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SNOW STORMS.-At Syracuse, snow fell on the But the dawn of morning shewed their succour near || and also carried away the foretopsail yard. The 2011, 220, 24th, 25th, 26th and 29th November, in at hand, and they soon joined their companions. || foresail, which had been blown away while shortall, about 14 inches. Al Saltville, on the 2516, 2 As they left, the hatches were taken off, and the ning sail, was replaced by bending a foretopsail inches, and snow in sight on the Clinch Mountain noble ship was soon wrapped in flames. The con reefed, under which the ship was again hove to, with on the morning of the 20th. At Brooklyn snow fell duct of Capt. Taber is spoken of in the highest the weather clew hauled up. on the 25th and 29th November, in all about three terms. He, with his crew, cheerfully went upon the In the mean time the passengers rushed on deck, inches.
same allowance, of a half pint of water each, which declaring the ship was on fire below; and one poor
was all that could be afforded to his numerous woman, Mrs. McNeal, while saving an infant child, SUNRISE TEMPERATURE.-At Brooklyn, average guests. A few days alterwards, the “ Washington left below a little girl five years old, who was suffo for November 470-630; at Syracuse, New York, Irving," a Boston packet, Capt. Caldwell, homeward cated by the smoke! The mothers agony was heart380—16+30; at Saltville, Va., 390—23+30. bound, hove in sight. Capt. C. cheerfully took them rending in the extreme. Still the gale hlew with
all on board, and supplied the emigrants with pro- || unabated fury; the lightning flashed, the thunder BURNING OF THF PACKET SHIP THOMAS risions and water. Capt. Taber had made them as rolled, and the snow and bail descended with bitter P. COPE, BY LIGHTNING.
comfortable as his limited means would allow, but violence. The hands were employed in pouring
when on board the Washington Irving, they felt, as Some further particulars of the loss of the Thos.
water down into the between decks, for the purpose P. Cope, may not be unacceptable to your readers.
it were, once more at home. The unremilling of extinguishing the fire; but this had no other effect
attentions of Capt. Caldwell will never be forgoiten. than to keep it under, without extinguishing it. A These I learned from Mrs. L., of Philadelphia, who, with her four little children, were cabin passengers
They were just such as every one who knows that raf: composed of studding sail booms, and other spars on board the unfortunate vessel. The ship was gentleman would have expected of him, and one can was constructed, and the boals were got in readiness,
whenever it should be necessary to abandon the ves. scarcely conceive of a purer satisfaction than he struck by lighining on Sunday, the 29th ult., at 61-2 P. M., at which time most of the passengers had
must enjoy in being the instrument of Providence sel. Pouring water into the hold, and pumping it Tetired, or were about doing so. The mainmast
in feeding the hungry and caring for the destilute, out again was the principal occupation of all bands being the attraction, it was instantly on fire, while,
abundantly able as he was to do, from the liberal until they were rescued by the ship Emigrani, as at the same time, the fluid descended into the hold,
manner in which the owner of the Boston packels reported yesterday. The ship had not any lightning and communicated itself to the combustible cargo. always supplies his vessels. On Sunday morning
conducters on board!! The captain saved his chroA scene of terrible confusion at once commenced
the Washington Irving arrived in Boston, and I nometors, instrumenis and clothing, and the crew a which was, however, speedily quieted by the cool
gleaned these particulars from Mrs. L. on board part of their effects, but the poor steerage passengers and decided conduct of Capt. Miercken. The mainthe boat.
