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NEW-HAMPSHIRE CORRESPONDENCE. · Letter from Hon. Josiah Butler.

So. Deerfield, N. H., Aug. 26, 1846. Eben. MERIAM, Esq.

Dear Sir-Your letter of the 22d ult. making enquiries in regard to certain explosions, which have taken place in Deerfield and have been continued for several years, I will briefly answer.

ist. “Whether the reports are always during the

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2d. “Whether they are continuous or abrupt?”

4th. “Whether they can be traced so as to determine that the convulsion appears in one direction from one person, and in the opposite direction of another person living at a distance of several miles, so that the origin can be located between the two ?"

1. The reports have been heard in the day time as often, and more so than in the night. An explosion about one and a half years since caused the stone walls and a cellar wall to fall, and shook and jarred the earth and buildings. Last November, another shock building, window-glass, stoves inhouses, opening inner doors, and caused clocks to strike irregularly and tumbled stone walls within twenty rods of my house on the south road in Deerfield, and greatly alarmed the inhabitants. Another explosion the first of July last, which was succeeded, as rapidly as a field piece would be discharged, by ten or more lesser erports, was about midnight, and aroused every one from sleep. These three reports were the loudest that have ever been heard. The explosions have increased within the last two years, and have been heard in winter as well as in other seasons of the year.

2. They are generally abrupt, and very much resembling the blasting of rocks, and have been felt from two to three miles by the jar of buildings at the same instant they are heard ; but one or two of the greatest appeared to the subscriber and some others, continuous, something like the earthquake, which was heard yesterday. the 25th inst., at 5 o'clock in the morning, in this State, and, as I learn, in some, if not all parts of Massachusetts-striking the easterly end of the house, and passing off from the north east to the south west. The earth and buildings, by the shock last November were agitated, or shook more than by the earthquake yesterday.

3. These explosions are heard in all parts of the
town and also in some of the adjacent towns, especially
in the northerly part of the town of Candia, to the
extent of 15 to 6 miles in every direction from the place
where the reports are supposed to originate, On the
southerly part of Deerfield near the south road, so
called, the explostons are the loudest, and the jar of
the buildings is felt more than in any other part of the
town, and I have therefore concluded that the reports
are produced by some cause existing between or near
the mountains and the south road. The mountains
spoken of by a “Native of Deerfield," are on the line
or between Nottingham and Deerfield, and the sounds
are scarcely heard at the centre of Nottingham, three
miles east of the mountains. On the west of these
mountains at about two miles west from the moun-
tains and near a small river called Lamprey river, the
explosions are the greatest or loudest and most felt.
The south road passes over a ridge of land three miles
south west of the mountains. The shock in Novem-
ber last, which tumbled down a strong wall on the
south road, was about as great near the said river as
on the south road. The location of the explosions
cannot be determined by the sound so correctly as by
the jar of the earth and buildings. The jar is not
felt more than three miles, but the reports are heard
from 5 to 6 miles in every direction from the place
where the explosions are supposed to take place, or
from whence the sounds appear to come. About 50
years ago, iron ore was dug near the Lamprey river,
but whether there is any combustible matter in the
earth which causes these explosions I do not know.
Respectfully yours,

Post Master, South Deerfield, N. H.

of Deerfield, N. H., have excited the fears of the in- river. The Lamprey is a very small stream in Deerhabitants, and we think, should ere this, have attract

Il field. There is a small branch of this stream about ed the attention of the scientific. These are reports

| a mile North of the South road, where the explosion or explosions in the ground, apparently of a volcanic was greater than elsewhere, in November, 1845. or gaseous nature. When first heard, they were at

From all the information I have obtained, the explotributed to the blasting of rocks in Manchester, a new

sions have been greater or heavier, at the junction of town, some ten miles distant; but from the frequency

this branch with the main stream, about two miles of the reports at all hours in the night, as well as the

from the South road, than at any other point in Deerday; from the consideration that they were so loud,

field. In the town of Candia through which another and were heard in all seasons, winter as well as sum small stream, (whose source is Martin's Pond in mer-it was soon concluded that they had some other

Deerfield,) runs one and a half miles from the South origin. The explosions, if they may be so called,

road, and empties into the Lamprey, in Raymond. commenced on a ridge of land running S. E. and N. In the vicinity of this branch, the shakes have been W., some five miles in length, and principally on that heard and felt, but three miles South from this little portion called the South Road. They have, how stream they are seldom heard and never felt. It is ever, extended, and are now heard in a northerly di now nine years next month, since these explosions rection, The sounds have become louder, and dur

were first heard in Deerfield, not 12 years as mening the last Fall, or the present Spring or Summer, as

tioned by a writer in the “Portsmouth Journal,” but many as twenty have been heard in one night. Many for several years they were not heard in other towns. of them jar the houses and ground perceptibly, so

The explosions, however, have become more fremuch so, that a child whose balance is not steady,

quent, and are louder than formerly, and might not will role from one side to the other. They are as loud

have been noticed in other places as they now are. as a heavy cannon fired near the house with no re

To your 1st enquiry, viz.,“ whether the explosion verberation, and little role. Last Fall, some of the

was in the night of the first day of July ?" "I caninhabitants were riding in a wagon when an explo

not ascertain from any means in my power. It was sion was heard, and they saw a stone wall which

the first of the month.

2d. Whether the town is healthy, &c. ?" It is was apparently quite compact, fall over on one side of the way, and a second after, upon the other. The considered very healthy, and containing several aged stone wall of an unfinished cellar also fell in. This people, 3 or 4, between 90 and 100, and many becan be attested by many witnesses. There is no re

tween 80 and 90 years of age. The population of the gularity in these reports, as they are heard at inter town is under 2000. vals of the day, a week, and sometimes of months;

3d. There are not any electric fish in the Lamprey but for the last year, they have become very com

river, unless eels are so called. mon, and are heard every week, more or less.

4th. Whether the sbakes affect the water in the Deerfield, lies in lat. 45° 8'; long. 71° 12', on

wells ?” I have never heard. Pumps are much in the highest land between Portsmouth and Concord.

use in Deerfield. The elevation of the summit, has been found by

5th. Whether the shakes felt at Newburyport in measurement, in the late railroad surveys, to be May, are the same as those felt here ?" I do not nearly 600 feet. The town is surrounded by hills on know, nor cannot ascertain. We have explosions every side. On the N. W., are the Putaccoway

every month, and almost every week. Mountains, having three peaks, whose average height

6th. No light has been discovered at, or about the is 853 feet. On the North side is Saddleback Moun

time of the shocks. tain, 1032 feet above the level of the sea; and on the

7th. The average depth of our wells on the South West, a spur of Catamount. The town has never

side, is about 25 feet, but on the plains and in the been geologically examined, excepting in the State

Valley, near the streams, it is much less. They do survey of Dr. Jackson, and his observations were con

not terminate in rock generally. fined to the above mentioned Mountains, to consist

