Gambar halaman

superior agent of like form, whose powers, whether

not have 1
n so accurate or we

with a letter from my correspondent at Nashville, Tenn., exercised or noi or whether more or less developed, actualtime as Censorinus.

dated Thursday, November 1916, in a postscript to properly belong to and sound in the preservation and Besides, Censurinus is sustained by Manethos' use of simple ideas or cruisms apparent and really years of the reigns of the 85 Pharaohs in regular de

which, he adds as follows:-"Within the last 24 hours pictured on the intelligent Tapestry.

scent from 2344 B. C. to 520 B. C. when Cambysis much lightning and rain from the South-west has Here begins the work of spirituosity that manipu invadej Egypt ; according to which Canon, the So cleared the smoky sky which has lasted for 30 days lates and deals among abstract numbers, unily and thic Cycle began the 12th year of Menophres throw

past-many trees of our town are renewed with a decimalties, points, lines and spaces, right proportions ing the 1320ih year on 25th of Augustus and first and their antithetic verities real or contingent, mor. year of the Chrisian Era.

spring foliage which will strongly resist the effects al good and its reversals, true or false, with all the The Augustan Era in its 285th year, when a total of the frosts now close at hand." simple and compound deductions attributive to Eclipse occurred at Rome was closed by the new era Mr. Milnor, in his letter to me dated Saltville, boundless ratiocination.

ot Dioclesion and this connecting year, seems count South-wes'ern Mountains of Va., November 19th It has been well said the "ondevout astronomer is ed into both, thus giving an unreal year to the Wesmad," but without further extending these remarks, I tern church while the Egypto-Augustan Era had

and 20th, says: will close my letter by adverting to a few more sound three years too much, making, alter the year 600 A.

"This morning (the 19th) was ushered in with authorities in reference to ancient chronology.

D. when Christians began to use their own cra, a dir an Equilibrium. My thermometer stood at 56}, Modern researches into ancient lore, with the ference of tour vears between the dates of the nativ. when I first observed it in the morning at 6 o'clock cheap plans of printing give late inquiries many ity of Christ in the west and eastern charches, advantages over former comparisons in chronology. In sketching the foregoing principles and facts in

and remained at that until 10, when it rose one-half Censorinus, the Roman, A. D. 239-240 alluding early philosophy, I am not pretending to assail mod

a degree and from that hour until 8 P. M., gradualto the r'arious plans of keeping civil years states, the ernized infallible theories in chronology and astrono. ly tell to 390, al which it remained till my latest obEgyptian Sethoic year consisted of three hundred and my and in suggesting opinions upon several sub

servation 10, P. M., viz., 6 A. M., 56 1-2; 7,56 1-2; sixty-five days, without intercalation of a day, every jects more interesting than have been touched upon,

8, 56 1-2; 9, 56 1-2; 10, 57; 11, 55; 12, 51 1-2; 1, fourih year, whereby the quadrenpium so adjusted in this and my five preceding letters, I must look foritself that the 1461st year was intercalated in order ward to such leisure hours as I may have the ensu

51 1-2 ; 2, 49; 3, 46; 4, 44; 5, 43; 6, 42; 7, 41; 8, to reach true time.

ing winter for again trespassing on your patience. 39; 9, 39; 10, 39. The morning commenced calm He says Varo divides historic time into three

and cloudy-a drizzling rain all day-at 10, A. M., parts, the first from the beginning of mankind to the Cataciysm, but its duration was covered in mystery.

the wind commenced blowing very fresh from south

From the Farmer and Mechanic of Nov. 26. 1846. The second period extended from the flood 1600


west and continued at that the remainder of the day, years to the first Olympiad (774 B. C. perhaps rath

On Wednesday, the 18th of November, at 4 P. M., a dark

and all night. November 20ih, Clinch Mountain er, the Nabonazer Era 746 B, C., this being the ex bli e cloud, in a roll, was visible in the South-west, ex ending in view from my house has its suinmit this morning act year referred to by the term of 1600 vears.)

hul a few degree above the horizon. The enirn atmosphere Concerning the third historic period from the last,

ingot, was elsewheelerfectly clear; in less than fifteen partly covered with snow, the first that has fallen in

minutes the whole vis beatmosphere was overcast with iwo to the date when Varo wrote, some debale existed,

view of this place this season. I anticipate a sestralas of ret work clouds. Su ba display I rever before to the extent of six or seven years, but, says Censo saw. The charge was so sudden, that it must have lein vere spell of weather will follow." rinus, that historian with his usual sagacity com

produced by some refrigereni swifier than the wind, passing

through ihh pared backward the annals of many countries and

gher regions of the air.

It will be seen by the above that I present another

I surveyed tlie a'.

mosphere as far as the eye could reach, to the East to the at last demonstrated the true time.

proof that our snow storms are the offsprings of the North and to the South and the appearance in every direc. According to him this year (239-40 Anno Dom. tio it was the same as overhead. Tbe temperature of the at lightning ini) is the 1014th summer from the first Olympiad mosphere at the time, 4 P. M., was 581-2; al 9 P. M., 54-and continued at that and in an equilibrium state until six next

I now give the record of my observations upon year and the 991st year of building Rome in April,

mrning. The accouns frem Lake Erie sale that are y and is the 283d Julian year from the Kallends of

Brooklyn Heights, commencing at 7 o'clock on Wed. 8 vere gale was experienced there, and continuel during the January. 13th; several vessels were wrecked and many lives 'ost. At

nesday, November 25, my last memorandum having This year is also the 265th Augustan year countBaltimore n severe storm w.1s experienced on Thursday night.

included the hour of 6 o'clock that morning. At Phils de pbii rain fell on Thursday evening. On Long Ising from 15th February ; but the Egyptians begin land Sound, the gale was so severe that the Steamers Atlan

METEORIS, ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC WIRES.this era from the battle of Actium and flight of Cleo tic and Gover..or, were obliged to anchor. On Brooklyn patra nearly three ycars before Augustus was made Heighis rain commenced falling at 6 P. M., on Thursday,