lost their all, and are now entirely destilute, and are mast was cut away, carrying with it the mizzen
The following is a list of the passengers in the
worthy objects of charity.-- Boston Transcript. mast and everything forward but the stump of the Washington Irving;
Schr. Agawam, Frazer, which left N. York at 81 toremast. The steerage passengers were got upon
Marshall Flagg, Esq., of Worcester; Dr. Alex. A. M. on the 29th ult., while reducing sail about 3 deck, though in such haste that they were unable to
Nelson, of Albany; Mr. Francis Walker and wise, P. M., was struck by a heavy squall, and immedisave their clothing, and many were thus exposed to
of Manchester, N. H.; Rev. Mr. Halcombe, of ately after by a sudden gust of whirlwind, which the storm in their night dresses. So great was the
Nova Scotia ; aud 60 steerage passengers. Also capsized her; the captain and crew got upon the haste necessary, that one little child was forgotten Capt. Henry F. Miercken, Messrs. George Dodd, vessel's side, and with great difficulty, took a lady before the hatches were caulked down, that the Isaac Walton; Mrs. Mary Loughridge, four chil.
passenger (Mrs. Hine,) out of the cabin-by this flames might is possible be smothered. All the dren and servant; officers, crew and fitty sleerage
lime it was blowing a heavy gale; the captain was other passengers were eventually saved. Every passengers, all from the packet ship Thomas P. washeu overboard with the lady, while snpporting precaution was used to keep the flames under, but Cope, of Philadelphia, destroyed by fire at sea.-N. her; they reached !he wreck again, however, and in vain. But the measures which were adopted Y. Express.
when nearly exhausted, were taken off by the brig proved successful in preserving life. The decks
Wm. Davis, from N. York for New Orleans, and were kept constantly wet, and occasionally holes PACKET SHIP DESTROYED BY LIGHT.
the lady taken on board, but all means for reviving were board in them, and water turned down. For
her failed. She was frozen to death. The Captain
NING.-NO LIGHTNING CONDUCTER!! the first night, men, women and children were
and crew were quite exhausted, and in another hour
Ship Thomas P. COPE.-One of the crew of this exposed to a violent storm of snow and sleet, and
would have perished. The W. D. was afterwards it would be difficult to imagine a more distres sing
vessel intorms us that the day on which the ship spoken by the brig L. Peters, and the captain and sight than poor Mrs. L. with her infant and other
was struck by lightning, the wind was fair and blew crew were transferred to ibat vessel. The L. P. archildren thus exposed. As soon as circumstances strong from N. W. until about 4 P. M., when the rived at Philadelphia on the 7th.-- Jour of Commerce would permit, the women and children were got
sky became obscured with dark and heavy clouds, Dec, 14. into the forecastle, though it was impossible to threatening a storm. In half an hour afterwards, all The Germ of the storm may be seen in the following reniain in such a crowded situation long at a time. hands were called to shorten sail, which they con
account of an The crew and male passengers were of course tinued doing until the ship hove to under a close
EARTHQUAKE. obliged to keep the decks day and night, and it is reefed main topsail, the wind blowing a gale, ac The New York Sun of January 1, 1847 contains said that Capt. Miercken, whose conduct was admi companied with hail and snow, thunder and light the following: rable throughout, never quilted the deck. In this ning. About half past 6 P. M., the ship seemed EARTHQUAKE.-A smart shock of an earthquake situation the ship remained until the next Saturday wrapped in fire for an instant, when an explosion
occurred at Porto Rico on the 281h of November afternoon, the decks growing hotter, thus giving loud and terrible, shook her fore and aft, and left
which did no considerable damage beyond shaking
down some chimneys. Two or ihree slight shocks evidence of the increasing fire, and threatening all the eyes of the main rigging on fire. The electric followed. with a horrible death. Several sails were seen fluid exploded on the main cap, then darted along
The City of Porto Rico is in the Island of that during this time, but at a great distance. On Sat the main topsail sheets into the hold, and probably name. urday, just as hope was giving place to despair, was conducted through the sides of the vessel by
Porto Rico, one of the West India Islands, lies bethey fell in with the British bark “Emigrant,” Capt. | some of the copper bolts.
