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not have been so accurale or well acquainted with actualtime as Censorinus.
Besides, Censurinus is sustained by Manethos' years of the reigns of the 85 Pharaohs in regular descent from 2344 B. C. to 520 B. C. when Cambysis invaded Egypt ; according to which Canon, the Sothic Cycle began the 12th year of Menophres throwing the 1320th year on 25th of Auguslus and first year of the Chrisian Era.
The Augustan Era in its 285th year, when a total Eclipse occurred at Rome was closed by the new era ot Dioclesion and this connecting year, seems counted into both, thus giving an unreal year'o the Western church while the Egypto-Augustan Era had three years too much, making, alter the year 600 A. D. when Christians began to use their own cra, a dirTerence of four years between the dates of the native ity of Christ in ihe west and eastern charches.
In sketching the foregoing principles and facts in early philosophy, I am not pretending to assail modernized infallible theories in chronology and astrono. my and in suggesting opinions upon several subjects more interestingihan have been touched upon, in this and my five preceding letters, I must look forward to such leisure hours as I may have the ensuing winter for again trespassing on your patience.
superior agent of like form, whose powers, whether exercised or noi or whether more or less developed, properly belong to and sound in the preservation and use of simple ideas or truisms apparent and really pictured on the intelligent Tapestry.
Here begins the work of spirituosity that manipulates and deals among abstract numbers, unity and decimalties, points, lines and spaces, right proportions and Their antithetic verities real or contingent, mor. al good and its reversals, true or false, with all the simple and compound deductions attributive 10 boundless ratiocination.
It has been well said the undevout astronomer is mad," but without further extending these remarks, I will close my letter by adverting to a few more sound authorities in reference to ancient chronology.
Modern researches into ancient lore, with the cheap plans of printing give late inquiries many advantages over former comparisons in chronology.
Censorinus, the Roman, A. D. 239-240 alluding to the various plans of keeping civil years states, the Egyptian Sethoic year consisted of three hundred and sixiy-five days, without intercalation of a day, every fourth year, whereby the quadrennium so adjusted itself that the 1461st year was intercalated in order to reach true time.
He says Varo divides historic time into three parts, the first from the beginning of mankind to the Cataciysm, but its duration was covered in mystery.
The second period extended from the flood 1600 years to the first Olympiad (774 B. C. perhaps rather, the Nabonazer Era 746 B. C., this being the exact year referred to by the term of 1600 years.)
Concerning the third historic period from the last, to the date when Varo wrote, some debate existed, to the extent of six or seven years, but, says Censorinus, that historian with his usual sagacity compared backward the annals of many countries and at last demonstrated the true time.
According to him this year (239-40 Anno Domini) is the 1014th summer from the first Olyn.piad year and the 991st year of building Rome in April, and is the 2830 Julian year from the Kallends of January
This year is also the 2651h Augustan year counting from 15th February ; but the Egyptians begin this era from the battle of Actium and flight of Cleopatra nearly three years before Augustus was made Emperor, at which time the Roman estimate began and therefore the Egypto-Augustan year is now the 2681h.
The Egyptians he says also used the Nabonazer Era, of which this year is the 986th, as well as the Phillippic, of which, this is the 5624 year since Alexander's decease.
Censorinus likewise says, 100 years ago the Sothic cycle began, Cannicula then rising, with the Sun on the first of ihe mon:h Thoih, which day corresponded to 12th of August, but now, Cannicula rises on 17th July, being a change of twenty-five days in the aforesaid 100 years.
If Censorinus wrote in the 240th year after Christ then was the Nativity in the 7741h Olympiad year, 745-46th of the Nabonazer era ; the 751st of building Rome; the 322d Phillipic year ; the 430 Julien year anıl 25th Augustan at Rome or 28th in Egypt, for the reason above assigned; and was in the 1320th current Sothic year.
Theon Alexandrinus, however, states that the years of the Sothic Cycle to Augustus added to 285 years ol the Angustan era make logether 1605 years, causing the 1320th Sothic year to be even with the first year of the Augustan Era, so that according to this estimate the birth of Christ was in the 13451h Sothic
year and that Cycle would close A. D. 115 instead of the 140th as I understand Censorinus to show.
The discrepancy between these authorities is 25 years of Sothic dates changing the first year of that Cycle from the 31st year of Memnon's Reign of 311 years, to the 6th of his reign.
Censorinns was giving his views with special reference to chronological accuracy and says that he gives these eras with their months and days of beginning, because some commenced at the summer or winter solstice and others at the vernal or autumhal Equinox and some date from the rising or setting of the Pleiades or Sirius.
Alexandrinus on the other hand, is giving a formula for finding the rising of the star Cannicula, and may
From the Farmer and Mechanic of Nov. 26. 1846.
THE WEATHER. On Wednesday, the 18th of November, at 4 P. M., a dark bli e cloud, in a roll, was visible in the South-west, ex eading bula fex degie 's above the borizon. The entire atmosphere in right, was elsewheelerfectly clear; in less than fifteen minutes the whole vis beatmosphere was overcast with iwo stralas of ret work clouds. Such a display I rever before saw. The charge was so sudden, that it must have le:n produced ny sonte refrigerent swifier than the wind, passing through th: h gher regions of the air. I surveyed the a'. mosphere as far as the eye could reach, to the Last to the North and t• the South and the appearance in every diree tior was the same as overhead. Tbe temperature of the at mosphere at the time, 4 P. M., was 58 1.2; al 9 P. M., 54-and continued at that and in an equilibrium state until six next mrning. The accouns from Lake Erie sale that a ve y s vere gale was experienced odiere, and continuei during the 13th; several vessels were wrecked and many lives lost. At Baltimore a severe storm w.ls experienced on Thursday night. At Phils de poin rain fell on Thursdity evening. On Long Island Sound, the gale was so severe that the Steamers Allantic and Gover or, were obliged to anchor. On Brooklyn Heighis rain commenced falling at 6 P. M., on Thursday, and at 7, the wind blew very hard. I apprehend that a dir: tant disturbance ir suced this extra rdinary atinos, heric phenomenon, which resulied in an equilibrium temperature followed by an extensive storm. The temperature of the atmosphere. froin the morning of November 18 t the morning of Novem 5. r 25, both inclusive, has been as follows
Wedne-day, November 18, 6 A M., 49°; 7,50; 8, 51 ; 9," 53; 10, 56; 11, 59; 12, 60; 1, P M., 61: 2, 62; 3, 61; 4,584; 5, 58; 6, 56 ; 7,55%; 8, 55; 9, 54. Equil briun began.
Thursday, November 19, 6 A. M ,54 ; end of Equilibrium, and snow clouds overhead; 7, 55 ; 8, 56; 9, 58; 10, 59; 11, 61; 12, 62 ; 1, P. M , 61; 2, 61; 3, 60 1-2; 4, 60 1.2; 5, 60 1-2; 6, 61; 7, 61 1.2; heavy rain and high wind; 8, 62.
