and truth planets as in a balance; it assigns the exact tigure of
astronomy, of a perfect uniformity in the laws of naihe earth, and of every body in the solar system, indarts her heavenly rays upon the few, who are at the
ture, throughout her boundless realıns, in earth, in air, dependently of any measurement or observation; it
in ocean, and in tho remotest planets and stars. moment gazing towards her with the clearest vision. explains not only the ordinary motions of the heavenly bodies, but all their irregularities, of which the moon
Finally, the harmonies of truth, and the attribute Would we give the dne meed of praise to all who alone has no less than sixty, and assigns the exact nu.
by which she remains forever one and indivisible, are have contributed to bring about this grand triumph merical value of each; it accounts for the tides, and,
strikingly illustrated in the example before us. The of the human mind, our honors must be widely dis- with the aid of a few observations, computes the height
astronomer in his closet constructs a series of mathetributed. In the noble array of intellects which for every time and place; it teaches how, by means of
matical formular, complicated perhaps, but all arising would stand before us, Newton, who furnished the the pendulum, to fix an invariable standard of weights
upon the immutable basis of mathematical demonstramighty key that turns the secret wards of creation, and measures; it suggests new fields to the eye of ob.
tion. These he transforms, in a thousand ways, spreadmust undoubtedly occupy the highest place. But servation, directing attention to objects which have elu
ing them over reams of paper.. All the while the Kepler; who first traced the existence of laws in the ded the keenest vision, aided by the highest powers of
truth, for which he is seeking, lies concealed deeply planetary system ; Flamsteed, Lemonier and Bradley, the telescope, and corrects the last refinements of instru
hidden beneath massive piles, with which it is encumwho noted the places of the planet Uranus, at differ- mental measurement; it has led to the grand result of
bered. These one by one, often to the surprise of the ent periods, mistaking it for a fixed star ; Herschel, the stability of the Universe, amid all the apparent
operator himself, melt away, until at length, the truth. who brought it to light and established its planetary causes of disorder and ruin ; it follows the comet
so long and so laboriously sought, divested of every character ; Leibnitz, La Grange, and La Place, who through all the planetary realms, almost to the region of
disguise and incumbrance, shines out in its own native invented and perfected that wonderful intrument of
the stars, and bringsit back again on the day which itself simplicity and beauty. But if it is true in theory, it research into the arcana of nature, the fluxionary cal- appoints for its return; and, finally, it tells us of new is true also in fact; and the astronomer now sallies culus : these all, and many more, are entitled to planets still lurking in the solar system, points out share with Le Verrier the glory of this discovery. their hiding places, assigns their exact weight and the
forth from his closet, and looks upward with his telesIt is characteristic of great truths, that have been period of their revolution, and directs the practical
cope, and there sees the confirmation of all his labore attained by long and laborious process, to draw after
astronomer precisely where to point his telescope, to written on the skies. Not only do we find here new
bring them down to earth. If any thing more cause to admire the harmonies of truth, but its fertility, them many other great truths, which they serve to could be wanting to establish the truth of the doctrine or the power of truth to beget truth, urges itself upon establish. If their discovery has brought into requi
of universal gravitation, we surely have it in this last
our consideration with new force, when we think sition the profoundest principles of science, it follows that those pricniples, leading as they have done to a
In the second place, the discovery under review
how the discovery of the planet Uranus has furnished proclaims the unerring certainty of the method of thekey to the discovery of another planet nearly twice correct result, a result which nature owns, are them
Flurions, or the Infinitesimal Calculus. The funda- as far removed into the depths of space, which, again, selves true, and receive, in the discovery, a confirma- mental principles of the Calculus are difficult to be
in its turn, has perhaps an equal chance of guiding tion the more signal as that result is the more hidden expressed in an elementary form. So refined and almost spiritual are some of them, that it is only after
us on the way to still more distant worlds. from ordinary view, Seldom has this point received having made some proficiency in the use of this method
REMARKS. so beautiful an illustration as in the discovery of Le that the learner feels fully assured that it rests on a
We have leaded some of the above paragraphs. These paraVerrier's planet. Let us glance at the several great
foundation as immutable as pure geometry itself. But graphs contain statements of mighty moment-statements that truths which this discovery confirms and illustrates.