tween lat. 17 deg, 55 min. and 18 deg. 30 min North, Taber, bound to St. Johns, N. B. Although short Men were immediately sent aloft and water
and Long. 55 deg. 40 min. and 67 deg. 20 min. West. of provisions and water, Capt. Taber could not passed to them to put out the fire, but before they
Length about 100 miles, breadth about 38. A moon. hesitate in regard to his duty. He commenced could effect their purpose the rigging was consumed tain ranging east and west, runs through the centre transferring them on board on Saturday evening, and the mast began to totler; therefore, in order to
of the Island, the highest point of which is at its and when his work was half done, darkness and a save themselves, they descended to the deck again. North-eastern extremity; altitude 3000 feet. gale set in. The feelings of Capt. Miercken and The lanyards of the weather rigging had been cut, The Brooklyn Star of Dec. 1, 1846 contains my those who remained on board may not be described. and as the vessel rolled to leeward, the mast went record of the state of the atmosphere of the 28th, 29th The fear that the flames would burst out upon over the side about lour feet above the deck, without and part of 30th November, as follows: them at any instant, and that the gale might separate | having been cut away. It took with it the mizen. "THE WEATHER.—The atmosphere continues in the vessels, must have constantly preyed upon them. mainmast close to the rigging, and all the afteryards, ll the extraordinary state last noticed. The highest temperature marked by the meteoric wires on Satur Il localities distant from each other, showing the state day, was 55 deg. 11 A. M. to 12; Sunday, 54 from of the atmosphere the day succeeding the earthquake I to 3 P.M.; and at the laiter hour the Equilibrium at Porto Rico to have been variously affected, but was broken by lightning, which came down mixed that of Saltville, upon the mountains of Va., at the with snow and rain. The thunder and lightning altitude of 1882 to have had a perfect earthquake equi. was 35 minutes in passing, during which the mete librium; for when the thermometor was first exoric wires denoted a fall of temperature of six de amined at sunrise the equilibrium was already comgrees, to 48, and then commenced rising, and at five
menred ; at Brooklyn, Long Island, two equilibo'clock was at 511, at six, fell 10 48 again, and at riums with two lightning storms one of which was seven rose to 49, at which it remained till eight, at
mixed with snow, a very unusual occurrence. On nine tell to 48%, and at ten to 48, at which it remain
the morning of the 29th, at hall pası three o'clock a ed at the time I prepared this record, seven o'clock
singular uoise was heard, I was awoke out of sleep Monday morning, Nov. 30. Saturday morning,
by it, as were also the members of my family. eigbl to pine, 50 deg.; ai ten, 503, at which it re. Other persons in Brooklyn heard the same sound. mained till next morning at six, this forming two In New York one person stated to me tha: she saw Equilibriums. Rain fell the early part of Saturday
the reflection of two bright lights in succession, but morning before and after sunrise. The ordinary ther
heard no sound. I called upon the person in charge mometor ranged as follows: the highest on Saturday
of the Ferry, and who was at the terry gate at that was from two to three, P. M., 48; at pine, 421, and
time, and he said it was a heavy clap of thunder. the same next morning at six. Sunday al one P.
Hisopportunities of observirg were the best, being half M., 49, the highest during the day; at three, when
an hour before and after. Ai Syracuse the variation the first thunder was heard, 47, and in ibiriy-eight
from an equilibrium was but two degrees for twelve minutes fell to 39; at five rose to 40, and again fell
hours on the 29th.
E. MERIAM. to 39 at six; at ninc, 37, at which it remained till seven this morning. Here are two Equilibriumis, both indicating an atmospheric disturbance at a dis Mild Weather in January.--The Sun says:-A butterfly cance."
in January! We learn from a gentleman residing in Newark,
that on Saturday, the 2d instant, his children brought in from Thus it will be seen that the accuracy of my ob. the garden a large and handsome butterfly, as lively as though servations are again confirmed.
it had got abroad in June, instead of January. But this is not There was a thunder storm passed. Brooklyn the only indication of the Spring like weather which we have Heights, on the morning of the 29th Nov, at half
had for some days. The common house fly has appeared in
large numbers, and spring birds are seen around the country: past three o'clock.