Wednesday, November 25, 7 A. M., 49; hard rain Emperor, at which time the Roman estimate began

and at 7. the wind blen very hard. I apprehend that a dir. storm ; 8, 49; 9,51; 10, 52; 11, 52; 12, 52; 1, 51;

tant disturbance rcuced this extra' rdinary atinos, beric and therefore the Egypto-Augustan year is now the phenom. non, wbich resulted in an equilibrium tmperature

2, 51; 3, 49 1.2; 4, 49; 5, 47; 6, 47, 7, 47, snow storm; 2681h. followed by an extensive storm. The temperature of ihe at

8, 44; 9, 46. The thermometer was as follows. 9 'The Egyptians he says also used the Nabonazer mosphere. froin the morning of November 18 t, the morning Era, of which this year is the 986th, as well as the of November 25, both inclusive, has been as follows:

A. M., 39; 3 P. M., 39; 5 P. M., 38; 9 P. M., 29.

Weine-day, November 18, 6 A M., 49° : 7, 50; 8, 51 : 9, Phillippic, of which, this is the 5624 year since Al 53: JO, 56; 11, 59; 12, 60; 1, P M ., 61: 2, 62; 3, 61; 4, 5

Thursday, November 26. Thermometer 6 A. M., exander's decease. 5, 58; 6, 56; 7, 552 ; 8, 55; 9, 54. Equil brium began.

26; 9, 28; 12, 32; 1, 32; 2, 32; 3, 32; 4, 29 1-2; 5, 28; Censorinus likewise says, 100 years ago the Sothic Thursday, November 19, 6 A. M ,54 ; end of Equilibrium,

and snow clouds overhead; 7, 55; 8, 56, 9, 58: 10, 59: 1. 6, 28; 7, 27; 8, 26 1-2; 9, 26 1-2. cycle began, Cannicula then rising with the Sun on

61; 12, 62 ; 1, P. M ,61; 2, 61; 3, 60 1.2; 4, 60 1-2;

1-2; the first of ihe mon:h Thoth, which day corresponded

M. M. AND E. Wires.-6 A. M. to 12 M., 46, 1 to 6, 61; 7, 61 1.2; heavy rain and high wind; 8, 62. to 12th of August, but now, Cannicula rises on 17th Friday, November 20.6 A. M. 51; 7. 51'; 8, 52; 9. 53; 10, 4 P. M., 42 1-2; 5, 44; 6, 45; 7 10 9, 46. July, being a change of twenty-five days in the

55; 11, 54 ; 12, 54 12; , P. M., 54; 2, 51; 3, 53; 4, 52;
50 6. 49: 7, 49; 1, 51 ; 9, 49; 10, 50; near an equilibrium. ,

Friday, November 27.-Thermometer 6 A. M., aforesaid 100 years.

Saturday, November 21, 6, A M, 49; 7, 48; 8. 51 : 9, 51; 24 1-2; 7, 24 1-2; 8, 24; 9, 25; 10, 26 1-2; 11, 28; 12, If Censorinus wrote in the 240th year after Christ 10 54: 11, 55 1-9; 12, 56; 1, P. M., 56 1-9; 2, 55; 3, 34: 4, 54 then was the Nativity in the 7741h Olympiad year, 12: 5, 54 1 2; 6, 50 ; 7. 49; 8, 49; 9, 48; 10. 49; equilibrim.

28 1-2; 1, 32; 2, 31; 3, 30; 4 to 8, 31 1-2; 9, 32. 745-46th of the Nabonazer era ; the 751si of build. sunday, November 22, 6, A. M , 49; 7, 49: end it equib.

M. M. AND E. WIRES.—6 A. M. to 9 A. M., 46; rium: snow clouds in the West nefore sunrise : 8, 52 12: ing Rome; the 322d Phillipic year ; the 43d Julien

snow clouds overhead; 9, 55; 10, 55; 11,56; 12, 60; 1 PM, 10 to 11, 47, 12 M. to 5 P. M.. 49 1-2; 6 to 8, 49; 9, year and 25th Augustan al Rome or 28th in Egypt, 6) 1-2; 9.60, 3, 59; 4 58; 5,57; 6, 56 ; 7, 56; 8 51; 9, 53 1-2;

50. Snow clouds in the west before suprise, for the reason above assigned; and was in the 1320h 10,53; rain 8, P. M , followed by a gale of wind.

Monday, November 23, 6, A M., 48; 7.48; 8, 48; 9, 49; current Sothic year.

Saturday, November 28.-Thermometer 6 A, M., 19 50 ; 11, 52; 12, 32; 1, P. M.51; 2, 51; 3, 51; 4, 49; 5, 49, Theon Alexandrinus, however, states that the 6, 48; 7.43; 8, 48; 9, 48; 10, 48; equi ibriuni,

36; 7, 37 1-2; 8, 37 1-2; 9, 39; 10, 41; 11, 44; 12, 44 years of the Sothic Cycle to Augustus added to 285 Tuesday, Noveinber 24, 6. A M., 48, equilibrium; 7,57, 8,

1.2; 1, 46; 2 to 3, 48; 4, 47; 5, 46; 6, 45; 7,44; 8, 43; years ol the Angustan era make together 1605 years,

51 : 9, 52; 10. 52 ; 11, 53; 12, 53; 1, P. M., 54; 2 55 1 2 ; 3,

54; 4, 53 1-2; 5, 52; 6, 50); 7, 50, 8, 49; 9, 49; 10, 50, 11, 50; 9, 42 1-2; 10, 43. causing the 1320th Sothic year to be even with the

Wejnesday, November 25, 6, A M., 49; and a rain storin first year of the Augustan Era, so that according to cceeding an quilibrinm.

M. M. and E. WIRES.-6 A. M., 50; 7, 52; 8, 51, this estimate the birth of Christ was in the 13451h The equilib iums are becoming very frequent of late, as

9, 52; 10 to 11, 53; 12, 54; 1 to 2, 54; 3, 54 1-2; 4, are also the storms. Sothic year and that Cycle would close A. D. 115 in

I have before me a moteoriogical record, kept by Captain stead of the 140th as I understand Censorinus to

| 53; 5, 52; 6 to 7, 51; 8 and 9, 50; 10,50 1-2.