tho discovery before us was obtained by the calculus, are worthy of the source from whence they emavate ; we are
applied in its most refined and subtle forms, to the In the first place it affords a triumphant proof of the
glad of the opportunity of presenting them to our readers law of universal gravitation. The hidden truth was truth of the laws of universal gravitation. It was t!
glad to place thein on record--to treasure them up, for all future caught in its magic folds, but was so deeply involved knowledge of this law, which first suggested the ex
time. within them, that to develop and bring it, in its simple istence of such an undiscovered planet, since it was only
The learned Professor has rendered te the world a good service unity, to the light of day, required a labor and a skill on the supposition of the universal prevalence of this which may well be compared to the task of finding a
in boldly declaring the convictions of his own mind. It is oftlaw, that the unexplained irregularities in the motions grain of gold when hidden among the sands of the
times men of great minds feel satisfied of the existence of of Uranus, were referred to such a hidden body. It sea shore, and as exceeding all that the ancients con
great principles which are enshrouded in mysteries and fear to was also by the applications of the law of universal ceived of the difficulty of treading one's way through declare them lest they may not be well received. It is not so gravitation, in its exact expression, namely, that it acts the inazes of the Cretan labyrinth. Moreover, if we with Professor Olmsted.
“ MARY." The pieces below were copied by Dear Mary from the “ Token" of 1837, and placed underneath the figure of a weeping willow, which she worked with silk over a memento of the death of an infant brother. “ DEATH OF AN INFANT IN ITS MOTHER'S
BY MRS. SIGOURNEY.
MEMENTO. Departed this mortal life at Brooklyn, Friday, January, 15, 1847, at 25 miuutes past 11 A. M., MARY S. M. SEAMAN, wife of David K. Seaman, and eldest daughter of Eben and Mary Strong Meriam, aged 25 years, 7 months, and 24 days. For upwards of three months she had been confined to a bed of sickness and oft during that time her friends fondly anticipated her recovery, but alas—the result was ordered otherwise. On the 29th of June, 1846, only four days more than 28 weeks before her decease she entered the bonds of wedlock, and on the second, Sabbath of the January following, her funeral services were performed in the same house of prayer in which her wedding had been celebrated, and very many of her young friends and others, were present on both occasions—thus made solemn witnesses of the brevity of earthly enjoyments.
It is a rich consolation to her surviving friends that they were able to watch around her sick bed during her illness to attend her in the last moments of mortal life and when the hour drew nigh in which her angel spirit took its flight—to behold a dearly beloved schoolmate, an affectionate and loving companion from childhood breathe, at her bed side in prayer to the God of Mercy thus offering up the sweet incense of humble and fervent aspirations in the hour of trial and of suffering. It was consoling to witness its sweet inAuences and to behold a smile on the pale cheek and to receive a parting kiss from the fading lips of the angel child :-Next came the Minister of Christ—him who had been a witness to the record of her marriage vows at the Bridal Altar-to be with her in prayer near the finishing scene of her mortal life.
On the pillow of her sick bed lay an ancient copy of the Holy Scriptures imprinted near a quarter of a thousand years ago which was her companion in a thrilling voyage across Niagara's broken waters--a fit companion in this last scene, shedding a bright light on the new and living way which leads to the celestial courts of the Paradise of God.
Before the remains of this Dear Daughter were removed from hor Parents dwelling that loving and affectionate schoolmate wbo had prayed at her bed side knelt down in humble prayer and poured out her soul in fervent supplication unto God.
That same dear young friend many years ere this mournful scene wrote in our dear daughters Album under the figure of a Blooming Rose, some sweet poetic lines, in the following words :
« The flower in all its sweetness,
Will bear thy frame away." Dear Mary in 1838, wrote in her Sisters Album, the following :
TO MY SISTER.