At Saltville, South Western Mountains of Virginia, allitude 1882, Lat. 36 deg. 22 min., Long 81
Dr. A. McCall, says in a letter dated on the mountatn of deg. 53 min. 24 sec., the weather was calm, On the Southwestern Virginia--Dec. 26, as follows-"Before closing evening of the 271h, and morning of the 28th, scatter I must mention a remarkable state of the thermometer since ing clouds, wind S. W., and at sunrise the atmos
the strong south-west wind, from 6 to 12 o'clock last night, ar.
ter which the degree of 54 deg. continued, as I was told, from phere commenced in an equilibrium state, and con
then till 8 o'oclock this morning." tinued in that state for cleven hours. Saltville,
EARTHQUAKE IN CHINA.-The Journal of Commerce, of SOUTH-WESTERN MOUNTAINS OF VA.)
January 4, contains the following extract of a letter from Mr. Spencer in his letter to me, dated Nov. 29th,
Shanghai, China. “We had a severe shock of an Earthquake
on the 4th of August, at 4 o'clock in the morning, which 1846, says : To day, (Sunday) it was 53$ deg. at 6
alarmed us not a little. We were all driven from our beds this morning, where it remained in equilibrium, with
"Chop, Chop." There was a shock at Ningpo at the same out the slightest variation until half past four this time, and it is said these shocks are very unusual in that afternoon. At five it fell to 51 deg., and now, near
region." ten in the evening, it stands at forty deg. The day
The Brooklyn Evening Star of Monday, August 10, contains has been delightfully mild and pleasant.
my memorandum of my meteorlogical record and remarks
dated at 5 o'clock that morning, as follows : Mr Milnor, in his letter to me also dated at Salt
"The Weather.-The peculiar state of the atmosphere for ville, Dec. 6th, states, that the night of Nov. 29th
the last 48 hours, evidences a disturbance at a distance. The was calm, scattering clouds at sunrise of 291h, wind atmosphere, here, was in the same peculiar state on the 8th, S. W., two days previous (the 27th,) pigeons were 9th and 10th of May, of the present year. Accounts from Aying south. Morning of 30th, at sunrise temper abroad may explain the phenomena, as to the state of the at. ature down to 26 deg, being a fall of 27% deg. in
mosphere here on Saturday and Sunday, as they did that of
the 8th, 9th and 10th of May. fourteen hours.
"Long Island, extending as it does from south-west to northMr. Cookey, in a letter to me dated Syracuse of cast a length of about one hundred and forty miles, by ten to Dec. 6, states the temperature at Syracuse on the twenty miles in width, may be regarded as a large terestrial morning of Nov. 291h, at 30 deg, nine A. M., 37 needle, and Brooklyn Heights my place of observation, as one deg.--three, P. M., 38 deg., and nine, P. M., 36
of its poles; hence the peculiar sensitiveness of its atmo. deg., vibration but two degrees in twelve hours,
sphere, being in the great electric current."
There was an equilibrium at Flatbush, Long Island, on the morning of 30th, at suprise, 30 deg. Snow with
4th and 5th of August. rain at intervals on the 29th. Lunar Halo ot night On the 8th of May an earthquake occurred at Memphis, of 28th..
Ningpo, China, is in N. Lat. 29 deg. 55 min., East Long. My niece, Miss Mary Sirong, writes w me
121 deg. 17 min. It is the most distant of any earthquake (from Cobourg, U. C., which is situated on the
from my place of observation, which I have recorded as occur. northern shore of Lake Ontario,) that the weather ring dnring the year 1846, and the length of time the greatest during Sunday the 29th Nov., was very pleasant,
between the occurrence of the earthquake and the peculiar rain tell the previous evening, temperature at eight,
state of the atmosphire here (thus recorded in the Brooklyn A. M. 29th, 401; 10, 421; 11, 43; two P. M.,
Star). Thunder storm accompanied by hail and wind, at
Rockville, Md., Balt;more city, Philadelphia, Warren, Mass., 464; at twelve midnight, 365 ;-next day 30th, wind
and Windsor, Maine, immediately followed, and a U. S. ship blew hard. Temperature eight A. M., 35 deg. of war put back to Pensacola, from fear of a storm, having on Thus I present observations made at four different ll board a bearer of despatches to Mexico. E. MERIAN.