Freemont in his tour among the Rocky Mountains, which show. presents some interestiug facts, which I will endeavor to

Sunday morning, November 29.-Thermometer The discrepancy between these authorities is 25 make a synopsis of in a few days

E. MERIAM. 6 A. M., 42 1-2; 7, 43; 8, 41; 9, 41; 10, 43; 11, 44; years of Sothic dates changing the first year of that

12, 46 1-2; 1, 49; 2, 47; 3, 47; 3 h. 35 m. 39; 3 h. 40 Cycle from the 31st year of Memnon's Reign of 311 From the New York Farmer and Mechanic of Dec. 3d, 1846.

m. 38; 4, 40; 5, 48; 6, 38; 7, 38 1-2; 8, 38; 9, 37; 10, years, to the 6th of his reign.

The Weather. Censorinns was giving his views with special ref

37; 11; 37. erence to chronological accuracy and says that he In the Farmer & Mechanic of the 26th ult., I noticed M. M. AND E. WIRES.-6 A. M ,50 1-2; 7,50; 8, gives these eras with their months and days of be

the appearance of an extraordinary cloud bordering 49; 9, 50; 10, 52; 11, 53; 12, 53 1-2; 1 to 3 P.M., 54; ginning, because some commenced at the summer

the South-western horizon, at 4 P. M., on Wednes 3 h. 35 m. 48; 4, 48; 5, 51 1.2; 6, 48; 7, 49; 8, 49; 9, or winter solstice and others at the vernal or autumhal Equinox and some date from the rising or

day, the 18th of November, during a bright, clear 48 1-2; 10 and 11, 48. Rain commenced falling at setting of the Pleiades or Sirius.

afternoon, and the almost instantaneous curdling of 3 A. M., accompanied by heavy thunder and light· Alexandrinus on the other hand, is giving a formula the high atmosphere in view, by some refrigerant, ning. Rain also fell at 7 A. M. At 3 P. M., lighte for finding the rising of the star Cannicula, and may ll swifter than the wind. On Saturday last, I received W ning snow and rain descended together. The tom.

lewing Muced in Gchelem

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perature fell on the wires 6 degrees in 35 minutesand by the thermometer 9 degrees during the same time, and what is also extraordinary, after the light. ning and snow clouds had passed, the temperature on the wires rose suddenly 31 2 degrees, and by the thermometer 10 degrees, and the next hour returned again.

Monday, November 30.-Thermometer 6 A. M. to 7, 37; 8 to 9, 36; 10, 38; 11, 36; 12, 36 1-2; 1, 35 1-2; 2, 35; 3, 34; 4, 32 1-2; 5, 30 1-2; 6, 30 1-2; 7, 30 1-2.

M. M. AND E. WIRES.-6 A. M., 48; 7, 48; 8, 49 1-2; 9, 48; 10 to 12, 49; 1, 49 1-2; 2, 48; 3, 47 1-2; 5 to 8, 47; 9 to 11, 46.

Tuesday, December 1.-Thermometer 6 A. M., 26;7, 26; 8, 26; 9, 27; 10, 29 1-2; 11, 32; 12, 33; 1, 35; 2, 35; 3, 35 1-2; 4, 39; 5 to 7, 32 1-2; 8 to 9, 32.

M. M. AND E. WIRES.—6 A. M., 46; 7, 46; 8, 45 1-2; 9, 46; 10, 48; 11, 49 1-2; 12, 50; 1, 52; 2, 49; 3, 50; 4 to 8, 48; 9, 47.

Wednesday, December 20.-Thermometer 6 A. M., 30.

M. M. AND E. WIRES.–6 A. M., 47. Snow dur. ing the night. Moist atmosphere during all the morning.

The temperature noted by me and stated in the two last numbers of the Farmer and Mechanic, from Nov. 13 10 Nov. 25, part of both days inclusive, was that indicaled by the magnetic meteoric and electric wires.

At Oswego, on Lake Ontario, a cold storm of wind and snow was experienced there on Wednesday Nov. 25 and Thursday, Nov. 26, during both days, and also during Wednesday and Thursday night.

At Boston the storm commenced from the North East, on Wednesday the 251h with rain and sleet, then snow and rain again.

At Albany a snow storm set in from the West, on Wednesday morning. Thermometer at 8, A.M.320.

At Hartford, Conn., a snow storm commenced on Wednesday morning and continued through the

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At Washington City, a rain storm Wednesday, and a cold North-wester Wednesday night and Thursday.

At Baltimore, rain all day Wednesday, and snow Wednesday evening.

At Poughkeepsie, snow tell to the depth of ten inches on Wednesday.

The fall of rain and snow in the month of October as indicated by the rain guage kept by Dr. Strong, of Flaibush, was seven inches and 12-100 of an inch. In New York city a greater quantity of rain fell during the same time; by the New York Hospital guage, 8 inches and 12-100ths of an inch.


From the New York Farmer and Mechanic of Dec. 10, 1846.

The Weather. My last notice under this head, published in the Farmer and Mechanic, of December 3d, chronicled a snow storm on Wednesday and Thursday, Nov. 25th and 26th, ult., at several places. I have now to add to that catalogue a tall of snow on the same day, at Cincinnati and Columbus, Ohio, Maysville, Ky., Saltville, Virginia, and Syracuse, New York. It is a remarkable fact, stated by Mr. Spencer, in his lelter of 29th, ult., that the storm brought immense flocks of Pigeons to the mountains of South-western Virginia. The district in which they were located must have been greatly disturbed, or the mast must havo failed, which last is the most probable

From the New York Farmer and Mechanic of Dec. 17, 1846.

The Weather. The temperature and state of the atmosphere at my place of observation has been as follows:

Tuesday, Dec 8.-Thermometer 9 a m 42; 10, 43; 11, 44; 12, 441; 1, 463 ; 2, 493; 3, 471; 4, 46: 5 to 6 45; 7, 44 ; 8 to 9 46. Foggy in the morning. Hea; vy rain at Albany in the morning.