“ MARY." 1838. Lines written in 1838 by Dear MARY, in her Sister's Album
Why dost thou gaze so wildly?
JONATHAN THOMPSON. On the morning of Wednesday the 30th day of Dec., 1846, at a few minutes past one o'lock, he whose name heads this obituary notice departed this mortal life at the good old age of 74 years. At the age of 72 Mr. Thompson united with the Rev. Dr. Springs Church. We have seen inuch of Mr. Thompson for a few years past—he was thoughtful and seemed to possess an uncommon calmness of mind. He has, during a long period held several highly important public offices, the duties of all of which he discharged with fidelity and with an exactitude which done honor to human nature. Mr. Thompson was constant in friendship, wise and prudent in counsel, excmplary through life and peaceful at its close. He was a descendant of the Rev. W. Tomson, the first settled minister of Mount Wallaston, near Quincy, Massachusetts, who was ordained as the Minister of that town upwards of 200 years ago. Mr. Thompson, as we think, from tracing the history of the family, was & descendant of L. Toinson, who Englished the Edition of the Holy Bible, printed at London 1599.
Mr. Thompson has left an aged widow who had been the companion of his life for a long series of years, and also a family of worthy childreu who have been greatly blessed by the examples and counsels of a most excellent and kind Parent. Mr. Thompson's family have been blessed and it is said that all of those who have gone before him for several generations were pious and exemplary, and if, as we think it is, that he descended from that individual who Englished the Holy Bible the blessing flowing from that labor of love has poured down through numerous generations and may it continue to flow until the last which bears his name shall be at rest with God in the Realms of Glory.
The following lines were written by John QUINCY ADAMS, Ex-President of the United States, and sung by the Choir of the First Congregational Church in Quincy, Mass., on the occasion of the celebration of the 200th Anniversary of the settlement of the First Congregational Minister in that town, the Rev WilLIAM Tomson, great ancester of Jonathan Thompson, of New-York.
“ Alas! how swist the moments fly!
Full was thy lot of blessing
The following is the copy of the title page of the New Testament portion of the Bible printed in 1599.
" THE NEW TESTAMENT of our Lord IESVS CHRIST. Translated out of the Greeke by Theod. Beza:
with brief Summarie and expositions vpon The hard places by the said authour. Isaac Camer 1. Loseler Villorius. Englished by L. Tomson. Together with the Annotations of Fr. Iunius
the Revelation of S. IOHN.
IMPRINTED AT London by the Deputies of Christopler Barker. Printer to the Queene's most Gracious Majestie. 1599.
Copy of a Letter from Thos, SPENCER, Esq.
SALTVILLE, a. }
Creative Power, how vast and inexhaustible are earths hidden mysteries ! Happy are they who can understand those deep and sublime truths which the hand of infinite wisdom has written upon all his works--the seen and unseen-both glorious and beautiful, and equally indicative of the presence of Him, at whose command darkness was turned to light, and earth stood forth from chaos."
MEMENTO. The following Lines were written by a “dearly beloved schoolmate, an affectionate and loving companion from childhood" of dear Mary, who attended at her bed side in the last hour of suffering and offered up to the God of Mercy a fervent prayer for her sick and dying friend.
As a delicate Flower, too fair for earth,
She bloomed in Life's early dawn;
of those who are left to mourn, The soft kiss of Spring left a glow on her cheek,
Which deepened neath Summer's breath, As she stood in the pride of her youthful strength ;
A Blossom that knew not death.
January 24th, 1847. MUCH ESTEEMED FRIEND,
Your letter of the 16th instant, reached me yesterday, announcing the sad and painful intelligence of the death of your lovely and interesting daughter.