Friday, November 20. 6 A. M. 51; 7. 51; 8, 52; 9, 53; 10, 55; 11, 54; 12, 54 1.2; 1, P. M., 54; 2, 51; 3, 53; 4, 52; 5, 50; 6. 49; 7, 49; *, 51 ; 9,49; 10, 50; near an equilibrium. ,
Saturday, November 21, 6, A M, 49; 7, 48; 8.51; 9, 51; 10 54; 11, 55 1-9; 12, 56; 1, P. M., 56 1-9; 2, 55; 3, 34; 4, 54 1 2; 5,54 1 2; 6,50 ; 7. 49; 8, 49; 9, 48; 10. 49; equilibrium.
:unday. November 22, 6, A. M , 49; 7, 49; end ut equib. rium;erow clouds in the West nefore sunrise ; 8, 52 1 2; snow clouds overhead; 9, 55 ; 10, 55; 11, 56; 12, 60; 1 P M., 69 1-2; 9, 60, 3, 59; 4 58; 5, 57; 6. 56 ; 7, 36; 8 5.1; 9, 53 1-2; 10, 53; rain 8, P. M , followed by a gale of wind.
Monday, November 23, 6, A M., 48; 7. 48; 8, 48; 9, 49 ; 10 50; 11, 52; 12, 32; 1, P. M.51; 2, 51; 3, 51; 4, 49; 5, 49; 6, 48; 7.43; 8, 48; 9, 48; 10, 48; equi ibriuni.
Tuesday, November 24, 6. A M., 48, equilibrium; 7,51, 8, 51 ; 9, 52; 10. 52; 11, 53; 12, 53; 1, P. M., 54; 2 55 1 2; 3, 54; 4, 53 1-2; 5, 52; 6, 50 ; 7, 50, 8, 49; 9, 49; 10, 50, 11, 50;
Wejnesday, November 25, 6, A. M., 49; and a rain storm s: cceeding an quilibrium.
The equilib iums are becoming very frequent of late, as are also the storing.
I have before me a meteorlogical record, kept by Captain Freemont in his tour among the Rocky Mountains, which presents some interestiug facts, which I will endeavor to make a synopsis of in a few days
a letter from my correspondent at Nashville, Tenn., dated Thursday, November 1916, in a postscript to which, he adds as follows:-"Within the last 24 hours much lightning and rain from the South-west has cleared the smoky sky which has lasted for 30 days past-many trees of our town are renewed with a spring foliage which will strongly resist the effects of the frosts now close at hand."
Mr. Milnor, in his letter to me dated Saltville, South-wes'ern Mountains of Va., November 19th and 20th, says:
“This morning (the 19th) was ushered in with an Equilibrium. My thermometer stood at 5630, when I first observed it in the morning at 6 o'clock and remained at that until 10, when it rose one-half a degree and from that hour until 8 P. M., gradually tell to 390, al which it remained till my latest observation 10, P. M., viz., 6 A. M., 56 1-2; 7, 56 1-2; 8, 56 1-2; 9, 56 1-2; 10, 57; 11, 55; 12, 51 1-2; 1, 51 1-2 ; 2, 49; 3, 46; 4, 44; 5, 43; 6, 42; 7, 41; 8, 39; 9, 39; 10, 39. The morning commenced calm and cloudy-a drizzling rain all day-at 10, A. M., the wind commenced blowing very fresh from southwest and continued at that the remainder of the day, and all night. November 201h, Clinch Mountain in view from my house has its suinmit this morning partly covered with snow, the first that has fallen in view of this place this season. I anticipate a severe spell of weather will follow."
It will be seen by the above that I present another proof that our snow storms are the offsprings of the lightning
I now give the record of my observations upon Brooklyn Heights, commencing at 7 o'clock on Wed. nesday, November 25, my last memorandum having included the hour of 6 o'clock that morning.
METEORIC, ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC WIRES.Wednesday, November 25, 7 A. M., 49; hard rain storm; 8, 49; 9, 51; 10, 52; 11, 52; 12, 52; 1, 51; 2, 51; 3, 49 1-2; 4, 49; 5, 47; 6, 47, 7, 47, snow storm; 8, 44; 9, 46. The thermometer was as follows. 9 A. M., 39; 3 P. M., 39; 5 P. M., 38; 9 P. M., 29.
Thursday, November 26. Thermometer 6 A.M., 26; 9, 28; 12, 32; 1, 32; 2, 32; 3, 32; 4, 29 1-2; 5, 28; 6, 28; 7, 27; 8, 26 1-2; 9, 26 1-2. M. M. AND E. Wires.—6 A. M. to 12 M., 46, 1 to 4 P. M., 42 1-2; 5, 44; 6, 45; 7 10 9, 46.
Friday, November 27.-Thermometer 6 A. M., 24 1-2; 7, 24 1-2; 8, 24; 9, 25; 10, 26 1-2; 11, 28; 12, 28 1-2; 1, 32; 2, 31; 3, 30; 4 to 8, 31 1-2; 9, 32.
M. M. AND E. WIRES.—6 A. M. to 9 A. M., 46; 10 to 11, 47, 12 M. to 5 P. M.. 49 1-2; 6 to 8, 49; 9, 50. Snow clouds in the west before suprise.
Saturday, November 28.—Thermometer 6 A, M., 36; 7, 37 1-2; 8, 37 1-2; 9, 39; 10, 41; 11, 44; 12, 44 1-2; 1, 46; 2 to 3, 48; 4, 47; 5, 46; 6, 45; 7,44; 8, 43; 9, 42 1-2; 10, 43.
M. M. AND E. WIRES.-6 A. M., 50; 7, 52; 8, 51, 9, 52; 10 to 11, 53; 12, 54; 1 to 2, 54; 3, 54 1-2; 4, 53; 5, 52; 6 to 7, 51; 8 and 9, 50; 10, 50 1-2.
Sunday morning, November 29.-Thermometer 6 A. M., 42 1-2; 7, 43; 8, 41; 9, 41; 10, 43; 11, 44; 12, 46 1-2; 1, 49; 2, 47; 3, 47; 3 h. 35 m. 39; 3 h. 40 m. 38; 4, 40; 5, 48; 6, 38; 7, 38 1-2; 8, 38; 9, 37; 10, 37; 11; 37.
M. M. AND E. Wires.-6 A. M, 50 1-2; 7, 50; 8, 49; 9, 50; 10, 52; 11, 53; 12, 53 1-2; 1 to 3 P.M., 54; 3 h. 35 m. 48; 4, 48; 5, 51 1.2; 6, 48; 7, 49; 8, 49; 9, 48 1-2; 10 and 11, 48. Rain commenced falling at 3 A. M., accompanied by heavy thunder and lightning. Rain also fell at 7 A. M. At 3 P. M., lightning snow and rain descended together. The tem.
From the New York Farmer and Mechanic of Dec. 3d, 1846.