Wednesday Dec 9, 6 a m 40; 7, 39, 8, 38}; 9, 393; 10, 41; 11, 42; 12, 421; 1 to 2 43; 3, 424; 4, 40; 5,38}; 6, 37; 7,36 1-2; 8 to 9 34; 10, 33 1-2; 11, 32. Rain before daylight in the morning : at sunset an intense brightness in the southwest.

THE VILLAGE OF SCALEDORFF DESTROYED BY LIGHTNING.-The Journal des Debats publishes the following letter, dated Munich, 20th Oci., 1846:

"On Friday, the 16th October, a terrible storm ac. companied by lighiniog fell on the village of Schle. dorff, situated at three leagues distance from our capitol, and in less than two hours it completely destroyed that large and handsome village, of which no trace remains. The greater number of the houses were broken to pieces by the tempest, and the remainder were set on fire by the lightning and totally consumed. The flames communicated to the neighboring forests, which continued burning for four days. During this disaster the thermometer marked at Munich 24 deg. Reaumur, and suffocating heat was experienced, an extraordinary fact in the month of October. The sky was of ashy hue.

Earthquakes, Several shocks of earthquake have recently been felt at Marseilles, France. Dales not ascertained.

Lake Superior Copper.-Phelps, Dodge & Co., of New York, received a consignment of 30 tons of Copper recently from Eagle Harbor. In the lot are five boulders of the pure metal, weighing 8,700 pounds. Lake Superior Copper is now used at the Sheet Brass Factory, at Waterbury, Conn., and is of very rare quality, being free from Arsenic. Most of the foreign copper contains sulphurets that make it expensive to parity.




[Vol. I....No. 46.



or Village, over and above the expense of keeping The following is a copy of the bill recently report The following is a copy of a bill reported by the

the same in repair, for the benefit of the owners, reed by Messrs. James Robinson of the 18th Ward, Special Committee of the Board of Assistants, which

spectively, of such wharves, piers and slips; and may,

by ordinances duly passed for such purpose, preIsaac B. Smith of the 9th Ward, and J. D. Oliver of Committee consisted of Messrs. J. D. Oliver of the scribe the manner of levying and collecting such tax, the 15th Ward, a Special Committee, to whom the 15th Ward, James Robertson of the 18th Ward, and create and appoint such officers as they may subject was referred in the Board of Assistants. It || and Isaac B. Smith of the 9th Ward. The Wharves

deem necessary for the collection thereof. is absurd to suppose for one moment that the Legis. in the City of New-York, which are public property, lature will pass such a law as the one here proposed. belong to the County of New-York. and have been

PASSENGER TAX. This bill is to apply to the whole State—and the paid for by a county tax, and the land on which they

The following is a copy of a draft of a bill proposed "thumb-screw is to be applied to inhabitants of cities. are built has been granted by the State for the use of

and reported by the Special Committee of the Board the public. A wharf tax on merchandise and pro

of Assistants, consisting of Messrs. J. D. Oliver of the APPENDIX A. duce landed, would be as much out of place as to

15th Ward, Isaac B. Smith of the 9th Ward, and Ax Act in RELATION TO THE ASSESSMENT AND

James Robertson of the 18th Ward. Had this Spe-

put up toll gates on the county roads and bridges.
There is another view of this question as respects

cial Committee looked at the 13th section of article 7 The People of the State of New-York, represented

of the present Constitution, they would have seen the City and County of New-York-it is this: - In in Senate and Assembly, do enact as follows: $ 1. Every person who shall be employed or car 1727, the East River, at Burling Slip, extended to

that a bill framed like this cannot be passed by the ry on and contract his ordinary business, whether on Pearl street ; and where the Journal of Commerce

Legislature. his own account, or for any other person or any Corporation, within any County of this State, and shall

The records of the Colonial Assembly, contain acts office now is, the water of the East River formerly reside out of such County, shall be assessed and tax was several feet deep. The North River extended

for the encouragement of emigration from abroaded for personal property in the same manner as resi. nearer to Broadway than what is now called Green

this bill is intended to discourage it. The United dents in such County, in town or ward where he shall

wich street; thus thousands of buildings which probe so employed or transact his business, except as to

States Congress alone can pass such a bill as this, and such part of his personal estate as shall be invested

that body will never do so foolish an act. duce great income, and pay a large county tax, are on or used, and assessed and taxed, in the Connty of his

The emigrants who go into the interior, cultivate ground once called wharf property. It is the wharf residence, and shall only be assessed or taxed for per

the soil and enrich the Country, and the City of Newsonal property, in the County of his residence, for fronts that gives value to these buildings, and the lots

York will reap the benefit of their trade. This is an such part of his personal estates as shall be actually upon which many are erected. The large real-estate used or invested in the County of his residence. "

odious bill, and should not be passed. owners, as well as large wharf owners, are opposed $ 2. Every Keeper of a Hotel or Boarding house,

, to a wharf tax. in any City or Village, shall, on or before the first

APPENDIX C. His Honor Mayor Mickell, in his annual Message to day of February in each year, report in writing to


: CONCERNING PASSENGERS IN VESSELS COMING TO the Assessors of the Ward or Town in which such the Common Council, on page 10 of that document,

1 THE PORT OF New-YORK," PASSED FEBRUARY Hotel or Boarding-house shall be situated, the names and places of business of each and every boarder in uses the following language :

11th, 1824. such Hotel or Boarding-house, residing or being em “The better and safer policy for diminishing the | The People of the State of New-York, represented in ployed, or engaged in business, in such City or Vil burthens imposed to support the government, would

Senate and Assembly, do enact as follows : lage, under the penalty of Two Hundred and Fifty

8 1. The Mayor, (or in his absence or inability to be by exacting a RETR'ENCHMEnt of the current exDollars for each and every person neglected to be so

act, the Recorder) of the City of New York may, in repored, to be sued for and recovered by the Assess penses, and a thorough and equal assessment on the his discretion, require from the owners, masters and ors of the Town or Ward in which such Hotel or actual value of property, personal and real, within the consignees of all vessels arriving at the port of NewBoarding-house shall be situated, for the use of the county, rather than a resort to new schemes of taxa