In this hour of your deep affliction, my dear friend, I most sincerely and heartily sympathise with you. No event in our lives is so painful, and agonising, as when those we tondly love are torn from us by the ruthless hand of death. It is difficult for us to regard dispensations of Providence like these, otherwise than mysterious, especially when the loved one is so young, and possessed of a disposition so gentle spirit so pure, as was your affectionate child. When we stand by the death-bed of those who are thus endeared to us, and linger while the spirit quits its teneinent of clay, and we are left to gaze upon the countenance that was so lately beaming with intelligence and affection, but now locked in the icy em. brace of death ; it is then that we drink most deeply of lifes bitterest cup:–It is then that a strong fetter that biods our affections to this life, is broken, and we are led with more than ordinary seriousness, and less of dread, to contemplate that day, when we too shall be released from all that renders life unpleasant and unhappy.--I do not my friend theorise upon this subject, for I have not only once, but again and again drank of this bitter cup, and my heart knows how to feel for you and with you.
This however, is viewing the subject in one aspect only. Thus far and no farther can we be conducted by natures brightest light, but thanks to our kind and Heavenly Father that light has dawned upon the darkness of the tomb-lite and immortality has been brought to light by the gospel, or glad tidings, of His dear Son.-The time awaits us, when the reflections 80 vividly, and solemnly impressed upon your own mind, not many months since, during your lonely walk at * Greenwood," will be (realised.—True, “ when the resurrection morning shall kindle up its light, a morning anthem will ascend from the City of the Dead, in a song of praise to him who made the world," and your lovely child, who has (since you penned those thoughts) become a tenant of Greenwood," will join in that morning anthem, with all the happy millions of the virtuous and the blessed, who have been, and who shall be, redeemed to God by the precious blood of His beloved Son.
Truly and sincerely yours, E. MERIAN, Esq.
And Autumn fled o'er, on its varying wings
of glorious, sunlit dyes; But, alas ! that around its most gorgeous robe,
Such a chilling vapor tlies ! She drooped, as the chill, mystic breeze ewept o'er,
And the flush of Health fast sped ;And when winter ascended its snow.wreathed throne,
The Flower's spirit had fled.
THE STEAMER ATLANTIC. This costly steamer which was, by her owners, considered proof against the storm, on the 25th and 26th of November 1846, made awful shipwreck on Long Island Sound, and several persons on board of her perished. A part of the boat which supported the bell parted from the rest of the wreck and grounded in shallow water, was kept in motion by the waves of the sea which toll'd the bell incessantly, adding solemnity to the very atmosphere which rested upon the dismal shore.
This storm was the offspring of an earthquake which was felt throughout Scotland on the morning of the 25th of November last. From the Journal of Commerce of Dec. 16, 1846.
STATEN ISLAND, Dec. 11, 1846. A remarkable and pathetic fact has been published, that the Bell on the wreck of the Steamer Atlantic tolls unceasingly.
Hark! hark! that Funeral Bell;
It hath fled, on its viewless wings of light,
To the Maker who gave it breath ; But this lesson was breathed in its silent fight,
Set not your affections on earth!
January 30th, 1847.
Copy of a letter written to Dear Mary, while she was confined to a bed of sickness, by her dear Friend “ CORNELIA.":
Tuesday Morning, Oct. 1846. “ DEAREST MARY,
“I had hoped to visit you to-day ; having been bent for to Margaret's I find I shall not be able to realize my cherished hopes. Last Saturday, I did not leave the house, till night-fall, so you may judge what opportuuity then had. To-morrow, alas ! I take my lesson, and it is doubtful, very doubtful, whether I shall see you before Thursday. My only hope of seeing you before Thursday depends upon its raining to-day. But, I assure you, Dear Mary, I ever reinember you ; and should your form even fade from my recollection during the day, be assured I ever remember you in my nightly petitions. Have we not journeyed joyfully together here below; have we not shared each others joys and sorrows ? Have we not loved with a sisters love ; and oh! shall we not be united in the time to come ?
My cough has been so much worse this Fall than usual, that I have often, Dear Mary, contemplated the sudden blighting of my brightest earthly prospects, but it must be as a Merciful Father willeth, and not as we in our short visions see best, May, He enable us to say cheerfully, “ thy will, O God, be done !" And the sooner we are called away, the less we shall grieve a gracious God. Would that our lives left a better testimony of our gratitude ! But I must pause, Adieu, dearest Mary, till I see thee- may it be soon, very soon,
Our Earthly meetings will soon be o'er ;
The wish of your ever faithful friend is, that it may be thus.