The Weather, In the Farmer & Mechanic of the 26th ult., I noticed the appearance of an extraordinary cloud bordering the South-western horizon, at 4 P. M., on Wednesday, the 18th of November, during a bright, clear afternoon, and the almost instanlaneous curdling of the high atmosphere in view, by some refrigerant, swifter than the wind. On Saturday last, I received
perature fell on the wires 6 degrees in 35 minutes and by the thermometer 9 degrees during the same time, and what is also extraordinary, after the light. ning and snow clouds had passed, the temperature on the wires rose suddenly 3 1 2 degrees, and by the thermometer 10 degrees, and the next hour returned again.
Monday, November 30.—Thermometer 6 A. M. to 7, 37; 8 to 9, 36; 10, 38; 11, 36; 12, 36 1-2; 1, 35 1-2; 2, 35; 3, 34; 4, 32 1-2; 5, 30 1-2; 6, 30 J-2; 7, 30 1-2.
M. M. AND E. WIRES.-6 A. M., 48; 7, 48; 8, 49 1-2; 9, 48; 10 to 12, 49; 1, 49 1-2; 2, 48; 3, 47 1-2; 5 to 8, 47; 9 to 11, 46.
Tuesday, December 1.-Thermometer 6 A. M., 26;7, 26; 8, 26; 9, 27; 10, 29 1-2; 11, 32; 12, 33; 1, 35; 2, 35; 3, 35 1-2; 4, 39; 5 to 7, 32 1-2; 8 to 9, 32.
M. M. AND E. WIRES.—6 A. M., 46; 7, 46; 8, 45 1-2; 9, 46; 10, 48; 11, 49 1-2; 12, 50; 1, 52; 2, 49; 3, 50; 4 to 8, 48; 9, 47.
Wednesday, December 24.-Thermometer 6 A. M., 30.
M. M. AND E. WIRES.—6 A. M., 47. Snow during the night. Moist atmosphere during all the morning.
The temperature noted by me and stated in the two last numbers of the Farmer and Mechanic, from Nov. 13 to Nov. 25, part of both days inclusive, was that indicated by the magnetic meteoric and electric wires.
At Oswego, on Lake Ontario, a cold storm of wind and snow was experienced there on Wednesday Nov. 25 and Thursday, Nov. 26, during both days, and also during Wednesday and Thursday night.
At Boston the storm commenced from the North East, on Wednesday the 25th with rain and sleet, then snow and rain again.
At Albany a snow storm set in from the West, on Wednesday morning. Thermometer at 8, A.M.320.
At Hartford, Conn., a snow storm commenced on Wednesday morning and continued through the day.
At Washington City, a rain storm Wednesday, and a cold North-wester Wednesday night and Thursday.
At Baltimore, rain all day Wednesday, and snow Wednesday evening.
At Poughkeepsie, snow tell to the depth of ten inches on Wednesday.
The fall of rain and snow in the month of October as indicated by the rain gwage kept by Dr. Strong, of Flatbush, was seven inches and 12-100 of an inch. In New York city a greater quantity of rain fell during the same time; by the New York Hospital guage, 8 inches and 12-100ths of an inch.
The temperature and state of the atmosphere al my place of observation, has been as follows:
Wednesday, December 2. Thermometer, 7, A. M., 30; 8,31; 9 to 10, 32; 11 to 12, 33; 1, 35; 2, 353; 3, 37; 4, 40; 6 to 7, 45; 8 to 9, 470. Snow during Wednesday night.
Thursday, Dec. 3--Rain storm before daylight. 5, A. M., to 6, 52; 7, 55; 8, 555; 9, 53; 10 to 11, 54; 12 to 1, 53; 2, 52; 3, 50; 4, 49; 5, 47; 6, 46; 7, 44; 8, 431; 10, 40. Rain at half past 8, A. M. Clear, the residue of the day.
Friday, Dec. 4-Snow cload in the South-west at daylighe-6, A. M., 39; 7, 38; 8 to 9, 39; 10 to 12, 38); 1 10 4, 39. Here is vibration from an Equilibrium from 10, P. M., of yesterday, to 4, P. M., of this day—5, 37; 6, 36; 7 to 10, 350.
Saturday, Dec. 5-Snow clouds in S. W. belore day. Ice in the streets. 6 A. M., to 7, 340; 8, 33; 9, 34; 10, 36; 11 10 12, 37; 1, 38; 2, 40; 3, 38; 4 to 5, 37; 6 to 7, 36; 8, 355; 10, 35. Snow cloud in sight, al 3, P. M.
Sunday, Dec. 6-Snow cloud in sight everywhere except in the North; 6 to 8, A, M., 340; 9 to 10, 36; 11, 38; 12, 37; 1 to 2, 38; 3, 37; 4, 35; 5, 34; 6, 33; 7, 32; 8 to 10, 30; 11, 28. At Boston, temperature at sunrise, 24o.
Monday, Dec. 7. Snow clouds over head, East, West and South. Red clouds at the Norih. 6 to 8, A. M., 29; 9 to 10, 31. Snow falling. 11, 315; 12, 321; 1, 34; 2, 35; 3, 36; 4 to 5, 38; 6, 38}; 7, 40; 8, 40.1; 9, 441.
Tuesday, Dec. 8. 4, A. M., lo 5, 444; 6 to 7, 49; 8, 50. Dense log about break of day, and still continues. A rise of 64 degrees after suaset, succeeded by an Equilibrium, less half a degree.
MAGNETIC, METEORIC AND ELECTRIC WIRES.Dec. 2; 6 to 8, 470; 9 10 10, 48; 11 10 12, 49; 1 to 2, 50; 3, 52; 4, 53; 6 to 7, 55; 8, 551; 9, 55.
Dec. 3; 5, A. M., to 6, 58; 7, 59; 8, 60; 9, 571; 10, 58; 11, 57; 12 to 1, 56; 2, 55}; 3, 53; 4, 52; 5, 50}; 6, 50; 7, 49]; 8, 48}; 10, 48. Equilibrium commenced.
Dec. 4; 6, A. M., to 7, 58. Equilibrium ended; 8, 50; 9, 503; 10 10 12, 49; 1 to 2, 50; 3, 49; 4, 50; 5, 48; 6 10 8, 47; 9 to 10, 48.
Dec. 5; 6 10 7, 47; 8, 461; 9, 48; 10, 50; 11 to 2, 51; 3, 50; 4, 49; 5, 481; 6 to 7, 48; 8, 47; 10, 48. Equilibrium commenced.
Dec. 6; 6 to 8, 48; 9 to 10, 49; 11, 51; 12, 49; 1 to 2, 49}; 3 to 4, 49; 5, 48; 6, 47; 7 to 10, 461; 11, 46.
Dec. 7; 6, A. M., 461; 7 to 9, 47; 10 to 11, 48; 12, 493; 1, 49; 2, 50; 3, 501; 4 to 5, 52; 6, 515; 7 to 8, 52; 9, 53).