York, from any foreign Country, or having passenCounty Treasury.

gers on board of the same, not citizens of the United $ 3. In cities every person liable to assessment for

tion, usually of an inquisitorial nature, and from States, the payment of not less than One nor more personal property shall, on or before the first day of which, from the interference that would result to the than Three Dollars for each passenger not a citizen of February, in each year, make out and present to the most perfect freedom of the citizen, ought not in our

the United States, who shall be brought to such port Assessors of the Ward in which such person shall re

in such vessel, for the purposes, and in liew of the side, or be employed or carry on business, an affida government be tolerated. I allude to propositions of bonds authorized by the Second Section of the Act vit, subscribed and sworn to before some Officer au the character of the one now before the Legislature, hereby amended; and may also, in his discretion, rethorized to administer oaths, stating the amount and proposing a plan of wharfage charges upon mer

quire such bonds for all such passengers who shall be value of his personal estate, over and above his debts,

sick, lame or otherwise unable to labor; and for and in default thereof, the Assessors shall assess every chandize, which, after remunerating a new class of

every neglect or refusal of any such owner, master or such person, so in default, according to the best in officers required to collect the tax, would leave a pro consignee, to pay the said sum of One Dollar or formation they can obtain, and add fifty per cent. to duct so insignificant, as poorly to compensate for the

more for each and every such passenger, within three to the amount of such assessments.

days after the arrival of such vessel at such port, such 4. The Assessors in every city or village may vexation and trouble of its collection."

owner, master and consignee thereof shall be liable, make out and complete their assessments, between


jointly and severally, to the same penalty as prethe first day of January and the first day of May, in Ax Act TO AUTHORIZE THE LEVY AND COLLECTION

scribed by the said Second Section, for neglect to each year, instead of the times heretofore prescribed

OF A WHARFAGE Tax on Goods.

give the bond thereby provided. for that purpose. 5. The Assessors shall not be required to reduce The People of the State of New York, represented in

° 0 2. The sureties in any bond to be taken under

the Act hereby amended, shall justify by affidavit, the amount of assessments on any person for real or

Senate and Assembly, do enact as follows :

accompanied by an oral examination under oath, bepersonal estate, upon the affidavit of such person, as

01. The Corporation of any City or Village may fore the Mayor or Recorder mentioned in the Act to the value of his real or personal estate, unless such authorize the levy and collection of a wharfage tax, hereby amended, that they are citizens and residents affidavit shall be sworn to before the Assessors, and

on all goods shipped or landed over all wharves, of the City of New-York, and are each worth double accompanied by an oral examination of such person, piers and slips, owned by such Corporation, or by the amount of the penalty of the bond, over and and the Assessors shall be satisfied that such reduc any individual, or other Corporation, sufficient, to

above their debts, including all other bonds executed tion will be just; and if it shall appear from such ex gether with such wharfage as may be lawfully col | by them, and uncancelled, at the full amount of their amination that such person has been assessed too lect from vessels using the same, to raise a revenue penalties, and such bond shall not be approved unless low, the Assessors shall increase the amount of the of seven per cent. per annum, on the capital invest such officer shall be satisfied of the truth of such jusassessment, as shall appear just.

ed in such wharves, piers and slips, within such City |tification.

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STATE CONVENTION. considered, the best system of judiciary we could now He want made by nobody; he'd growed himself


A few moments more on the subject of the court of He then adverted to the court of chancery in this THE JUDICIARY. chancery. He approached the subject with a great

country, and this state, and to the immense amount deal of anxiety, and begged leave to tender his thanks

of funds in that court; the chancellor showing in his to the judiciary committee for their enlarged and libe

possession $3,000,000; and then tells you that he had SPEECH OF THE HON. JAMES TALLMADGE, ral project of bringing equity and law jurisdiction to

not got any returns from his subordinate officers as OF DUTCHESS, IN THE CONSTITUTIONAL | the same tribunal and to a jury.

to the other amounts in their possession. This goes My learned friend from Essex (Mr. Simmons) CONVENTION, AUGUST 20, 1846, ON THE

to show that this court, even here, retains some of the poured forth volumes of learning the other day, in NEW JUDICIARY SYSTEM.

powers for holding on to money which distinguished eulogies on the court of chancery. I go with the

it in the other country. Again, this court was a ves(Concluded.) committee in its abolition of that court. My learned

tige of monarchy-without a jury-repugnant to the friend has shown us and read to us the eulogies that

principles of our institutions. If the Convention did The next great question is the Court of Chancery. have been pronounced on this court from age to age, nothing else but abolish that court, it would deserve Mr. T. here adverted to the rise of the court of chanand hence he would adduce to us, that we had better

the thanks of the community cery-the conquest of England by the Normans--and keep it a separate and individual system. The learn. of a division of the land and property among the sol

Mr. T. here went into an examination of the preed gentleman ought to have remembered that diers and followers of the victorious monarch. For when we read a eulogy of a man, and above all

sent manner of proceeding in the court of chancery, a long time the power of arms and of physical force when you read the eulogy of a system, you must read

a land of the mode of taking testimony-its great ex. was the only guarantee for the security of property. it with the attendant circumstances. You must read

pense and delays, and the complication of its proAs time progressed these things changed, and men it with the attendant circumstances of the age in

ceedings; all of which he considered as entirely usewere found in conflict with the King. which it existed and happened. When the British

less, and as a remnant of the past. Dollars were exWhen the court of chancery was first organized in government had little or no parliament, and the

pended where cents only were necessarily required. this state, it was composed of one man of energy suf great leading effort of the day was to guard the peo. It ought to be remembered that the legislature ficient for the limited business which then found its ple against the usurpations of the crown-when have, on several occasions, attempted to reform, to way to that court. But from the causes to which he operating under that principle, the court of king's simplify and economise the proceedings in this court had alluded, that court had now become blocked up bench was provided with a writ of habeas corpus, it of chancery, and also in the supreme court. Finding and overwhelmed with business, for the disposition was a great tribunal of liberty. But at that age legis- themselves involved in the labyrinth and darkness, of which the judicial strength with which it was ori. lation was not so far matured as at present. Legis they have some years directed that the chancellor ginally invested, was wholly inadequate. His friends lation at that time had not got strong enough to pre and the judges of the supreme court should perform around him had instanced cases of great delay. To vent abuses in the rights of the people; and in no this duty, and reform and simply their respective prosome of the many causes which led to the great ac other way but by an appeal to the court of chancery ceedings. The result has been, that when the precumulation of business in this court, especially to the could a man get his just dues. Therefore, when the sent chancellor came into office there were about non-imprisonment act, and various other acts of legis. gentleman reads these eulogies let him read them sixteen rules of the court, and now they were simpli. lation, he had before alluded. The chancellor, espe with all these ciacumstances in view, and they fall to fied into about 220. A simplication of somewhat like cially, had toiled with uncommon industry, and the mediocrity.