Extract from a letter written by a Lady residing in a country village in New-England on the 13th of January, 1847, and received on the evening of the 14th, a fow hours before the decease of our beloved daughter, and wbile the "meteoric electric and magnetic wires" were marking the existenco of a fearful equilibrium which was destitute of vitality, at the close of which, our beloved daughter passed to the realms of light-and that “ happy child " so feelingly addressed, was then wrapt in the mantle of grief.
“ I very much wish to see those • Meteoric Elictric and Magnetic Wires,' which tell so truly of those aerial and earthly convulsions, which we all feel, and know to be going on around us, without, perhaps, sufficiently understanding how the process is carried on, and that study,' with its numerous curiosities, fossils, relics and precious stones, the writing desk before the window, and the tree outside, where the early spring bird salutes you with her sweetest, happiest notes, are all vividly glowing before me on fancies magic canvass, and in the distant back ground I almost behold that • little daughter' looking thoughtfully along the garden walk, for some curious insect to add to her father's cabinet. Happy child, all things to your young perceptions are filled with beauty and with gladness. The rainbow tints of life, have thus far been the light of your path-way-but coming years will show you that there are clouds, darkness and storms, aye, and fierce lightnings too, co-mingled with the sunshine clear, and moon beams mild and gentle.--But to a calm and trusting heart, there is a still small voice in the loudest storm, which speaks of the goodness of God-and the darkest clouds of sorrow or disappointment, are never without a hopeful gleam to guild the future. Go on, then, dear one, in search of the curious and the new, for the world is full of wonders, and when the eye or the mind become filled, or satisfied with the outward beauties of
From the Journal of Commerce of Dec. 15, 1846.
THE BELL OF THE ATLANTIC.
Sank thro' the surge in wild despair,
On which her bell suspended hung,
Which deep and dark
There night and day, unceasingly,
The sailor coming from afar
Listens with superstitious dread-
With spectres of the ocean dead.
He hears amid its music deep.
And still—and still, unceasingly,
This wild, funeral bell.
DARWIN'S OBSERVATIONS. A friend has sent us two volumes entitled “ DARwin's Voyages Oy A NATURALIST," published in 1846, by Messrs HARPER & BROTHERS. The title page, “ Journal of Researches into the Natural llistory and knowledge of the Countries, visited during the voyage of Her Majestys Ship, Beagle, round the world, under the command of Captain Fitzroy, R. N. By Charles Darwin, M. A., F. R. S.”
We find that Mr. Darwin's observations, many of them, accord with our own ; we give the following extracts;
SILICIOUS LIGHTNING TUBES. Ju a broad band of sand hillocks which separates the laguna del Potrera from the shores of the Plata, at tho distance of a few miles from Maldonada, I found a group of those vitrified silicious tubes, which are formed by the lightning entering loose sand. These tubes resemble in every particular those from Drigg in Cumberland, described in the Geological Transactions. The sand lillocks of Maldonada, not being protected by vegetation, are constantly changing their position. From this cause the tubes projected above the surface; and numerous fragments lying near, showed that they had formerly been buried to a greater depth. Four sets entered the sand perpendicularly : by working with my hands I traced one of them two feet deep; and some fragments which evidently had belonged to the same tube, when added to the other part, measured five feet three inches. The diameter of the whole tube was nearly equal, and therefore we must suppose that originally it extended to a much greater depth. These dimensions are however, small, compared 10 those of the tubes from Drigg, one of which was traced to a depth of not less than thirty feet.