Dec. 8; 4, A. M., to 5, 51; 6 to 7, 49; 8, 50. A fall of 2} degrees in night.
Thursday Dec 10, 6 a m to 7, 30; 8, 31; 9, 32, 10, 33: 11 to 12 34; 1, 35; 2 pm to 8 o'clock on Friday morning 34 deg-being an equilibrium of 18 hours. Thursday morning, snow clouds overhead and an open clear sky in the west at daybreak. At 2 pm on Thursday snow commenced falling and at 5 rain set in and continued. Snow fell 12 inches deep near Providence, R. I.
Friday Dec 11, 9 a m to 1 p m 36; 2, 35; 3 to 4 34; 5, 32; 6 to 9 30 and 30 1-2.
Saturday Dec 12, 6 a m 34, being a rise ot 3 1-2 degrees in the night; 7 to 10, 33; 11 to 12 34; 1, 33; 2 32; 3, 30; 4, 29; 5, 26; 6, 24; 7, 22; 8, 21; 9 to 10, 20.
Sunday Dec 12, 7 to 8 a m 21, a rise of one deg: in the night: 9, 24: 10, 25: 11, 26: 12, 27: 1, 28: 2, 29: 3, 27: 4, 25 1-2: 5, 24: 6, 23: 7 10 8 22: 9 10 10 22 1-2: 11, 24.
Monday Dec 14, 7 a m 21 : 8, 22: 9, 231-2; 10, 26 1.2. 11, 27: 12, 28: 1, 29: 2 to 3 30: 4, 29: 5 to 6 28: 7, 27: 8, 25 1-2: 9, 24: 10, 23.
Tuesday Dec 15, 6 a m to 7 20; 8, 20 1-2. A fall of 3 degrees belween 10 p mand 6 a m, but whether a gradual or sudden depression, cannot be ascer. tained. Meteoric, Magnetic and Electric Wires.
Dec 8, 9 a m 50: 10 50 1-2; 11 10 12, 52 1-2: 1, 54: 2, 55 : 3 54: 4 and 5, 53: 6, 52 1-2: 7 to 9 52.
Dec 9, 6 a m 48: 7,47 1-2: 8, 48 1-2: 9, 49: 10, 51: 11, 51 1-2: 12 to 2 52: 3 10 4 49: 5, 48 1-2: 6, 47: 7 46 1-2: 8, 46: 9 to 11 47. Equilibrium.
Dec 10,6 a m to 8 47, Equilibrium: 9, 48: 10, 481 11 to 1 49: 2 to 4 48: 5, 49: 6 to 8 48:9 pm lo 8 in the morning of the 11th, 49, equilibrium.
Dec 11, 9 a m 50: 10, 49: 11, 49 1-2: 12, 50: 1 49 1-2: 2 to 4 48: 5, 47: 6, 46 1-2: 7 to 8 46: 9, 47.
Dec 12, 6 to 10, 48, being a rise of one degree in the night: 11 10 12, 49: 1 10 3, 47: 4, 46: 5, 45: 6 to 10 43.
Dec 13, 7 10 8 45: rise of a degree in the night: 9: 46: 10, 47: 11, 4B: 12, 47: 1, 48: 2, 49: 3, 46 1.2: 4, 45 1-2: 5, 45: 6, 44 1-2: 7 to 8, 44: 9 to 10, 45: 11, 46.
Dec 14, 7 to 8, 45: 9, 46: 10, 46 1-2: 11,47: 12, 48; 1, 49: 2, 48 1 2: 3, 48: 4, 47: 5 10 7, 46: 8, 45: 9 to 10 44 and the same at 8 o'clock next morning, making an Equilibrium with a snow cloud in the distant South west before sunrise.
From the New York Farmer and Mechanic of Dec. 10, 1846.
The Weather. My last notice under this head, published in the Farmer and Mechanic, of December 3d, chronicled a snow storm on Wednesday and Thursday, Nov. 25th and 26th, ult., at several places. I have now to add to that catalogue a fall of snow on the same day, at Cincinnati and Columbus, Ohio, Maysville, Ky., Saltville, Virginia, and Syracuse, New York. It is a remarkable fact, stated by Mr. Spencer, in his letter of 29th, ult., that the storm brought immense flocks of Pigeons lo the mountains of South-western Virginia. The district in which they were located must have been greatly disturbed, or the mast must havo failed, which last is the most probable
From the New York Farmer and Mechanic of Dec. 17, 1846.
The Weather. The temperature and state of the atmosphere at my place of observation has been as follows:
Tuesday, Dec 8.-Thermometer 9 a m 42; 10, 43; 11, 44; 12, 44}; 1, 463 ; 2, 493; 3, 471; 4, 46: 5 to 6 45; 7,44 ; 8 to 9 46. Foggy in the morning. Hea; vy rain at Albany in the morning.
Wednesday Dec 9, 6 a m 40; 7, 39; 8, 383; 9, 393; 10, 41; 11,42; 12, 42}; 1 to 2 43; 3, 421; 4, 40; 5,38}; 6, 37; 7, 36 1-2; 8 to 9 34; 10, 33 1-2; 11, 32. Rain before daylight in the morning: at sunset an intense brightness in the southwest
THE VILLAGE OF SCALEDORFF DESTROYED BY LIGHTNING.–The Journal des Debats publishes the following letter, dated Munich, 20th Oci., 1846:
“On Friday, the 16th October, a terrible storm accompanied by lightning fell on the village of Schledorff, situated at three leagues distance from our capitol, and in less than two hours it completely destroyed that large and handsome village, of which no trace remains. The greater number of the houses were broken to pieces by the tempest, and the remainder were set on fire by the lightning and totally consumed. The flames communicated to the neighhoring forests, which continued burning for four days. During this disaster the thermometer marked at Munich 24 deg. Reaumur, and suffocating heat was experienced, an extraordinary fact in the month of October. The sky was of ashy hue.
Earthquakes. Several shocks of earthquake have recently been felt at Marseilles, France. Dales not ascertained.
Lake Superior Copper.-Phelps, Dodge & Co., of New York, received a consignment of 30 tons of Copper recently from Eagle Harbor. In the lot are five boulders of the pure metal, weighing 8,700 pounds. Lake Superior Copper is now used at the Sheet Brass Factory, at Waterbury, Conn., and is of very rare quality, being free from Arsenic. Most of the foreign copper contains sulphurets that make it expensive to parity.
PUBLISHED RY THE ANTI-ASSESSMENT COMMITTEE AND DISTRIBUTED GRATUITOUSLY.
EDITED BY E. MERIAM.]
NEW-YORK, FEBRUAY 1, 1847.
(VOL. I.....No. 46.
VESSELS COMING TO
ARBITRARY AND INQUISITORIAL TAXATION.
The following is a copy of the bill recently reported by Messrs. James Robinson of the 18th Ward, Isaac B. Smith of the 9th Ward, and J. D. Oliver of the 15th Ward, a Special Committee, to whom the subject was referred in the Board of Assistants. It is absurd to suppose for one moment that the Legislature will pass such a law as the one here proposed.