8th. As to the state of the weather, or atmosphere, mainly of scienate, granite, mica, slate, and a dyke

preceding and succeeding the shocks, I do not know. of greenstone trap, crossing the summit of the Lower

I have never observed any material change, except in Pataccoway, dividing it into two parts.

one shock which took place on the 12th of this month, These few observations have been made in the

between the setting of the sun and dark. It was then hope that they will draw the attention of the scienti

extremely warm, cloudy, and the atmosphere rather fic, who, if they can show some natural cause for

oppressive. 80 curious a fact, will calm the fears of the inha

This shock was the greatest that we have had since

the first of July. It jarred some houses, and was bitants, and satisfy many of the curious.

heard at a great distance. In Epping about 12 miles A NATIVE OF DEERFIEL).

easterly, it was heard and felt by many of the inhaSOUTH DEERFIELD, County of Rockingham,

bitants near the Lamprey river. There have been N. H., September 21st 1840. S

several explosions since the 12th instant, but they

were very light, and not noticed much by very many Dear Sir,-Yours of the 15th inst., I have just re.

of the inhabitants. It was continuous-a rumbling ceived, and hasten an answer. Since I wrote to you

sound but of short duration—not more than two or on the 26th ult., I received several numbers of the

three seconds. This shake was not so great, or did “ Municipal Gazette," and one copy of the “ New

not jar the earth so much, as the three others of which York Farmer and Mechanic," in which there was an

I informed you in my former letter. We have had account of the earthquake of the 25th August last,

numerous shakes which were light, and not regarded and which I sent to Concord, N. H., to have publish

by the people generally, being like, or similar to the ed, but it has not yet appeared. In these papers I blasting of rocks in the vicinity. I am inclined to 'found much interesting and instructive matter, and !

believe that the shakes have been more extensive you will be pleased to accept my thanks for them.

than has been supposed, and think, that those, which In regard to the several enquiries in your last, I were heard at Newburyport, were produced by the will answer as far as I am able. Since writing to you same cause which occasioned them in Deerfield, as I on the 26th ult., I have made enquiries in the towns heard them at or about the 30th of May last. We and places, I find that the explosions, about which I shall hereafter critically observe any explosions then wrote, were more extensively heard and felt which may take place, and it may be in my power than I mentioned in the letter. Instead of 5 or 6 to give you more particular and correct information miles from a common centre—the supposed location concerning them. I hope it will be in your power of their origin. I learn that they have been frequent to visit this region, and make some geological obserly heard for one or two years past, in the town of vations. If you have a map of New Hampshire you Lee, situate on the Lamprey River, about 16 miles will see the relative situation of the several towns North East from this place, also in Epping on the same which I have named, and may find the small streams river, about 12 miles East, and at Pittsfield, 16 miles to which I have referred. Could you have heard the North of this, on the Suncook river, which empties principal shakes, and have made some observations into the Merrimack river at Pembroke. Whether as to the state of the atmosphere here, you would the earth was shaken in those places as in Deerfield, doubtless, have been able to have expressed an opiniand how long since they have been heard in those on as to the disturbing cause which exists in this places, I have not yet ascertained. I find that the region.

Yours very respectfully, shakes have not only been heard, but felt within the

JOSIAH BUTLER. last year, much farther than I had been informed, N. B.-By a neighbor. The explosion in July, was especially in the neighborhood of the Lamprey river; | the 10th, about 5 o'clock. The South road is over a and that they have not been beard very far from the ridge 150 to 200 feet above the Lamprey river.


The following is received from an authentic source, and may be relied on as strictly accurate :

Mr. Editor,-During the last twelve years, certain curious, not to say alarming, phenomena, in the town

Letter from Hon. Josiau BUTLER.

quantity of inflammable air or hydrogen gas be con caused the clock to strike. The shake in May, 1845, South DEERFIELD, N. H., Dec. 23, 1846.

fined in the earth, and take fire there, an explosion was equally severe; and another, in July last at two,

and report will be the consequence, which will jar of the o'clock in the night of the 10th, woke nearly Dear Sir,-Be pleased to accept my sincere thanks

or shake the earrth to a considerable distance. A all the inhabitants of the town. These shakes which for the several numbers of the New York Farmer &

like effect has been observed to be produced by have occurred within the two last years, have been Mechanic, one of the best and most useful newspapers

blasting a rock at the bottom of a well eighteen or heard in Lee, in Epping on the Lamprey River, and printed in the United States, which you have been so

twenty feet deep. Such an occurrence came under in Pittsfield, nearly twenty miles from this place. kind as to send me.

my own observation within a few weeks. I was sit I have ascertained that the shakes were heard very Since I wrote to you last, a letter has been address

ting in a room about half a unile from where a blast was W distinctly, and sometimes felt on and near the Lam. ed to me by Dudley Leavitt Esq. of this State, and pub

made in a well. The report was loud, and the con prey River and its tributaries, and on the Suncook lished in the “Congregational Journal,” accounting for

cussion jarrred the house very considerably. I in River, but they were heard only a few miles from the the shakes in Deerfield, and I have answered it in the

quired of my neighbor how much powder he put in rivers and ponds. I have also ascertained that three "Exeter News Letter." I send by the same mail, which

for a charge, and he told me to commonly put in from wells about three-fourths of a mile east of the Lamtakes this letter, both of these papers in one envelope

a quarter to half a pound. But it must not be infer prey River, were disturbed this year, when, or about or wrapper to you, and hope you will read D. Lea

red that when the explosions here treated are often the time, the shake took place in July. Though two vitt's letter, and especially my reply in the News

repeated, or nearly continuous, they all proceed from of these wells terminate in rock, the water was found Letter, as it contains further and more information

the same vein or reservoir of gas; there are probably to be muddy. The water in one of the wells was than I have heretofore communicated to you, or the

many of them at no great distance from one another, suddenly changed, and for some time after the tasto public.

generated and set on fire in the earth by the fermen and smell of the water was very offensive, so much Also since I wrote the reply to D. Leavitt, which

tation of a moist mixture of iron ore and sulphureous so that the family have not used it in cooking. From was published in the “ News Letter," I have been in

matter which was found blended together in various the account given me by the family of the water after formed that the shakes which have been heard and places, in small or large quantities. If the locality of boiling it, I think it must be strongly impregnated telt in Deerfield, within the two last years, were heard a vein or fountain of gas in the earth could be ascer. with iron and sulphur. at the Bow Pond in the town, now called Strafford,

tained, and if practicable to bore to it, the gas would The shakes have occurred in every season of the and also in Barnstead, on the Suncook River, and in ascend above the earth, as silently and harmlessly as year, and in the day-time as well as in the night, and Northwood, near the Waters in that town.

the lightning descends from a cloud to the earth, often preceding storms; and several of the exploWith high respect, I have the honor of being your when conducted by the electric rod.

sions would have been denominated earthquakes, had friend, JOSIAH BUTLER. Respectfully, your obd't serv't,

they been as extensive as the earthquake of the 25th E. MERIAM, Esq.