nature has been provided by the supreme court. In several vice-chancellors, he believed, had also per Now, legislation was powerful enough, was clear

truth, much of the blame and public dissatisfaction of formed their duties-yet it was too apparent on this enough, to guarantee to individuals and to society

the present day, in relation to the courts of justice, floor and elsewhere that public opinion demanded the equal rights and equal justice. The very principle

may well be charged upon the respective judges, for abolition of the court, or its entire reorganization. It to which the gentleman referred, was, in my judg.

their omission in the exercise of their powers, and in had thus become unnecessary to remark on the al. ment, irrelevant and inapplicable to his argument,

not accommodating the proceedings of their respective leged causes of the public opinion. My plan, there and by no means proves that the court of chancory

courts, to keep up and in accordance with the adfore, would be, to transfer the jurisdiction of the should be adopted, but directly the opposite. We of

vance of public feeling. The parliament of England courts of chancery to the supreme court. The the present day have undertaken to make new orders

had some time since abolished by one act 54 ancient twelve judges, divided in the four districts, would be in society. We want new civil institutions, and

and obsolete writs, and the courts thus had wiped adequate to the performance of the business, this beabove all a new judicial system. We must have

away much of their lumber of antiquity. The legis. ing simplified, as trials at law. The county courts them. What came next in the progress of the histo

latures and courts of several of these states had long could aid much in the business otherwise pressing on ry of this proceeding? The King himself sat in ma

since reformed and simplified their respective pro the supreme court. jesty, he dispensed justice in person-when the suit

ceedings, and eradicated the ponderous forms and He (Mr. Tallmadge) had been appealed to in the l or came to complain against you for having wronged

usages of the dark ages. It is in the intelligent and early part of this discussion to explain why the con him, the king sent his mandate to bring you before

enlightened state of New York, where reforms are vention of 1821, had abolished the then supreme him. What he did was right. His imperial majesty

defeated, and the adaptation of its legal proceedings court, and removed the judges, whose tenure of of could do no wrong-he was not obliged to summon

to the condition of the age, have been unsuccessful. fice had been guaranteed to them till they were sixty a jury. So for a long time stood equity in the hands

Had a judicious regard been observed in relation to years of age. Mr. T. said it was not his purpose to of majesty. What next? The subject comes to

these matters, the present convention would never undertake to explain the causes. Different members complain of his neighbor to the king—that he had

have been convened-charged with a reformation might have acted from different reasons ; it was due broken his bargain—not paid him his money-or not

and new organization of the courts of justice. to himself, however, to say that he had remained si executed his deed. These claims became frequent, It has been asked in the course of this debate, lent whilst this convention had already exhausted and the king found it a grest tax upon his time and why is it that our people have so much litigation ? two days in the enquiry, why the convention of 1821 patience. What next? He then appointed first a They are certainly not naturally a litigious people ; did not receive written reports of the reasons for the clerk of the court, and afterwards one of his nobles, yet, the truth is, that in the state of New-York, with action of the respective committees. It was not his to do this business for him: thus was the court of a population of three millions, we have as much litipurpose to explain, but it was sufficient to remark as chancery ultimately established. At first it travelled gation as England, Scotland and Wales, with a popuà curious and interesting fact, that that convention with the king whereever his tent was pitched; until lation of seventeen or eighteen millions. had assembled in times of high party excitement at last the accumulation of business required that it

It is a remarkable fact, which at the first view that there the lion and the lamb appeared to have should be made stationary. The court at last grew a

should make us shudder and hang our heads with lain down together, and united in purpose and in ac necessary and convenient thing to the king as head of

shame. But this was a mistaken view to give of the tion—they had with unity and unanimously torn the country. It became a source of revenue to him.

subject, and yet it was proper. In England the laws away three of the great pillars of the government There were guardianships, dowers and estates, under

of business and property are fixed and stationarythe council of revision—the appointing power-and its keeping, which were convenient in seasons of

they have very little new legisiation : and none of lothe judicial power, -without assigning any cause for need ; and he was at the head of all the charities of

cal effect. They have passed their age of experian action so extraordinary. Yet, those who lived in the nation, Such was the beginning of the court of

mental improvements. With us, instability in legis. that day could not but well understand the causes chancery.

lation, inventions, new experiments, continued and which then influenced public feeling-and those who

His imperial majesty was particularly careful that improvements, are the passions of the day. It makes wished to make inquiries would find abundant rea the property of suitors, infants, the widow, the or the character of a new people, yet unsettled in their sons. Whilst history was written by the penny-a.

phan, and femme coverts, should be properly held. pursuits. To illustrate, look at our larger commerliners of the day, with the pen of the goose, and the It was a mode of filling the coffers of the state, par cial or manufacturing establishments--in proportion hope of a special reward, the story of the develop ticularly useful in the dark ages-suitors delayed, to the number and to the capital, very little litigation ment of that mysterious action would not take place. and infants sent to the army, disposed of all claims is found. In its agricultural districts, society is fix. But when history should be written by the pen of

the femme could thus be easily plundered-his ma ed, and properly stable and distinct. With this class truth, guided by intelligence and the hand of integri.