This bill is to apply to the whole State—and the "thumb-screw is to be applied to inhabitants of cities.
COLLECTION OF TAXES.
in Senate and Assembly, do enact as follows :
personal property, in the County of his residence, for such part of his personal estates as shall be actually used or invested in the County of his residence.
♡ 2. Every Keeper of a Hotel or Boarding house, in any City or Village, shall, on or before the first day of February in each year, report in writing to the Assessors of the Ward or Town in which such Hotel or Boarding-house shall be situated, the names and places of business of each and every boarder in such Hotel or Boarding house, residing or being employed, or engaged in business, in such City or Village, under the penalty of Two Hundred and Fifty Dollars for each and every person neglected to be so repored, to be sued for and recovered by the Assessors of the Town or Ward in which such Hotel or Boarding-house shall be situated, for the use of the County Treasury.
$ 3. In cities every person liable to assessment for personal property shall, on or before the first day of February, in each year, make out and present to the Assessors of the Ward in which such person shall reside, or be employed or carry on business, an affidavit, subscribed and sworn to before some Officer authorized to administer oaths, stating the amount and value of his personal estate, over and above his debts, and in default thereof, the Assessors shall assess every such person, so in default, according to the best information they can obtain, and add fifty per cent. to to the amount of such assessments.
$ 4. The Assessors in every city or village may make out and complete their assessments, between the first day of January and the first day of May, in each year, instead of the times heretofore prescribed for that purpose.
0 5. The 'Assessors shall not be required to reduce the amount of assessments on any person for real or personal estate, upon the affidavit of such person, as to the value of his real or personal estate, unless such affidavit shall be sworn to before the Assessors, and accompanied by an oral examination of such person, and the Assessors shall be satisfied that such reduction will be just; and if it shall appear from such examination that such person has been assessed too low, the Assessors shall increase the amount of the assessment, as shall appear just.
or Village, over and above the expense of keeping The following is a copy of a bill reported by the
the same in repair, for the benefit of the owners, re
spectively, of such wharves, piers and slips; and may, Special Committee of the Board of Assistants, which
by ordinances duly passed for such purpose, preCommittee consisted of Messrs. J. D. Oliver of the scribe the manner of levying and collecting such tax, 15th Ward, James Robertson of the 18th Ward,
and create and appoint such officers as they may and Isaac B. Smith of the 9th Ward. The Wharves
deem necessary for the collection thereof.
The following is a copy of a draft of a bill proposed are built has been granted by the State for the use of
and reported by the Special Committee of the Board the public. A wharf tax on merchandise and pro
of Assistants, consisting of Messrs, J. D. Oliver of the duce landed, would be as much out of place as to
15th Ward, Isaac B. Smith of the 9th Ward, and put up toll gates on the county roads and bridges.
James Robertson of the 18th Ward. Had this SpeThere is another view of this question as respects
cial Committee looked at the 13th section of article 7 the City and County of New-York-it is this : - In
of the present Cunstitution, they would have seen
that a bill framed like this cannot be passed by the 1727, the East River, at Burling Slip, extended to Pearl street ; and where the Journal of Commerce
The records of the Colonial Assembly, contain acts office now is, the water of the East River formerly was several feet deep. The North River extended
for the encouragement of emigration from abroadnearer to Broadway than what is now called Green
this bill is intended to discourage it. The United wich street; thus thousands of buildings which pro
States Congress alone can pass such a bill as this, and duce great income, and pay a large county tax, are on
that body will never do so foolish an act.
The emigrants who go into the interior, cultivato ground once called wharf property. It is the wharf
the soil and enrich the Country, and the City of Newfronts that gives value to these buildings, and the lots
York will reap the benefit of their trade. This is an upon which many are erected. The large real-estate
odious bill, and should not be passed. owners, as well as large wharf owners, are opposed
APPENDIX C. to a wharf tax.
An Act, TO AMEND AN Act, ENTITLED “An Act. His Honor Mayor Mickell, in his annual Message to
CONCERNING PASSENGERS IN the Common Council, on page 10 of that document, THE PORT OF New-York," PASSED FEBRUARY uses the following language :
11th, 1824. “ The better and safer policy for diminishing the
The People of the State of New-York, represented in burthens imposed to support the government, would
Senate and Assembly, do enact as follows : be by exacting a RETRENCHMENT of the current ex
$ 1. The Mayor, (or in his absence or inability to
act, the Recorder) of the City of New-York may, in penses, and a thorough and equal assessment on the his discretion, require from the owners, masters and actual value of property, personal and real, within the consignees of all vessels arriving at the port of New
York; from any foreign Country, or having passencounty, rather than a resort to new schemes of taxa
gers on board of the same, not citizens of the United tion, usually of an inquisitorial nature, and from Štates, the payment of not less than One nor more which, from the interference that would result to the than Three Dollars for each passenger not a citizen of most perfect freedom of the citizen, ought not in our
the United States, who shall be brought to such port
in such vessel, for the purposes, and in liew of the government be tolerated. I allude to propositions of bouds authorized by the Second Section of the Act the character of the one now before the Legislature, bereby amended; and may also, in his discretion, reproposing a plan of wharfage charges upon mer
quire such bonds for all such passengers who shall be
sick, lame or otherwise unable to labor; and for chandize, which, after remunerating a new class of
every neglect or refusal of any such owner, master or officers required to collect the tax, would leave a pro- consignee, to pay the said sum of One Dollar or duct so insignificant, as poorly to compensate for the
more for each and every such passenger, within three
days after the arrival of such vessel at such port, such vexation and trouble of its collection."
owner, master and consignee thereof shall be liable, APPENDIX B.
jointly and severally, to the same penalty as preAN ACT TO AUTHORIZE THE LEVY AND COLLECTION
scribed by the said Second Section, for neglect to OF A WHARFAGE Tax On Goods.
give the bond thereby provided.
0 2. The sureties in any bond to be taken ander The People of the State of New-York, represented in
the Act hereby amended, shall justify by affidavit, Senate and Assembly, do enact as follows :
accompanied by an oral examination under oath, be. Ø 1. The Corporation of any City or Village may fore the Mayor or Recorder mentioned in the Act authorize the levy and collection of a wharfage tax, hereby amended, that they are citizens and residents on all goods shipped or landed over all wharves, of the City of New York, and are each worth double piers and slips, owned by such Corporation, or by the amount of the penalty of the bond, over and any individual, or other Corporation, sufficient, to above their debts, including all other bonds executed gether with such wharfage as may be lawfully col- by them, and uncancelled, at the full amount of their lect from vessels using the same, to raise a revenue penalties, and such bond shall not be approved unless of seven per cent. per annum, on the capital invest- such officer shall be satisfied of the truth of such jused in such wharves, piers and slips, within such City tification.