DUDLEY LEAVITT. of August Jast.
Meredith, (N. H.) Oct. 28, 1846.

I have found in the History of Newbury port, that
From the Congregational Journal.

the earthquakes which have taken place there and its From the Exeter News-Letter.

vicinity in 1838, and almost every year since to this Letter from DUDLEY LEAVITT, Esq., of New

Reply of the Hon. Josias BUTLER to D. LEAVITT, time, were very similar to some of our shakes. Very Hampshire, to Hon. Josian BUTLER, of So, Deer. Esq:

many of the earthquakes in Newburyport are defield :

scribed as light explosions resembling thunder. In To Dudley LEAVITT, Esq. : THE DEERFIELD PHENOMENA,

1638 and in 1727, the earthquakes in that town

Dear sir,- In your letter of the 28th of October threw down the tops of chimnies, opened the earth To the Hon. Josiaw BUTLER:

last, addressed to me in the “ Congregational Jour. in some places, and threw up sand near the river, and Dear Sir,- Readiug in the papers the correspond nal," relative to the explosions which have taken were felt in Boston, but many of them are representence between you and Mr. Meriam, of N.Y., relative place in Deerfield, you say that “they are produced ed as light. There was an earthquake on the 30th of to the “Deerfield Phenomena," induced me to ad- | by the spontaneous combustion of hydrogen gas gen

May last, in Newburyport, which was felt at Haverdress to you the following remarks, on the same sub- || erated in the earth, and fired by a spark or flame pro hill, Salem, Hampton and Gloucester, as I have been ject :

duced by the chemical action of certain substances on informed by Dr. Perkins; but I can find no account In investigating the causes of things, the principles each other."

of that earthquake being heard in other towns, or at of philosophy require,

Since the date of your letter, we have had several a great distance. I learn also from Dr. Perkins, that 1. That we must be careful not to admit more shakes, four of which I heard and particularly noticed. a shock of an earthquake was felt in Salem and the causes of natural things than what are true, and suffi The first occurred at nine of the clock in the evening

neighboring towns in 1821, but not noticed in the cient to explain the phenomena.

of the 29th of October last. Being in the street near Newburyport papers; and also that three shocks were 2. We must always assign the same causes for the my house, I observed that the explosion came from felt in Boston in 1836, but not poticed in Newburysame effects.

the east, or rather north of east, and passed off to the 3. Propositions and conclusions, deduced from ac southwest. It was a rumbling noise, and continued I do not pretend to much knowledge of Geology tual experiments, must be considered true and accu from two to four seconds, resembling heavy and dis or Chemistry, but I cannot concur with you in the rate, notwithstanding any hypothesis to the contrary. || tant thunder, and jarred the earth and several build. opinion that all the shakes which we had in Deerfield

The cause of the explosions and tremulous motions | ings, as represented to me by some of my neighbors. are produced by hydrogen gas in the earth. I have in the earth at Deerfield, which have excited in the It was heard by several of the inhabitants in Epping, supposed, as the shakes here are heard and felt most mind of some a considerable degree of wonder, if near the Lamprey River, and about ten miles east near our streams and ponds, that they might be not alarm, was undoubtedly the spontaneous combus from this place, and was as heavy at that place as in

caused by the electric fluid in the earth, or by steam tion of hydrogen gas (inflammable air) generated in this and other parts of Deerfield and Candia. It ap generated by subterranean fires, as earthquakes are the earth, and fired by a spark or flame produced by Il peared to be deep in the earth. The next shake took supposed to be produced. Had not our shakes have the chemical action of certain different substances on place in the night of the 31st of October last. An caused an undulatory or tremutous motion of the each other. The effect produced by the ignition of other occurred about two of the clock in the night of earth, I should not question your theory. I do not hydrogen gas, either above or below the earth's sur. the 12th of November, and the fourth twenty minutes apprehend any danger from the explosions which face, is nearly, if not exactly, similar to that of gun. || before eight of the clock in the evening of 2d of De have or may occur at Deerfield, but I am desirous of powder, which may be satisfactorily shown by the cember inst. ; but these last shakes were not so heavy ascertaining the cause, and shall be pleased to hear following

as the first. Before, and at the time these explosions your opinion, and the opinion of other scientific men Experiment.-If a quantity of clean iron-filings, or took place, there was a perfect calm in the atino

on the facts I have related, and which can be verified small new iron-nails, be put into a clean glass phial, sphere, and rain followed the last. I presume you by many witnesses. and as much clean cold water be poured into the have not been informed of the frequency, extent and Dec. 16, 1846.

JOSIAH BUTLER. phial as will just cover the iron, and then about one violence of some of the shakes, especially of those fourth of the quantity of water, of strong sulphuric which occurred in May and November, 1845, which

SIMULTANEOUS CONVULSIONS IN THE EAST. acid (oil of vitriol) that has been kept from the air, I described in my correspondence with Mr. Meriam, in a clean glass vessel, be poured into the glass con of the City of New York

We present below two accounts of convulsions in taining the iron and water, a sudden and rapid ebul It is now over nine years since we first noticed the the East. In the Red Sea, near the Straits of Babellition will take place; the outside of the phial will shakes in Deerfield. In 1838, we had several severe | mandel, in lat. 15° 7' North, long. 42° 12'East and at feel very warm if touched or grasped with the hand, skakes, but none so heavy as those which took place

Pisa, in Tuscany, in lat. 43° 43' 11," North, long. 100 and inflammable air will be produced in the (uncork in May and November, 1845, and another in July last. ed) phial, and ascend out of the mouth of the phial as We have had a greater number during the two last

24' East. The former at about 10 A. M., the latter at long the gas will explode, sometimes with a consid years than in foriner years, and they have become a little before 1 P. M. Saddle Island, in the Red Sea, erable noise, and the effect of the explosion will Il more violent or severe. The earthquake which took

is 31' 41' East and 28° 36' 11" South of Pisa, as the sometimes break the pbial. Cases may happen, how. || place at five of the clock in the morning of the 25th ever, where little or no common air has found its way of August last, and which was felt in several towns

difference in long. will make the difference in time into the phial to mix with the gas, a small brush of ll on Connecticut River, in Massachusetts, in Portland between about 10 A. M. and a little before 1 P. M. light will be kindled on one side of the mouth of the and Gardner in the State of Maine, and in Keene, Ply. ||

These two localities are about 2,500 miles apart. phial or bottle, and blaze for some time, without any mouth, and many other towns in this State, was not explosion. I have myself found, and most electri Bo heavy in Deerfield, as one of our shakes, which