jesty could take her estate and give her away in mar of people there is very little litigation; men of wealth ty, the causes would be made to stand forth in all

riage to one of his dependants, and thus cancel the are never litigious. It is the mediocre ranks of societheir deformity, and present a great moral lesson for

debt. Such were the early stages from which chan ty, struggling for wealth and advancement, that have posterity. It was not his pupose to anticipate that cery and equity arose. It has progressed through their strifes, and generate controversies. May we coming event.

time until it has reached its present condition. It || not turn for an example to Lowell, which has perBut to return again to the report of the committee, will be safe to bring it out to light, and a jury, and an haps its hundreds of millions of annual business, with which he thought, with the modification of the court open trial The rise, progress and history of this thousands of persons employed, and yet it would be of appeals to which he alluded, and a liko ineligibil. court, is truly told, in the reply of a Booby, who had || found to have less litigation than, perhaps, the livery ity to take any other office during the term, to be ex got into a Sunday school ; and to the question, “Who | stable and its accompaniments, in the adjoining viltended to the supreme court, it would be, all things II made you ?he answered, with a look of contempt, | lage.


brine, at 590 degrees temperature, it weighed 9lb. this lake, eighty or a hundred rods, is another cavity, Letter from W. P. Milner, Esq.

15 1-2 oz. A gallon of rain water by the same mea which is very similar to the one just described, except

sure, at a temperature of 71°, weighed 8 lb. 3} in its bottom, nature has reversed its order, and perSALTVILLE, Va., September 7th, 1846. ounces.

mitted trees, and plants to grow, while the water Dear Sir ;-Within I haud you my meteorlogical You speak of the practicability of manufacturing solar flows through the fissures of the rocks far beneath table for August—that for the preceding month was salt at this place. I see nothing in the quantity of

them. forwarded you by Mr. Spencer, in which I think the rain which falls to prevent it, but there is a very great On the South side. and about two hundred feet notices of thunder were omitted. I send them here humidity of atmosphere, which I think would be a || above this natural excavation, is an isolated rock callwith.

heavy drawback upon that branch of business. Dur. ed table rock. Upon this observatory, you have a Your esteemed favor of 28th August is to hand. ing the night time of the summer months, we are fine view which is truly wonderful and sublime to Its contents shall be noticed hereafter.

almost uniformly enveloped in a dense fog, which those who are fond of observing the works of Him Mr. Spencer wishes me to say he will write to you does not generally disappear until eight or nine o'clock who has caused the trees to stretch their lofty heads next week. in the morning.

above the rocks which surround this aqualogical reAgreeable to your suggestion we have made the de This I think would be very unfavorable to evapo servoir. On the other side of this rock, and not more sired experiments with the water, with as much ac ration.

than twenty feet from the precipice, is a large fissure curacy as our poor means would admit..

I think there can be no question that the rock I of great depth. Major Brown and myself, provided 1 Gallon of saltwater, at temperature 59°, and alluded to, in a former letter, is Sulphate of Barytes. ourselves with a lighted candle, and attempted the specific gravity by salometer 96-100 weighed avoir It is of great density, I think nearly of the specific descent of this fissure, which we found to be nearly dupois 9 lb. 15 oz. 8 drams. 1 Gallon of rain water gravity of cast iron. It is white and chrystaline, but perpendicular, and requiring in us a philosopher's at temperature of 71°, weighed 8 lb. 3 oz. 4 drams opaquo. I have some beautiful specimens which I steadiness of brain, and a rope dancer's dexterity of avoirdupois—difference, 1 lb. 12 oz. 4 drams. have laid aside for you.

balance. After descending to the depth of about one The salt-water had been pumped about 15 minutes I fully agree with you in the belief that wood to hundred feet, (measured as we descended,) we found when the temperature was taken, which will account be used as fuel under evaporating vessels should be the rocks so steep and slippery, that we were obliged for its being 30 warmer than reported in other places. split fine. It is uot, however, good economy to pur

to defer the descent to some future time, in conseI find it varies very little from 56° when tested at the chase wood by the cord that has been split fine before sequence of the insecurity of the ladder, which was pump.

it is measured. The purchaser, if he consults his formerly used for that purpose. Here we renewed * To bring one gallon of rain water to the same spe own interest, will buy coarse, heavy wood, and split one of the recreations of boyhood-we dissengaged cific quantity as the brine, é. e. 96-100, it dissolved it afterwards, and the more rapid the combustion the successively several large stones, which swept their 3 lb. 2 oz. of salt, increasing the bulk of water to greater will be the amount of heat produced from a restless course in muttering wrath to the bottom. about one pint and half gill.

given quantity of fuel. And to accomplish the best When they reached their destination, they sent up a We have some specimens of Barytes, which will

effect a forced blast, by means of a bellows or revol crash of echoing thunder, that lingered long in sullen, be forwarded with the other collections.

ving blower, is better than a single chimney draught. reverberating among the rocks, which caused a Very respectfully,

I have found by experiments, which I have made in great commotion among a numerus family of bats Your Obedient Servant,

the manufacture of salt, that a cord of hard wood will which we found to be the only inhabitants of this

produce seven bushels of salt more, by the application W. P. MILNOR.

dark and lothesome place. of the forced blast, than when the chimney draught is Major Brown, who has made the descent several E. MERIAM, Esq. used alone.

times, thinks that the fissure reaches to the depth of I shall ever be gratified in hearing from you often. three hundred feet. This range of rocks is made up Letter from THOMAS SPENCER, Esq.