STATE CONVENTION. considered, the best system of judiciary we could now
A few moments more on the subject of the court of THE JUDICIARY.
chancery. He approached the subject with a great deal of anxiety, and begged leave to tender his thanks
to the judiciary committee for their enlarged and libeSPEECH OF THE HON. JAMES TALLMADGE,
ral project of bringing equity and law jurisdiction to OF DUTCHESS, IN THE CONSTITUTIONAL the same tribunal and to a jury. CONVENTION, AUGUST 20, 1846, ON THE
My learned friend from Essex (Mr. Simmons)
poured forth volumes of learning the other day, in NEW JUDICIARY SYSTEM.
eulogies on the court of chancery. I go
with the (Concluded.)
committee in its abolition of that court. My learned
friend has shown us and read to us the eulogies that The next great question is the Court of Chancery. have been pronounced on this court from age to age, Mr. T. here adverted to the rise of the court of chan- and hence he would adduce to us, that we had better cery-the conquest of England by the Normans—and
keep it a separate and individual system. The learn. of a division of the land and property among the sol. ed gentleman ought to have remembered that diers and followers of the victorious monarch. For
when we read a eulogy of a man, and above all a long time the power of arms and of physical force when you read the eulogy of a system,
you must read was the only guarantee for the security of property. it with the attendant circumstances. You must read As time progressed these things changed, and men it with the attendant circumstances of the age in were found in conflict with the King.
which it existed and happenod. When the British When the court of chancery was first organized in government had little or no parliament, and the this state, it was composed of one man of energy suf- great leading effort of the day was to guard the peoficient for the limited business which then found its ple against the usurpations of the crown-when way to that court. But from the causes to which he operating under that principle, the court of king's had alluded, that court had now become blocked up bench was provided with a writ of habeas corpus, it and overwhelmed with business, for the disposition was a great tribunal of liberty. But at that age legisof which the judicial strength with which it was ori- lation was not so far matured as at present. Legisginally invested, was wholly inadequate. His friends
lation at that time had not got strong enough to prearound him had instanced cases of great delay. To vent abuses in the rights of the people ; and in no some of the many causes which led to the great ac- other way but by an appeal to the court of chancery cumulation of business in this court, especially to the could a man get his just dues. Therefore, when the non-imprisonment act, and various other acts of legis- gentleman reads these eulogies let him read them lation, he had before alluded. The chancellor, espe- with all these ciacumstances in view, and they fall to cially, had toiled with uncommon industry, and the mediocrity. several vice-chancellors, he believed, had also per- Now, legislation was powerful enough, was clear formed their duties—yet it was too apparent on this enough, to guarantee to individuals and to society floor and elsewhere that public opinion demanded the equal rights and equal justice. The very principle abolition of the court, or its entire reorganization. It to which the gentleman referred, was, in my judghad thus become unnecessary to remark on the al- ment, irrelevant and inapplicable to his argument, leged causes of the public opinion. My plan, there- and by no means proves that the court of chancory fore, would be, to transfer the jurisdiction of the should be adopted, but directly the opposite. We of courts of chancery to the supreme court. The the present day have undertaken to make new orders twelve judges, divided in the four districts, would be
in society. We want new civil institutions, and adequate to the performance of the business, this be- above all a new judicial system. We must have ing simplified, as trials at law. The county courts them. What came next in the progress of the histocould aid much in the business otherwise pressing on ry of this proceeding? The King himself sat in mathe supreme court.
jesty, he dispensed justice in person--when the suitHe (Mr. Tallmadge) had been appealed to in the or came to complain against you for having wronged early part of this discussion to explain why the con- him, the king sent his mandate to bring you before vention of 1821, had abolished the then supreme
him. What he did was right. His imperial majesty court, and removed the judges, whose tenure of of. could do no wrong-he was not obliged to summon fice had been guaranteed to them till they were sixty a jury. So for a long time stood equity in the hands years of age. Mr. T. said it was not his purpose to of majesty. What next? The subject comes undertake to explain the causes. Different members complain of his neighbor to the king—that he had might have acted from different reasons; it was due broken his bargain-not paid him his money-or not to himself, however, to say that he had remained si- executed his deed. These claims became frequent, lent whilst this convention had already exhausted and the king found it a grest tax upon his time and two days in the enquiry, why the convention of .1821 patience. What next? He then appointed first a did not receive written reports of the reasons for the clerk of the court, and afterwards one of his nobles, action of the respective committees. It was not his to do this business for him: thus was the court of purpose to explain, but it was sufficient to remark as chancery ultimately established. At first it travelled a curious and interesting fact, that that convention with the king whereever his tent was pitched; until had assembled in times of high party excitement- at last the accumulation of business required that it that there the lion and the lamb appeared to have should be made stationary. The court at last grew a lain down together, and united in purpose and in ac- necessary and convenient thing to the king as head of tion—they had with unity and unanimously torn the country. It became a source of revenue to him. away three of the great pillars of the government- There were guardianships, dowers and estates, under the council of revision—the appointing power-and its keeping, which were convenient in seasons of the judicial power,-without assigning any cause for need ; and he was at the head of all the charities of an action so extraordinary. Yet, those who lived in the nation, Such was the beginning of the court of that day could not but well understand the causes chancery. which then influenced public feeling and those who His imperial majesty was particularly careful that wished to make inquiries would find abundant rea
the property of suitors, infants, the widow, the orsons. Whilst history was written by the penny-a
phan, and femme coverts, should be properly held. liners of the day, with the pen of the goose, and the It was a mode of filling the coffers of the state, parhope of a special reward, the story of the develop
ticularly useful in the dark ages-suitors delayed, ment of that mysterious action would not take place.
and infants sent to the army, disposed of all claimsBut when history should be written by the pen of
the femme could thus be easily plundered—his matruth, guided by intelligence and the hand of integri.
jesty could take her estate and give her away in marty, the causes would be made to stand forth in all
riage to one of his dependants, and thus cancel the their deformity, and present a great moral lesson for
debt. Such were the early stages from which chanposterity. It was not his pupose to anticipate that
cery and equity arose. It has progressed rough coming event.
time until it has reached its present condition. It But to return again to the report of the committee, will be safe to bring it out to light, and a jury, and an which he thought, with the modification of the court open trial The rise, progress and history of this of appeals to which he alluded, and a liko ineligibil. court, is truly told, in the reply of a Booby, who had ity to take any other office during the term, to be ex- got into a Sunday school ; and to the question, “Who tended to the supreme court, it would be, all things made you ?” he answered, with a look of contempt,
" He wa'nt made by nobody; he'd growed himself up."
He then adverted to the court of chancery in this country, and this state, and to the immense amount of funds in that court; the chancellor showing in his possession $3,000,000; and then tells you that he had not got any returns from his subordinate officers as to the other amounts in their possession. This goes to show that this court, even here, retains some of the powers for holding on to money which distinguished it in the other country. Again, this court was a vestige of monarchy-without a jury-repugnant to the principles of our institutions. If the Convention did nothing else but abolish that court, it would deserve the thanks of the community.