On the 12th of August, at between 1 and 2 P. M., cians and chemists know, that when the inflammable took place on the 24th of November, 1845, in the af. the shock of an Earthquake was felt at Fincastle air pistol is charged with hydrogen gas, and fired by ternoon, when stone walls were seen to fall by many | Va., attended by a bright meteor in the atmosphere the electric spark, the report is like that produced by 11 persons, and a tremolous motion was felt in every the firing of gunpowder, as was before stated. It house on the south part of Deerfield. In my house,

which was seen to explode. may thus be demonstrated that if a considerable the windows, stoves and doors were shaken, and it An Equilibrium commenced on Brooklyn Heights


the evening of August 12, at before 9 o'clock, and frame. The agitation continued evidently in a hori logy, one of the American Artists in Italy, the followlasted till near 7 next morning, and for the two next

zontal direction, going and coming, but with extreine ing description of the phenomena is given :-
violence. In this horrible situation the plastering

“On the 14th of August, there was a violent shock days storms of lightning, hail, wind and rain traversed began to fall from the ceiling. The cries which arose

of an earthquake here. I was engaged at the Royal an extensive surface, ranging from Natches, in Miss from the neighbouring houses augmented the horror

Gallery at the time, (one o'clock P. M.,) and as it is issippi to Portsmouth, New Hampshire. Several perof the scene. There was one moment when I thought

a high building, standing most upon columns, the the city could be swallowed up. Then, impelled by sons were killed by lightning, and great damage

shock was frightful, for we all stood for the moment an instructive feeling, I mounted the window seat in

gazing speechless at each other, waiting for the timo done by the hail and wind. order to jump into the garden, but a remnant of re

that we must be precipitated into eternity. The RECENT VOLCANO IN THE RED SEA. flection held me back, and by degrees the ground

building rocked, and shook and grumbled for a space "A volcano in the Red Sea just bursting into action, became tranquil.

of several seconds, and the pictures were sliding and was discovered on the 14th of August from on board

As soon as the shock was over I went out of the

beating against the walls. No damage has been done the steamer Victoria, then on her upward voyage to Museum and found the streets filled with people, who

in Florence, but accounts are sad enough from seveSuez. The morning of the day in question was wore in their countenance the traces of the terror

ral other places in Tuscany. cloudy, and the atmosphere close and oppressive, which they had suffered. Every where reigned that

The centre, or seat of the earthquake, was in the silence of which Tacitics speaks, which seizes the without anything to indicate the approach of the squall

localities of the Due. Vicarati di Rali and Rosignano, that so speedily followed. About ten a.m., thick people when agitated by a common feeling.

bordering upon the Maremma. The greatest disasmasses of vapour were seen to extend along the

After having assured myself of the safety of the

ters occurred in the territories of Orcivno, Hispar. horizon from NW to sw. when a singularly vivid

persons who are most dear to me my first thought was belle, Monticudajo, Guardestallo, Gocenzana and flash of lightning was followed by the rolling of distant for the Comparrile de Pise the leaning tower, I ran to

Nivago, and the distruction has extended to the cities see how it was. What was my surprise to see it but distinct thunder. The steamer was at this time

in the neighbourhood, doing more or less damage acabreast of the Zeboyer Islands, when smoke was obstanding and firm. What a spectacle it must have

cording to their distances from the centre. Leghorn, served to issue in a thin spiral column from what is set

presented in that fearful moment. People who had Pisa, and Volterra, have received considerable injury;

an opportunity to observe it during the shock tell me down as Saddlo Island on the chart, lat. 15 deg. 7 m

the first (Leghorn) scarcely contains one house that north long. 42 deg. 12 m. east. When little more that its balancing was a terrible thing to behold, but

is not cracked, and some more are so much injured than threo miles off, the officers of the steamers obbefore examining the effects of the earthquake let us

that they are deserted, and will no doubt, be pulled served a large mass of sulphurous-looking smoke see what was its direction and duration.

down. "The Governor's house, and San Mareo Hotel, taking the place of the vapour originally described ;

The first motion of the earth was manifestly vibra seem to have been injured most. I wonder the Hotel a sudden and violent squall then burst upon them,

tory: there came a violent undulatory motion, which did not fall into a mass of ruins, for when I was there

| lasted to the end of the shock, except a slight lessen. which obstrucled their view. These phenomena are

last June, I could scarcely sleep when there was a all characteristic of the usual concomitants of vol. ing of the action towards the middle of it which

high wind, on account of the fear which the shaking finished by one doubly violent. The horizontal dicanic disturbance. Instructions have been given to

of the houses occasioned. havo surveys taken, and a careful examination made

rection must have been the saving of Pisa. I ob After the shock ceased the inhabitants ran into the all around, as nothing is more likely than that upheaserved it in the most distinct manner possible. If

streets, or knelt down in prayer in their door-ways, vals may have occurred and shallows been created,

the sectical shocks had had the same intensity, the and you can form no idea of the consternation unless or that this may only be one of a series of similar

effects of the disaster would have been inuch more you could hear an Italian eye-witness relate it. Soon phenomena now in prospect or progress. The Zedeplorable.

after the earthquake multitudes of people were on boyer Islands, and indeed the greater part of the emi As to the duration of the oscilliation counting from their way to Monto Nero, to which the crowd were nences along the shore of Arabia from Aden to well the moment where the distant rumbling was heard, I hurrying, men, women and children, to offer their up the Red Sea are of volcanic origin. Jibbel Teer, think from twenty five to thirty seconds, some per

vows and prayers and thanks. The distance is about still so conspicuously marked with the characteristics Bons reduce it to twelve or fifteen seconds, but those

five miles from Leghorn, and you can imagine what of a recent volcano, is said to have been seen smok date it only from the moment when the shock was an exciting scene presented itself on a hot summer's ing by the officers of the survey in 1832. We trust most sensible felt. If the inhabitants of the country afternoon in this moving mass of terror-stricken that this is not the herald of the resumption of active visited by the earthquake are questioned as to the du. beings of all classes, high and low, rich and poor, operations amongst the Red Sea and Arabian rol. ration of the agitation, they all answer, half a minuto making their way to the shrine of the Madonna, to more or less.

supplicate her protection from further danger, and to EARTHQUAKE AT PISA. It was to be dreaded that the phenomenon would

render thanks for their present miraculous escape. M. Pilla, Geologist to the University of Pisa, states not cease with the first shock. Two motions were

During that night hundreds of the citizens staid out

in the open fields for safety. Many slept, or rather as follows : afterwards felt distinctly, but of a more public kind.

staid upon the ships in the harbor for safety. It is The day, the 14th of August, opened at Pisa serene A great part of the population passed the night fol

somewhat astonishing that the famous leaning tower and tranquil, like those which had preceded it. At

lowing in the squares and streets, overpowered at the noon I was as usual in the Museum of Natural Hissad news which constantly was brought in from

of Pisa, still stands a noble monument of the skill of

the architect, which, neither the elements nor the tory of the university, and in the Hall of Mineralogy, neighbouring places.