Respectfully yours,

of the grey lime which is so celebrated for building SALTVILLE, WASHINGTON Co. Va.,

E. Meriam, Esq. THOMAS SPENCER. stone. North of this ledge, is another range of rocks September 13, 1846.

of a different character, made up of the blue lime, and

full of fissures, and bears the resemblance of having DEAR SIR :-Your letter of August 25th was duly


once been shattered by some convulsive force. The received. Mr. Milnor sent you his meteorlogical

Letter from L. W. Conkey, Esq.

very tops of these rocks are covered with a thick growth table for August, at the close of the month, which I

SYRACUSE, Sept. 8th, 1846. of cedar, with now and then a lofty pine. These mighty presume you have received by due course of mail. I

Dear Sir,-Since I last wrote you I have visited

lords of the forest, have stood as if naught but timo think you will perceive by it that on the 25th August there was an equilibrium in the temperature of the the · Lake,' which I spoke of in my last. I was ac

could bow them, but a thunderbolt, in its resistless atmosphere at this place which was on the same day

course, has caused ono of them to bow its head becompanied by May. Wm. C. Brown, who had previously engaged to accompany me on this expedition.

neath the rocks, which has so long formed the founthat a shock of an earthquake was felt at NewburyWe arrived at the lake about 10 o'clock. This sheet

dation of its growth. The ravine which separates the port, Mass., which I suppose is another evidence to

two ledges, commences near the Onondaga Creek, of water is almost entirely round, and covers an area confirm the truth of your theory, concerning the influence of the earthquake upon the atmosphere, and

and runs east about three miles, and ends at Butter. (I should judge) of about twelve acres, and is almost surrounded by rocks, whose elevation we ascertained

nut Creek. The west end of this ravine is dry, and to establish which you have been at such vast pains by actual measurement, to be, one hundred and sixty.

under fine cultivation; near the middle the soil grows in your observations and research. eight feet above the surface of the water. While

thin, sandy, and is mixed with shells, and bears the I frequently receive from you New-York and Brook. Major Brown and myself, were engaged in measuring

resemblance of once having been the bed of some lyn newspapers, for which, accept my sincere thanks. the height of these rocks, our company, who were large stream. It then emerges itself in a dense cedar Amongst the papers sent me is the New-York Farmer composed of gentlemen and ladies, amused themselves

swamp, and terminates in a gulph at the Creek. Wo and Mechanic, which I regard as one of the most va with fishing, and other sports on the water. After we

finished our exploration about 4 o'clock, and then proluable papers published anywhere. It is filled with had finished our measurement, we then proceeded to

ceeded to the house of Mr. Brown, where we found well selected, practical and useful matter, calculated the water, to join our company, whom we found in

a sumptuous repast; awaiting our return, prepared by to benefit those who read it ; and I have seen some fine spirits-enjoying themselves apparently to the

Mrs. Brown our interesting friend and host. single numbers that are worth the subscription price height of their pleasure, judging from their appear.

I will now give you a sketch of the weather for the of a whole year. ance they had been visited by a water-spout, or a

week ending September 7. The sun has poured You say that you are unable to account for the high mighty shower-bath had been administered to a con

down its rays with unexampled severity. The thertemperature of the brine of our salt wells. I sup siderable extent, of which, themselves and their boat, mometer has ranged as follows: Tuesday, Sept 1pose that our brine is the produce of under currents, bore good evidence. The sport, no doubt, was re

sunrise. 680: 9 A. M.. 81; 3 P. M., 86; 9 P. M., 74. or veins of fresh water, which come in contact with freshing, for the sun poured its scorching rays upon

Wednesday, sunrise, 67 ; 9 A. M., 81; 3 P. M., 89;. and percolate through crevices in the vast body of salt the water, which was felt with much inconvenience

9 P. M., 80. Thursday, suprise, 73; 9 A. M., 80;rock which underlays this place. This salt rock lays to us all, while the thermometer in the shade, ranged

3 P. M., 86; 9 P. M., 72. Friday, sunrise, 71; 9 A. two hundred feet beneath the surface of the ground, as high as 86o. After rowing out into the lake, we

M., 82; 3 P. M., 87; 9 P. M., 79. Saturday, sunand it has been penetrated 160 feet without passing commenced sounding for its bottom, which we found

rise, 75; 9 A. M., 82; 3 P. M., 88; 9 P. M., 75. through it. It is overlayed with sulphate of lime in to be only 50 feet deep. There are, undoubtedly, Sunday, sunrise, 71 ; 9 A. M., 80, 3 P. M., 86 ; 9 quality and appearance like the Nova Scotia plaster, holes much deeper, but not three hundred feet, as I

P. M., 78. Monday, 7th, sunrise, 74; 9 A. M., 84; reaching within twenty feet of the surface. We have stated to you in a former letter. We drew from the

3 P. M., 91; 9 P. M., 81; average for the week, 82, no fresh water wells here, but are supplied with ex bottom of the lake, several bottles of water, which

|| 50-100 degrees. During the time, we have had rain cellent water by springs, which gush from the moun varied in its temperature, from 46° to 52. We also, || three days in succession, the aggregate amount which tain side. I have just returned from testing the tem from accident, drew from the bottom, some mineral

fell. was 2 : 50-100 inches, with an unlimited quanperature of two of them, one on each side of the val water, which, when first drawn up, and corked, ef

tity of lightning and thunder. The hygromatic state ley. That on the South side is at the base of a steep fervesces so much, as to throw a cork out of a bottle

of the atmosphere has also been very high, ranging mountain, about 400 feet high. The temperature is with considerable force, and run out like soda-water

from 66 to 74, which has not been equalled this sea54°. The spring on the north side of the valley also fresh drawn from a fountain. This water is highly son. I have also noted the temperature of some of proceeds from the base of a mountain not quite as charged with gas, its properties I am not able to de our springs, wells, &c. The fresh water springs vary high as the other, its temperature is 60°. The two scribe to you, as I have no means of getting it analys

but little; the temperature are uniformly, 50; wells, springs are about a half mile apart, and the salt wells ed. Major Brown informed me that he found one 50; with but one exception, which was 49 ; cisterns are between them in the valley, but nearest to the of these springs farther to the east of the one just

vary from 67 to 72. The salt-water springs at Syranorth side. The last time I tested the temperature mentioned, some two or three years since. The wa

cuse, are 52; strength of brine by the salometer, 74. of the brine as it was pumped from the well it was ter in this lake, is very clear, and made up entirely The salt-water springs at Salina, and Liverpool, I have 59° which is a variation of but one degree from the of springs. Several rods east of this lake, is a small not yet been able to get, but will furnish you with fresh water spring nearest to it.

stream, which makes out from the fissures of the the result soon. Respectfully yours, Since I wrote you we have weighed a gallon of the "rocks, its source no doubt, is from the lake. West of " E. MERIAM, Esq. LYMAN W. CONKEY.

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