Mr. T. here went into an examination of the present manner of proceeding in the court of chancery, and of the mode of taking testimony-its great expense and delays, and the complication of its proceedings; all of which he considered as entirely useless, and as a remnant of the past. Dollars were expended where cents only were necessarily required.
It ought to be remembered that the legislature have, on several occasions, attempted to reform, to simplify and economise the proceedings in this court of chancery, and also in the supreme court. Finding themselves involved in the labyrinth and darkness, they have some years directed that the chancellor and the judges of the supreme court should perform this duty, and reform and simply their respective proceedings. The result has been, that when the present chancellor came into office there were about sixteen rules of the court, and now they were simpli. fied into about 220. A simplication of somewhat like nature has been provided by the supreme court. In truth, much of the blame and public dissatisfaction of the present day, in relation to the courts of justice, may well be charged upon the respective judges, for their omission in the exercise of their powers, and in not accommodating the proceedings of their respective courts, to keep up and in accordance with the advance of public feeling. The parliament of England had some time since abolished by one act 54 ancient and obsolete writs, and the courts thus had wiped away much of their lumber of antiquity. The legislatures and courts of several of these states had long since reformed and simplified their respective proceedings, and eradicated the ponderous forms and usages of the dark ages. It is in the intelligent and enlightened state of New-York, where reforms are defeated, and the adaptation of its legal proceedings to the condition of the age, have been unsuccessful. Had a judicious regard been observed in relation to these matters, the present convention would never have been convened-charged with a reformation and new organization of the courts of justice.
It has been asked in the course of this debate, why is it that our people have so much litigation ? They are certainly not naturally a litigious people ; yet, the truth is, that in the state of New-York, with a population of three millions, we have as much litigation as England, Scotland and Wales, with a population of seventeen or eighteen millions.
It is a remarkable fact, which at the first view should make us shudder and hang our heads with shame. But this was a mistaken view to give of the subject, and yet it was proper. In England the laws of business and property are fixed and stationarythey have very little new legisiation : and none of local effect. They have passed their age of experimental improvements. With us, instability in legislation, inventions, new experiments, continued and improvements, are the passions of the day. It makes the character of a new people, yet unsettled in their pursuits. To illustrate, look at our larger commercial or manufacturing establishments—in proportion to the number and to the capital, very little litigation is found. In its agricultural districts, society is fixed, and properly stable and distinct. With this class of people there is very little litigation; men of wealth are never litigious. It is the mediocre ranks of society, struggling for wealth and advancement, that have their strifes, and generate controversies. May we not turn for an example to Lowell, which has perhaps its hundreds of millions of annual business, with thousands of persons employed, and yet it would be found to have less litigation than, perhaps, the livery stable and its accompaniments, in the adjoining vil. lage.
VIRGINIA CORRESPONDENCE. Letter from W. P. MILNER, Esq.
SALTVILLE, Va., September 7th, 1846. Dear Sir ;-Within I hand you my meteorlogical table for August—that for the preceding month was forwarded you by Mr. Spencer, in which I think the notices of thunder were omitted. I send them herewith.
Your esteemed favor of 28th August is to hand. Its contents shall be noticed hereafter.
Mr. Spencer wishes me to say he will write to you next week.
Agreeable to your suggestion we have made the desired experiments with the water, with as much accuracy as our poor means would admit.
1 Gallon of saltwater, at temperature 59°, and specific gravity by salometer 96-100 weighed avoirdupois 9 lb. 15 oz. 8 drams. 1 Gallon of rain water at temperature of 71°, weighed 8 lb. 3 oz. 4 drams avoirdupois—difference, 1 lb. 12 oz. 4 drams.
The salt-water had been pumped about 15 minutes when the temperature was taken, which will account for its being 30 warmer than reported in other places. I find it varies very little from 56° when tested at the pump:
To bring one gallon of rain water to the same spe. cific quantity as the brine, i. e. 96-100, it dissolved 3 lb. 2 oz. of salt, increasing the bulk of water to about one pint and half gill.
We have some specimens of Barytes, which will be forwarded with the other collections.
W. P. MILNOR.
Letter from Thomas SPENCER, Esq.
September 13, 1846. DEAR SIR :-Your letter of August 25th was duly received. Mr. Milnor sent you his meteorlogical table for August, at the close of the month, which I presume you have received by due course of mail. I ihink you will perceive by it that on the 25th August there was an equilibrium in the temperature of the atmosphere at this place which was on the same day that a shock of an earthquake was felt at Newburyport, Mass., which I suppose is another evidence to confirm the truth of your theory, concerning the influence of the earthquake upon the atmosphere, and to establish which you have been at such vast pains in your observations and research.
I frequently receive from you New-York and Brooklyn newspapers, for which, accept my sincere thanks. Amongst the papers sent me is the New-York Farmer and Mechanic, which I regard as one of the most valuable papers published anywhere. It is filled with well selected, practical and useful matter, calculated to benefit those who read it ; and I have seen some single numbers that are worth the subscription price of a whole year.
You say that you are unable to account for the high temperature of the brine of our salt wells. I suppose that our brine is the produce of under currents, or veins of fresh water, which come in contact with and percolate through crevices in the vast body of salt rock which underlays this place. This salt rock lays two hundred feet beneath the surface of the ground, and it has been penetrated 160 feet without passing through it. It is overlayed with sulphate of lime in quality and appearance like the Nova Scotia plaster, reaching within twenty feet of the surface. We have no fresh water wells here, but are supplied with excellent water by springs, which gush from the mountain side. I have just returned from testing the temperature of two of them, one on each side of the val. ley. That on the South side is at the base of a steep mountain, about 400 feet high. The temperature is 54°. The spring on the north side of the valley also proceeds from the base of a mountain not quite as high as the other, its temperature is 60°. The two springs are about a half mile apart, and the salt wells are between them in the valley, but nearest to the north side. The last time I tested the temperature of the brine as it was pumped from the well it was 59° which is a variation of but one degree from the fresh water spring nearest to it.