earthquakes of the last six or seven hundred years, where I was occupied in classing the minerals. In The disasters the city of Pisa has suffered are slight have been able to overthrow. The little town of this Hall are several windows looking towards the in comparison with that they might have been. No

Oricinao has been entirely destroyed, one house only plain in the side of the sea, and over the interior of the one perished. The roof of the Church of St. Mi

remaining, one hundred and fifty wounded persons city, I felt a suffocating heat, accompanied by an inex chael's is ruined, but without injury to any person. have been taken to the hospital at Pisa, from the surpressibly painful sensation, I attributed this pheno If it had happened the next day at the same hour rounding country ; and it said that forty died on their menon to the air of Pisa, which is heavy for my con there would have been many lives lost. A cross fell way thither. We have no exact accounts of the stitution, and which made me say several times to the from the dome. The Campo Santo suffered some number who have perished in this dreadful visitation. keeper of the Museum. “ The air of Pisa is on fire to slight injury. The Comparrile (Leaning Tower) is It is certain that about eighty have been destroyed. day." Never prophecy was more suddenly realized. | unhurt. It remains to be discovered by examina The Ganfalonier, of Florence, has implored and obAt a few minutes before one I was alone in the Hall. tion whether its inclination has become greater. tained permission of the Grand Duke to ask donations The atmosphere was perfectly calm when I began to | Finally, there is not a building in Pisa which has not from the citizens in favor of the distressed families of hear a sound which came rapidly from the sea coast. been more or less damaged and cracked.

those who may need assistance. This was done also The impression I felt was like that of a boisterous Letters from Leghorn and Florence describe the some two years since, on the occasion of the great wind advancing towards the city, but reflecting on the earthquake to have been still more terrible in those flood of the Arno, and great good resulted, as I have impossibility of such a phenomena occurring so sud cities and the surrounding country. At Volentena a no doubt it will in the present instance ; for the Itadenly in the midst of the preceding calm, I began to State Prison was thrown dowa, burying several of the lians are very liberal in giving of their means to the fear some accident. I cannot better describe this prisoners under its ruins. Some of the accounts from | assistance of their unfortunate countrymen. noise than in a line of our divine poet

Florence say that from thirty to forty persons had I have otten thought that if one of our American Il fracasso. d, an suon gien di spavento,

perished in that neighbourhood, and more than a cities should be so unfortunate as to be visited with DANTE Inf.

thousand were wounded. The Grand Duke of Tus such an earthquake as this, scarcely a single house My suspicions were soon verified. The noise kept cany and his government have shown great zeal in would remain ; but one vast pile ot ruins would alone advancing with even increasing force, and suddenly assisting the sufferers and repairing the injuries pro mark ihe spot where once a city stood. The thought the hall began to tremble. To this vibration succeeded duced by the earthquake. The Court which was in || is awful, but it should be a warning to all those who a violent agitation in a horizontal direction, accom Sienne has returned to Florence. The Great Dake run up buildings four and five stories high with walls panied by a horrible rumbling, accustomed to these immediately visited the scene of the disaster, and scarcely a foot in thickness. From fire, the inhabitants phenomena, which are not rare in my country. (Mr. subscriptions has been opened for the benefit of the may escape and take a part of their property with Pilla is a Neapolitan.) After several unsteady motions families who have been afflicted. - Boston Daily Ad. them, but from such a shock as Leghorn has just receiv. I ran to one of the windows which opened on the vertiser, Sept. 23.

ed scarcely an inhabitant of one of our cities would be garden of the neighbouring house, and there I was

left to tell the tale of wo. May the Almighty prowitness of one of the most terrible spectacles which

tect us and teach us wisdom enough at least to preare ever offered to the eye of man. The houses about


serve our lives by all such means as he has placed in were shaken in a dreadful manner. The trees in the The Earthquake at Florence and other places, so our power.—Journal of Commerce, of Sept. 23. garden by their motion announced the violent agita- || briefly referred to in the English papers, received by tion of the atmosphere; these motions joined to those

THE LATE EARTHQUAKE IN ITALY.-In the disof the Hall, in which I was. gave me a sectigo which the Cambria, appears to have been a serious affair. In | tricts of Dariand. Rosignano. in the centre of the compelled me to support myself against the window a letter written to the Boston Journal, by Mr. Hel. || shocks, where the etfects were most disastrous,


houses were thrown down, villages half destroyed, || tion of every careful observer, to wit: the water-worn from you at any time, when you have leisure and inwells dried up, others filled with mud, masses of appearance of every stone or pebble south of the ridge clined to favor me in either respect. water appearing and disappearing, in various spots, of hills, extending from New Utrecht, in the neighbour

Your very obed't serv't, bituminous waters left on the surface, and those who hood of Fort Hamilton, to the extreme part of Oys

Ben. F. THOMPSON. were not actually buried in the ruins, severely hurt terponds; no matter to what depth you dig for water, and wounded, and the generality reduced to misery the same internal evidence of its oceanic origin deand destitution by the loss of all. About 40 indivi. monstrates that this portion of the island has been

SYRACUSE CORRESPONDENCE. duals are ascertained to have perished, and more than made from the sea, or that the sea in which it was A LETTER from Lyman W. CONXEY, Esq. double that number seriously injured, and generally once submerged had retired therefrom. Nothing in the head, who have been removed to the hospital like a rock in situ, is found upon this side, but on the

SYRACUSE, January 6, 1847. of Pisa and Leghorn. north side of the ridge, angular stones are found, sand

E. Meria», Esq, Whole villages have been thrown down in the stones, granite, and great variety of conglomerates. Im 1 Dear Sir-Your letter of Dec. 26th was duly receivSautia, Lorenzana, Asciano, and Casciano, the centre mense boulders are also seen upon the highest points || ed, and inclosed was a letter to E. Marks, Esq., superof the oscillating motion, and about five leagues from throughout the island—but I have not the means of intendent of the Onandago Salines, which was deli. Leghorn. At Voltera, a government prison fell, bury. ascertaining the sub-stratum of the island as excava- || vered as requested. I also received from you several ing several prisoners. The number of persons killed tions and borings have only been extended as far as ne- || papers, for which accept my thanks. I observed in are stated to be, in all the districts, 88, and 110 woun cessary for the obtaining of water-the existence of the “New-York Farmer and Mechanic" of Dec. 17, ded, of which 58 seriously. The effects of the shock lignites far beyond the surface, of bodies of trees found | 1846, under the head of “The Weather," that you extended to Pisa. The vaulted roof of the old Church at the depth of 100 feet and more, and in a sound have noted the temperature of the atmosphere for of St. Michael, fell at the first shock. The congrega state, are curious facts, requiring more light to explain, eight days ending Dec. 15th ; also noted the degrees tion had just left the building after divine service. than has yet been shed upon the subject. You will of the · Meteoric Magnetic Electric Wires." This

find numerous instances of this in my work, and it instrument I am unacquainted with, but suppose it

would afford me much pleasure to have your specu gives you the degrees of electricity which gathers in LONG ISLAND CORRESPONDENCE. lation upon so curious a subject. In some places the atmosphere. I have often thought that electricity Letters from BENJAMIN F. THOMPSON, Esq., the where the sand is finest and whitest, the most beauti had much to do with storms. In summer during tho Historian of Long Island.