The internal surface is compleiely vitrified, glossy, and synooth. A small fragment examined under the microscope, appeared, from the nunher of minute entangled air or perhaps steam bubbles, like an assay fused before the blowpipe. The sand is entirely, or in greater part, siliceous; but some points are of a black color, and from their glossy surface possess a metallic lustre. The thickness of the wall of the tube varies from a thirtieth to a twentieth of an inch, and occasionally even equals a tenth. On the thó outside, of the grains of sand are rounded, and have a slightly glazed appearance: I could not distinguish any signs of crystalization. In similar manner to that described in the Geological Transactions, the tubes are generally compressed, and have deep longitudinal furrows, so as closely to resemble a shrivelled vegetable stalk, or the bark of the elm or cork treo. Their circuinference is abont two inches, but in some fragments, which are cylindrical and without any furrows, it must be as much as four inches. The compression from the surrounding loose sand, acting while the tube was still softened from the effects of the intense heat, has evidently caused the creases or furrows. Judging from the uncompressed fragments, the measure or bore of the lightning, if such a term may be used, must have been about one inch and a quarter At Paris, M. Hachette and M. Beudant succeeded in making tubes, in most respects similar to these fulgurites, by passing very strong shocks of galvanism through finely powdered glass : when salt was added, so as to increase its fusibility, the tubes were larger in every dimension. They' failed both with powdered felspar and quartz. One tube, formed with pouniled glass, was very nearly an inch long, namely, 982, and had an internal diameter of ·019 of an inch, when we hear that the strongest batiery in Paris was used, and that its power on a subtance of such easy fusibility as glass was to form tubes so di. minutive we must feel greatly astonished at the force of a shock of lightning, which, striking the sand in several places, has formed cylinders, in one instance of at least thirty feet long, and liaving an internal bore, where not compressed, of full an inch and a balf; and this in a material so extraordinarily refractory as quartz!
The tubes, as I have already remarked, enter the sand nearly in a vertical direction. One however, which was less regular than the others, deviated from a right line, at the most considerable bend, to the amount of thirty-three degrees, from this same tube,
two small branches, about a foot apart, were sent off; dispute. The ground being so long dry such quan-
Without doubt, several hundred thousand animals remarkable circumstance. as it appears to me, in this thus perished in the river. Their bodies when putrid case as well as in that of Drigg, and in one described were seen floating down the stream ; and many, in by M. Ribbentrop in Germany, is the number of tubes all probability, were deposited in the estuary of the found within such limited space 8. At Drigg, within
Plata. All the small rivers became highly saline, and an area of fifteen yards, three were observed, and this caused the death of vast numbers in particular the same number occurred in Germany. In the case spots ; for when an animal drinks of such water it which I have described, certainly more than four ex- does not recover. Azara, describes the fury of the isted within the space of the sixty by twenty yards.
wild horses on a similar occasion, rushing into the As it does not appear probable that the tubes are marshes, those which arrived first being overwhelmed produced by successive distinct shocks, we must be- and crushed by those which followed. He adds, that lieve that the lightning, shortly before entering the
more than once he has seen the carcasses of upwards ground, divides itself into separate branches.
of a thousand wild horses thus destroyed, I noticed
that the smaller streams in the Pampas were paved LIGHTNING.
with a brecia nf bones, but this probably is the effect The neighborhood of the Rio Plata seems peculi- of a gradual increase rather than one of the destrucarly subject to the electric phenomena. In the year tions at any one period. Subsequently, to the drought 1793, oue of the most destructive thunder storms
of 1827 to '32, a very rainy season followed, which perhaps on record happened at Buenos Ayres: thirty caused great floods. Hence it is almost certain that seven places within the city were struck by light- some thousands ot the skeletons were buried by the ning, and nineteen people killed. From facts stated
deposits of the very next year. What would be the in several books of travels, I am inclined to suspect opinion of a Geologist viewing such an enormous colthat thunder storms are very common near the mouths lection of bones of all kinds of animals, and of all of great rivers. Is it not possible that the mixture of
ages, thus embedded in one thick earthy mass, would large bodies of fresh and salt water may disturb the be not attribute it to a flood having swept over the electrical equilibrium? Even during our occasional surface of the land, rather than to the common order visits to this part of South America, we heard of a of things. ship, two churches and a house being struck. Both the church and the house I saw shortly afterwards :
CONNECTION OF EARTHQUAKES AND the house belonged to Mr. Hood, the consul-general
STORMS. at Montesideo. Some of the effects were curious :
On the second night the weather seemed to foretel the paper, for nearly a foot on each side of the line where the bell wires had run, was blackened. The
a storm of snow or rain, and whilst lying in our beds metal had been fused, and although the room was fif
we felt a trifling shock of an earılıquake.