Since I wrote you we have weighed a gallon of the
brine, at 59° degrees temperature, it weighed 9lb. this lake, eighty or a hundred rods, is another cavity, 15 1-2 oz. A gallon of rain water by the same mea- which is very similar to the one just described, except sure, at a temperature of 71°, weighed 8 lb. 38 in its bottom, nature has reversed its order, and per
mitted trees, and plants to grow, while the water You speak of the practicability of manufacturing solar flows through the fissures of the rocks far beneath salt at this place. I see nothing in the quantity of them. rain which falls to prevent it, but there is a very great
On the South side, and about two hundred feet humidity of atmosphere, which I think would be a above this natural excavation, is an isolated rock callheavy drawback upon that branch of business. Dur. ed table rock. Upon this observatory, you have a ing the night time of the summer months, we are fine view which is truly wonderful and sublime to almost uniformly enveloped in a dense fog, which those who are fond of observing the works of Him does not generally disappear until eight or nine o'clock who has caused the trees to stretch their lofty heads in the morning.
above the rocks which surround this aqualogical reThis I think would be very unfavorable to evapo
servoir. On the other side of this rock, and not more ration.
than twenty feet from the precipice, is a large fissure I think there can be no question that the rock I of great depth. Major Brown and myself, provided alluded to, in a former letter, is Sulphate of Barytes. ourselves with a lighted candle, and attempted the It is of great density, I think nearly of the specific descent of this fissure, which we found to be nearly gravity of cast iron. It is white and chrystaline, but perpendicular, and requiring in us a philosopher's opaque. I have some beautiful specimens which I steadiness of brain, and a rope dancer's dexterity of have laid aside for you.
balance. After descending to the depth of about one I fully agree with you in the belief that wood to hundred feet, (measured as we descended,) we found be used as fuel under evaporating vessels should be the rocks so steep and slippery, that we were obliged split fine. It is uot, however, good economy to pur- to defer the descent to some future time, in consechase wood by the cord that has been split fine before sequence of the insecurity of the ladder, which was it is measured. The purchaser, if he consults his formerly used for that purpose. Here we renewed own interest, will buy coarse, heavy wood, and split one of the recreations of boyhood-we dissengaged it afterwards, and the more rapid the combustion the successively several large stones. which swept their greater will be the amount of heat produced from a restless course in muttering wrath to the bottom. given quantity of fuel. And to accomplish the best When they reached their destination, they sent up a effect a forced blast, by means of a bellows or revol- crash of echoing thunder, that lingered long in sullen, ving blower, is better than a single chimney draught. reverberating among the rocks, which caused a I have found by experiments, which I have made in great commotion among a numerus family of bats the manufacture of salt, that a cord of hard wood will which we found to be the only inhabitants of this produce seven bushels of salt more, by the application dark and lothesome place. of the forced blast, than when the chimney draught is Major Brown, who has made the descent several used alone.
times, thinks that the fissure reaches to the depth of I shall ever be gratified in hearing from you often. three hundred feet. This range of rocks is made up Respectfully yours,
of the grey lime which is so celebrated for building E. MERIAM, Esq. THOMAS SPENCER. stone. North of this ledge, is another range of rocks
of a different character, made up of the blue lime, and SYRACUSE CORRESPONDENCE.
full of fissures, and bears the resemblance of having
once been shattered by some convulsive force. The Letter from L. W. CONKEY, Esq.
very tops of these rocks are covered with a thick growth SIRACUSE, Sept. 8th, 1846. of cedar, with now and then a lofty pine. These mighty Dear Sir,-Since I last wrote you I have visited
lords of the forest, have stood as if naught but timo the · Lake,' which I spoke of in my last. I was ac
could bow them, but a thunderbolt, in its resistless companied by Maj. Wm. C. Brown, who had
course, has caused one of them to bow its head be
previously engaged to accompany me on this expedition.
neath the rocks, which has so long formed the founWe arrived at the lake about 10 o'clock. This sheet
dation of its growth. The ravine which separates the of water is almost entirely round, and covers an area
two ledges, commences near the Onondaga Creek, (I should judge) of about twelve acres, and is almost
and runs east about three miles, and ends at Buttersurrounded by rocks, whose elevation we ascertained nut Creek. The west end of this ravine is dry, and by actual measurement, to be, one hundred and sixty
under fine cultivation; near the middle the soil grows eight feet above the surface of the water. While thin, sandy, and is mixed with shells, and bears the Major Brown and myself, were engaged in measuring resemblance of once having been the bed of some the height of these rocks, our company, who were
large stream. It then emerges itself in a dense cedar composed of gentlemen and ladies, amused themselves swamp, and terminates in a gulph at the Creek. We with fishing, and other sports on the water. After wo
finished our exploration about 4 o'clock, and then prohad finished our measurement, we then proceeded to
ceeded to the house of Mr. Brown, where we found the water, to join our company, whom we found in a sumptuous repast; awaiting our return, prepared by fine spirits-enjoying themselves apparently to the
Mrs. Brown our interesting friend and host. height of their pleasure, judging from their appear.
I will now give you a sketch of the weather for the ance they had been visited by a water-spout, or a week ending September 7. The sun has poured mighty shower-bath had been administered to a con- down its rays with unexampled severity. The thersiderable extent, of which, themselves and their boat, mometer has ranged as follows: Tuesday, Sept 1bore good evidence. The sport, no doubt, was re
sunrise, 68° : 9 A. M.. 81; 3 P. M., 86; 9 P. M., 74. freshing, for the sun poured its scorching rays upon
Wednesday, sunrise, 67 ; 9 A. M., 81 ; 3 P. M., 89 ; the water, which was felt with much inconvenience 9 P. M., 80. Thursday, suprise, 73; 9 A. M., 80; to us all, while the thermometer in the shade, ranged
3 P. M., 86; 9 P. M., 72. Friday, sunrise, 71; 9 A. as high as 86o. After rowing out into the lake, we
M., 82; 3 P. M., 87; 9 P. M., 79. Saturday, suncommenced sounding for its bottom, which we found rise, 75; 9 A. M., 82; 3 P. M., 88: 9 P. M., 75. to be only 50 feet deep. There are, undoubtedly,
Sunday, sunrise, 71 ; 9 A. M., 80, 3 P. M., 86; 9 holes much deeper, but not three hundred feet, as I P. M., 78. Monday, 7th, sunrise, 74; 9 A. M., 84; stated to you in a former letter. We drew from the 3 P. M., 91 ; 9 P. M., 81; average for the week, 82, bottom of the lake, several bottles of water, which 50-100 degrees. During the time, we have had rain varied in its temperature, from 46° to 52. We also, three days in succession, the aggregate amount which from accident, drew from the bottom, some mineral fell, was 2: 50-100 inches, with an unlimited quanwater, which, when first drawn up, and corked, ef- tity of lightning and thunder. The hygromatic state fervesces so much, as to throw a cork out of a bottle
of the atmosphere has also been very high, ranging with considerable force, and run out like soda-water
from 66 to 74. which has not been equalled this seafresh drawn from a fountain. This water is highly
I have also noted the temperature of some of charged with gas, its properties I am not able to de- our springs, wells, &c. The fresh water springs vary scribe to you, as I have no means of getting it analys
but little; the temperature are uniformly. 50; wells, ed. Major Brown informed me that he found one 50; with but one exception, which was 49 ; cisterns of these springs farther to the east of the one just
vary from 67 to 72.
The salt-water springs at Syramentioned, some two or three years since. The wa- cuse, are 52; strength of brine by the salometer, 74. ter in this lake, is very clear, and made up entirely
The salt-water springs at Salina, and Liverpool, I have of springs. Several rods east of this lake, is a small not yet been able to get, but will furnish you with stream, which makes out from the fissures of the the result soon. Respectfully yours, rocks, its source no doubt, is from the lake. West of E. MERIAM, Esq. LYMAN W. CONKEY.