fulclays, resembling ochres are found, which are manu hottest weather when the barometer fluctuates but HEMPSTEAD, Dec. 25, 1846.

factured on the spot, or transported to New York, little, storms gather and are many times accompanied

Boston and other places to be made into various arti. by electricity, which when very active seems to exEBEN. MERIAM, Esq.

cles of pottery-below the clay-beds, we find sand ert a powerful influence upon the temperature of the My Dear SirmI cannot deny myself the pleasure

again to a great depth, but as the centre springs inter- || atmosphere, many times depressing it and causing of telling you how much I was instructed and gra

tervene, it is impossible, without incurring great ex heavy rains to fall when the due point is high, July tified with the short interview, which myself and

pense, to ascertain whether the island stands upon a 20, 1845, we were visited at this place with a very friend Bolton had with you on Tuesday last. Your

rocky basis or not. At Oysterpond, which is gene severe rain storm in which electricity was unusually theory of the atmosphere and the phenomena of elec

rally free from stones, Mr. Latham, from a single active with heavy thunder. This storm commenced tricity and galvanism, appears to me, as not only ex

boulder on his farm, made 80 rods of heavy stone wall, at 9 o'clock, P. M. and lasted about five hours with a tremely ingenious, but in strict accordance with the

and he thinks enough if the same was left ir. the dew point of 72 degrees, which is about the highest principles and operations of nature.

ground to have made 20 rods more. What a mass, degree reached at this place. The barometer fell I have certainly much reason to regret not to have

for a single stone! I know of three or four others in during the storm 25-100 inch. and the depth of the made your acquaintance sooner, as I have thus missed

different places, either of which (if in this village) rain which fell was 2 50-100 inch. Sept. 5th it commany and great advantages, which might have been

would be worth hundreds of dollars for building ma menced raining at 7 o'clock, P. M. and rained about derived from your spirit of research, and diligent obterials.

two hours, barometer fluctuating only 6-100 inch du. servations upon every thing presented to your view.

The fact of one kind of timber succeeding another

ring the day ; electricity was very active, rain meaYou could, and doubtless would, have essentially

sured 70-100 inch. July 11, 1846, rain commenced is fully illustrated upon many parts of the island, paraided my researches into the geology of this island, by which the account contained in my history, might

falling at 4 o'clock, P. M. with a high due point and ticularly in places which have been burnt over, by

lightning active, barometer fluctuating 4-100 inch, have been rendered more full and satisfactory.

the extensive conflagration so often occurring through I have looked over two numbers of your « Municithe central parts of the island. In these cases oak

rain fell 50-100 inch. Sept. 3d. Dew point high, elecgenerally followe, pine, and pine and red cedar follow pal Gazette" with very great pleasure, and cannot

tricity very active with heavy thunder, the mercury oak. But in places where the timber is cut off, and

in the barometer fell 10-100 inch, rain measured but think you will have rendered services which can

1 85-100 inch. Many such storms occur during the suffered to sprout again from the stumps, no material not fail hereafter of being greatly and extensively apchange is visible. Your theory of Long Island, being

summer months, showing conclusively that when preciated.

a cloud becomes highly charged with electricity, and a great natural magnet, is not only in my opinion The ancient documents (in relation to the city of highly ingenious, but true and capable of being de

during a thunder storms when it passes from the clouds New-York) published in these numbers, exhibit your diligence, and a thorough acquaintance with the hismonstrated. Nothing is more common than to witness

to the earth it depresses the temperature of the atmo

sphere, thereby causing much of its vapor to condense the most constant and vivid flashes of lightning, and rory of olden times.

loud thunder to the north and south of us, while the I shall be happy to see you here, at your conve

upon the same principle that it condenses by being nience, and will thank you for any document or facts island itself escapes their effocts altogether.

carried up by moving columns of air as indicated by


currents must, therefore, as you suppose, be conductancient or modern, which may contribute to make a

the barometer. Tuesday, Dec. 15th. My barometer subsequent edition of my History of Long Island more ed along the sound and the shore of the ocean, in con

indicated an equilibrium of atmosphere, standing at sequence of the vapor constantly existing in their lo

29 70-100 inch for about twenty-four hours, at the end valuable. I hope this will find your family convalescent, and calities.

of which time it rose 6-100 inch. Dec. 16th. About I think the geology of King's county, and that of Newtown and Flushing, more interesting, and

noon it commenced falling with fair indications of a rejoicing in the expectation of speedy restoration to presents greater variety than any other part of this

snow-storm. 17th. In the morning the telegraph anhealth. island. The north shore from Williamsburgh to Hemp

nounced that a snow-storm had commenced in NewI am, dear sir, very respectfully you sted harbor, is in many respects like the opposite

York city. obdt. servt.,

This storm reached Albany in the even

ing of the same day; Uticaat 1 o'clock, A. M. on the coast of the sound, preventing a similar soil and the Bens. F. THOMPSON. same natural features.

18th, and Syracuse about 9 o'clock, A. M. of the same P. S.--I shall be gratified to hear from you at any

day, and moved on toward the week at the rate of time.

If it shall become well established, that anthracite about twelve miles an hour. The barometer fell at

coal-ashes, will answer as a manure upon the great plains this place during the storm one inch. The depth of HEMPSTEAD, Jan. 6, 1847. of the island, the value of our lands (of this descrip snow which fell at New-York and Albany during this Eben. MERIAM, Esq.

tion) will be increased six-fold, and nothing, but the storm, I was not able to learn. In Utica it fell about My Dear Sir-I duly received your interesting and difficulty of obtaining water, can impede a speedy im eighteen inches, Syracuse fourteen inches, and less in instructive letter of the 26th ult. and sincerely thank provement of them. This town alone has from 10,000 depth as it moved west. Sunday, Dec. 20th. About you for the same, as well as the additional numbers of to 15,000 acres of land, which the plough has never noon the telegraph announced, that in New-York city the Municipal Gazette, a work highly creditable to touched, and capable, by proper cultivation, of pro the storm was over, and the sky clear, while at Syrathe conductor and calculated to diffuse much useful ducing an immense quantity of grain and grass, cuse, at the same time, it was snowing as fast as at any information, in addition to the many statistical details thereby adding to our agricultural riches, and sustain time during the storm. If those persons who are enwhich fill its pages. It seems you have not only been ing three-fold our population at present. Chemistry W gaged in taking meteorological observations at the a considerable traveller, but a close observer of the has caused a revolution in the old systems of farming, | different telegraph stations on the line from Newphenomena of nature; and being somewhat of an en

and is doubtless destined to effect still greater changes, York, Boston, and from there to Buffalo, would furnthusiast in science, with your eyes and ears open, it both as to facilities of cultivation, and the increase of ish each station with the observations taken twice or could not but happen, that you should have a vast fund product without some most important revolution in three times a day, I have no doubt but that the proof useful knowledge. In relation to the geology of this respect, Long Island mast cease to be an agri prietors would allow them to be transmitted, free of Long Island, it is not in my power to add any thing cultural country, for in the old modes of raising hay | charge, thereby enabling them to be published daily. material to what is contained in the first volume of and grain she cannot compete with the towns upon | It would be a very useful record to all concerned, and my history, compiled as it was from every source of the North river, and places made accessible by rail I hope that the matter may be considered. intelligence upon the subject, which came within the roads, &c. I was pleased to hear of the improved