The connection between earthquakes and the weateen feet high, the globules dropping on the chairs
ther has been often disputed : it appears to me to be and furniture, had drilled in them a chain of minute
a point of great interest, which is little understood. holes. A part of the wall was shattered as if by gin
Humboldt has remarked, in one part of the Personal, powder, and the fragments had been blown off with
Narrative, that it would be diflicult for any person force sufficient to dont the wall and the opposite side of the room. The frame of a looking glass was
who had long resided in New Andalusia, or in Lower blackened, and the gilding must have been volatile
Peru, to deny that there exists some connection beized for a small smelling botile, which stood on the
tween these phenoinena : in another pari, however, chimney-piece was coated with bright metallic parti
he seems to think the connection sanciful. At Guaya
quil, it is said that a heavy shower in the dry season cles, which adhered as firmly as if they had been enamelled.
is invariably followed by an earthqeake. In northern
Chile. from the extreme infrequency of rain, or even GREAT DROUGHT.
of weather foreboding rain, the probability of accidenWhile travelling through the country, I received tal coincidences becomes very small, yet the inhabi several vivid descriptions of the effects of a late great tants are here most firmly convinced of some con drought, and the account of this may throw some nection between the state of the atmosphere and of light on the cases where vast numbers of animals of the trembling of the ground. I was much struck all kinds have been embedded together. The period by this when mentioning to some people at Copiapo, included between the years 1827, and 1830, is caller that there had been a sharper shock at Coquinlo ; “ the grand sico," or the great drought. During this they immediately cried out, “ How fortunate, there time so little rain fell, that the vegetation, even to the will be plenty of pasture there this year.” To their thistles, failed; the brooks were dried up, and the minds an earthquake, foretold rain as surely as rain whole country assumed the appearance of a dusty foretold abundant pasture. Certainly it did so haphigh road. This was especially the case in the nor- pen that on the very day of the earthquake, that thern part of the province of Buenos Ayres, and the
showers of rain fell which I have described as in ten southern part of St. Fe, very great numbers of birds, days time producing a thin sprinkling of grass. At wild animals, cattle, and borses, perished from the other times rain has followed earthquakes at a period want of food and water. A man told me that the of the year when it is a far greater prodigy than the deer used to come into his court yard to the well, earthqnake itself. This happened after the shock of which he had been obliged to dig to supply his own November, 18:22, aud again in 1829, at Valparaiso ; family with water, and that partridges had hardly also after that of September 1833 at Taena. A person strength to fly away when pursued. The lowest es- must be somewhat habituated to the climate of these timation of the loss of cattle in the province of Buenos countries to perceive the extreme improbability of Ayres alone, was taken at one million head. A pro- rain falling at such season, except as a consequence prietor at San Pedro had previously to these years of some law quite unconnected with the ordinary 20,000 cattle, at the end not one remained. " San cause of the weather. In the cases of great volcanic Pedro, is situated in the middle of the finest country, eruptions, as that of Coseguina, where torrents of and even now abounds again with animals. Yet, rain fell at a time of the year most unusual for it, during the latter part of the “gran sico," live cattlo and almost unprecedented in “Central America,” it were brougit in vessels for the consumption of the is not diflicult to understand that the volumes of vainhabitants. The animals roamed from their estan- pour and clouds of ashes might have disturbed the cias, and, wandering far southward, were mingled | atmospheric equilibrium. Humboldt extends this together in such multitudes that a government com- view to the case of earthquakes unaccompanied by mission was sent from Buenos Ayres, to settle the eruptions; but I can hardly conceive it possible that disputes of the owners. Sir Woodbine Parish in- the small quantityof aeriform fluids which then escape formed me of another and very curions source of || from the fissured ground, can produce such remark