Respectfully yours, circle of my inquiry, to this is added whatever I had condition of the health of your excellent wife and

LYMAN W. CONKEY. acquired from close observation traversing on foot, daughter, and sincerely hope they may soon be re P. S.—You will do me a favor by writing and giving every part of the island-one thing strikes the atten- stored to health, I shall be glad to see you, or hear me your views in relation to thunder storms, whether

my notions are erroneous in relation to vapor condensing, more freely during those storms. Also explain to me the use of the electric wires, and whether they are of any use to the meteorologist, and if so how to construct them. .

L. W. Conkey.

d to be the only rial expanse. fhoth round


Saltville, Washington Co. Va., ?

4th January, 1847. Mr. E. MERIAM,

Dear Sir.--I hand you herewith my Meteorological Record for the last month.

On the 1st we had a light rain from daylight until 10 A.M., cleared off in the night, wind during the day light, N.E. 2nd, rain-calm morning and night, wind fresh, S.W., at uoon. 3rd, at 7 A. M., wind fresh, S.W., continued all day. 4th, wind moderate, S.W. 5th, moderate, N.E. 6th, light rain all day and night, wind N.E.' 7th, light rain nearly all day, calm. 8th, light rain all day, wind variable. 9th, wind generally N.E., light rain all night. 10th, day. light, wind s.W., from 2 P. M., remainder of day and night a gale from the West. 11th, gale, a little moderated wind generally, S.W. 12th, wind fresh from S.W., at night calm. 13th, same. 14th, light rain after dark, wind generally S.W. 15th, wind generally N.E. 16th, 2.30, P.M., commenced snowing, wind fresh, N.E., increased by sun-set to a gale, moderated about midnight, 6 inches snow fell, most in the night. 17th, 9 A.M., wind changed to S.W., 11.30, A.M., changed again to N.E., breeze moderate -very stormy on Clinch Mountain in the morning. two inches snow fell during the day 18th, light snow all day about one inch, wind S.W., at sun-set very fresh. 19th, wind fresh all day and night from S.W. 20th, still blowing from S.W., but much moderated. 21st, wind moderate S.W. 22d, wind light, generally S.W., snowed all day and all night, snow disappearing very fast. 23rd, wind S. W. 24th. wind variable. 25th, wind fresh S.W. 26th, wind moderate, S.W. 27th, wind s.W., at 10 P. M., blowing very hard, continued all day and night. 23th, still blowing hard, S.W., light fall of rain at noon, moderate at night. 29th, a lovely day, rain at 11 P. M., wind N.E., generally, blew fresh from the S. W., in the night. 30th, another lovely day, wind moderate, S. W. 31st, another beautiful day, wind light and changeable, at 7 P.M., faint streaks of light visible in the heavens, diverging from the North as a centre, and spreading half over oursky--duration half an hour only. The suuset of night was the most impressive I ever beheld. The gorgeous colors of the West, as the king of light gave a last strong impulse to an expiring year, contrasted most strangely with the dark foreboding aspect of the East, when the Moon as she peered through the fissure of a maddened cloud, looked dim as her image in a sheet of water, ashamed to show her sickly face, while yet the Sun in splendor blazed, a cloud darker and more drear than all the rest, cast himself across her pale and gastly visage, and then the Earth was overpowered with clouds of the blackest dye, forming upon us as if full of dark and angry feeling, and we turned for relief, to gaze where the Sun in love and kindness kissed the West, and cast a deeper blush on its quite happy cheek, was the birthnight of a new year. Such was the picture on one side, the frowns of an offended Deity upbraiding millions for their misdeed and misuse of the many privileges bestowed at his hand-on the other, a smile of forgiveness and encouragement to better works in future. May such an admonition be impressed on all hearts. On the 19th, I had the pleasure of receiving your interesting favor of the 7th. The multitude of pigeons which visited this locality on the 27th of November last, were traversing from due North to South. The fact called my particular observation at the time. The weather was extremely cold on their arrival, and had been for several days previous, their flight from North to South, had evidently been forced by the severe gale and snowstorm of the 25th and 26th. They sojourned a day or two with us, and then winged their way Southward. I had never heard that their visits were attended with sickness, until mentioned by you. My enquiries on the subject have strengthened my own

belief upon that point, that although the bird may at times in its far flights use as sustenance berries of a poisonous kind, and to a slight extent make their meat unwholesome to those who eat them, yet their appearance cannot I think be made the forerunner of disease.

You will notice by my table of temperature annexed, several equilibriuus during December, that of the 16th, continued until 11 P.M., the time of my last notice. On the night of the 27th, the Mercury at 8 o'clock was 48° ; 9, 47 ; 10, 51; 11, 54; my latest observation, and at 6 and 7 o'clock next morning at 54. Very likely an equilibrium all night ; during that day (28t) the temperature vibrated but 4° from 6 o'clock in the morning until 11 at night; the wind during the time blowing a gale from S.W. The weather during the remaining three days of the month, was for the same, most extraordinary. On the 29th, the temperature at 2 P. M. was 62.' 30th, at same hoar 64, and 31st, at 3 P.M., 7 1-2. Such unusually mild weather has given a Spring time appearance to several kinds of vegetation, we dread its consequence upon the health of the country. The weather this month, (January,) is a little cooler so far, although entirely out of season. We had a sudden and hard gale of short duration on the night of the 1st from the 8. W.

The descent of our river as you suppose, is a thrilling one, especially for the first 50 miles—I regret I have no means of ascertaining for your satisfaction and my own, the fall in that distance-in that space the coutents of several tributary creeks increase the volume of water after heavy rains to a great extent, which in places where the fall is most rapid is pressed into a very narrow compass, by hills of several hundred feet of perpendicular height. The scenery of the most imposing character, the velocity of the river and the eminent peril of the passage, render a trip upon the Holstein extremely interesting, but far from pleasant.

Mr. Preston has had his new firrnace for the manafacturing of salt in operation about one month. Its performance has fully realized his most sanguine expectation. The improvement made by Mr. Preston in this establishment, elicits the admiratiou of all who see it. His novel mode of suspending the kettles in cast iron plates, and an arch under the kettles, and have both proved very efficient when completed, and although in operation the furnace is far from finished. The whole will form a model of perfection in salt-making, not heretofore surpassed in any country, and a pattern for those who wish to imitate. The salt made upon this furuace is of a very superior quality, and will compete for quantity, purity, and beauty, with that of any manufactory.

The quantity of rain which fell during the month of December, was 2 inches and 69-100 of an inch, snow about 9 inches.

I am indebted to you by last mail for the Journal of Commerce, Brooklyn Star, and Farmers Mechanic, for which, please accept my thanks. I anticipate the pleasure of hearing from you shortly. Very respectfully, your obedient servant,


the skies proves that any related bodies differing in mass or in kind of constituents, can execute a variety of movements necessary for adjusting their appetences, whether in near contact, or at points widely separated.

The departure of orbitual direction from a right line is a sequence of the one mass being greater than the other and the greater velocity of the lesser, demands wider spirality than the greater, while both advance around a common central line.

If any two mutually related stars should happen to be expressly alike in all respects they might, if not disturbed by other masses, advance toward the center of all creation in parallel lines indefinitely, or until altomic dispersion should happen.

The necessity for greater spiral eccentricity, as observed in the paths of lesser orbs related to greater masses, secures periodic equations of time and place, and when well apprehended will be acknowledged to be the only certain means to prevent collisions between solids in the celestial expanse.

The spiral path of the moon round the earth and of both round the sun were calculated by the ancient Hercaic astronomers for the long term of thirty-six thousand five hundred and twenty two and a half years, at the close which cycle, estimating froin the equinoctial recession at the first of Capricorous, these bodies should relatively occupy the same attitudes with each other, but the earth and sun were expected every cycle of 24,348 years (25,200 ostensible years) to resume the same attitudes in regard to each other.

It is even boldly asserted by them that twice the Heavens have revolved around the solar system.

The theory was that orbs remain poised in space upon cones of relations extending between them and the reciprocal eminations were supposed to possess mitescent affinities analagous to accordancrs in musical tones, while the opposing relations resembling discords in musick were also aflilliated. Under this Theory of all the elemental properties embracing two atoms or worlds were repellant, chaos of their whole constituents was inevitable, but afterwards their period of night elapsing, a dawn of light and an organizing energy appeared and now the mitescent principle compromising all discrepancies arranged the new egg or world of being

In animal aud vegetable physiology is witnessed a world of diversified agreements aud disagreements in the elementary changes which for a while constitute tho vital structure and manifest iis functions.

Man's complex structure exhibits physically and intellectually concert and rebellion in many phasis and when some“ interior embodiment," fashions the truisms of mind into instruments for searching the vast empires of abstract science, then are conceived the astonishing discrepencies in morals consciously attaching even in the same personalty.

The superior conceptive agency in the astronomer, orders his muscles to convey him to the observatory, commanding the relations of gravity and the law for disentegrating masses, as well as his own mere animal appetites to become subservient to star gazing.

A glance at such subjects shows the impolicy of forming theoretic systems out of less than a perfect knowledge of all the principles involved, if we would expect them to be immutable in all respects ; a pretension never claimed or intended to be made by Sir I. Newton, for his astronomic theories.

But even if the Newtonian hypothesis of gravitation enlists no error, still the uniform variance of opinion entertained by his talented predecessors, now justifies careful revision and comparison.

Admitting the Creator gives impulse in direct line to every world and implants gravity outside of the mass to draw orbits into curves, yet must the same Creator also grant special impulso to all atomic action as a carrolary?

Even if the magnetic property epitomises gravity and the expanding clectric attributes rive the oak, or if in efforts at equation along telegraphic wires, these qualities of matter hold contests, sometimes rezardless of matter and sometimes fiercely agitating atoms and great globes, must all enquiries' respecting these phenomena be judged of only by some theoretic positions laid down by Newton? That eminent inaster of science did not so intend to fetter his subsequent votaries in celestrometry.

By substituting momental tendency as the opponent of the gravitating law instead of admitting motion as a product expressing the difference between the dispersive and aggregative attributes of matter, complexities of the theorems were yielded which no intellect inferior to his own could have unravelled and made consistent with the verities of Astronomical calcula. tions.

Had Newton examined the related stars with Herschell and Struve, had he visited Davy's laboratory, or seen Frankvin's kite in the clouds, or the telegraph line or the photographic pictures, his principle would have been made less obscure and more siinple.

Imponderable gravity after centralizing the sun and the earth, Aies from the face of each body reciprocally and taking adversary or peaceable possession, holds those bodies ballancing around a common center if so, may not imponderable emination of luminosity, culoricity or electricity also traverso like space after homo duties are satisfied !

An apple falls and the Aurora corruscates along the torrene shadows and truly at the vestibule of telescopic scanning Lyrics and Epics appear without light enough to read them.

All masses in a system all classess of systems, though varieut as are the leaves of Valambrosa exhibit so many analogies as to shew unity or design and similitude of law thronghont the whole mechanism.

The cometary gems of future suns or perhaps sometimes infantilo parasites to supply wastes in subsisting systems fly with electro-magnetic celority in approximating our regions and as if committiug a trespass seem to reverse their poles of headlong motion-repellence pursuing it as fast as it met the attractive invitations.

If two hollow india-rubber balls be compressed both will form ground body, but will fly apart on removing the pressure, and if very light they will alternately fly to and be rejected by a cbarged Leyden jar.

I would ask what influence would concentrated magnetic forces have upon polarizing properties that disturb photogomic images!

The circular or rather spherical departure of light from a lamp, shews it does to some extent regard tho gravitating properties


December 8th, 1846. E. MERIAM, Esq.

Dear Sir.-In my previous communications to you, I bricfly referred to numerous natural phenomena and indicated some propositions which if well founded would modify the received theory of the immediate causes of solar and planetary motions.

I assumed that motions of atoms in chemistry and of orbs in Celestometry represent directly the uncancelled differences of attraction and rejection between atoms or globes, and express the same iuversely according to squares of distance.

Iftwo one thousand pound balls in all respects composed alike out of one hundred kinds of atoms be placed in space four thousand years apart, free from all other substances, let it be granted that fifty kinds of atoms in each, reciprocally agree to come together by an attraction equal to fifty pounds, this would happen with an accellaration duplicating as squares of distance decrease, provided the remaining fifty atoms are quiescent or offer no resistance, but if at the beginning, the appetences of one class are equal to the opposing force of the other the two bodies will remain in station.

If however the dispersivo tendencies have fifty pounds ascen. dency over the aggregative forces then the two bodies must remove apart until an equation is attained, between their reciprocal attractive and repellant forces.

There is however no example of absolute similitude between the atoms of related globes and were they at rest, as supposed, the slightest differenco in quality or quantity must origipato motion to be equalled by greater or less distance and relative velocity.

All observation in the laboratory and in the wide domain of

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