EARTHQUAKES. The Exeter, N. H., News Letter of Dec. 21stcontains a letter addressed by the Hon. Josiah Butler of Deerfield, to Dudley Leavitt, Esq., of Mere ditb, New Hampshire, in which he says that an earthquake was felt in that region, at 9 P. M., on the 29th of October; another in the night of the 31st of October; another at about 2 o'clock in the night of the 12th of November; and another at twenty minules before eight P. M. on the 2d of December. It will be jemembered that a rain storm set in here on the 31st of October, and lasted lill November 4ih; another rain storm commenced Nov. 12th, and lasted till the 16th, and another rain storm commenced with the first moment of the morning of the 3d of December, and lasted eight hours. The Farmer and Mechanic of Nov. 5th, contains my observations made upon Brooklyn Heights, from Oct. 281h to Nov. 4th, in which I say:
"Wednesday, Nov. 4th, 6 A. M., 604 deg. Rain has been falling since the evening of the 31st, with intermissions up to the time of my writing, and with a prospect of a continuation. The equilibrium state of the atmosphere, it will be seen, by the above record, has been very extensive, and strongly mark, ed. During that of the 31st of October and 1st of November, the temperature of the earth, the air and the water, were equal, and at 493 deg.; during which time the smallest of my meteoric wires in the apparatus connecting the earth, the air and the water, and connecting the tin, the copper, the iron and the zinc, all presenting a line of two hundred lineal feet carried the water upon their surface from the great load stone balance with an evenness which was wonderful indeed." I have not time to copy further from this record-the reader can refer to his files of this paper.
The Farmer and Mechanic of Nov. 19th, contains my record of equilibriums on the 13th, 141h, 15th, and 16th, corresponding with the earthquake on the night of the 12th, and the Farmer and Me. chanic of Dec. 3d, and 10th, contains my record of Equilibriums of the 2d 3d 41h and 5th, correspond. ing with the earthquake of the 21 December.
Rise And Fall OF LAKE ONTARIO.-Mr. W. Owsten, keeper of the Light at the Light House on Gull Island, about two miles from the Northern Shore, between Port Hope and Cobourg, Upper Canada, in a letter dated Dec. 15th, 1846, to E. Meriam, says, that in October of 1846, the Lake commenced rising, and still continued on the rise when the light was discontinued at the close of navigation, Dec. 6th. In August 1846, between the state of the water and June 29, 1840, was two feet and four inches at least. In August, 1846, for the first time since he had charge of the Light, he could walk around the lower, the rock upon which it stands being perfectly dry.
DEATH OF Aged Persons.---The Newport, R. I. Mercury gives the ages of 13 persons who have died there in 1846 ; the aggregate of whose ages 1393 years, being an average of 82 years.
ATMOSPHERIC. The Brooklyn Evening Star, of Dec. 28, contains a commu. nication signed E. M. and dated the morning of that day which says, “The state of the aamosphere for the last 36 hours denote a disturbance at a distance. With the electric wires there was an equilibrium on Saturday evening from 8 o'clock till 8 o'clock next morninu, and Sunday evening from 5 o'clock to 6 o'clock this morning. On Saturday evening chain clouds passed in the electric current for several hours.'
Was it an Earthquake ? A writer in the Albany Argus states, that on Monday night, about half past eleven o'clock, he was startled by a succession of brilliant flashes, like lightning, and about five minutes afterwards he heard a continuous rumbling, like distant thunder, which continued for at least five seconds, and then died a way. Several persons heard it, and upon the hill its concussion was so strong that people sitting in their dwellings, felt a jar like that produced by the firing of a cannon at a distance; many thought it was an earthquake, others that it was thunder or the report of some tremendous explusion. On the same evening, a resident on Staten Island observed a similar (probably the same) appearance in the heavens, which he described as a large ball of light, brighter than the moon, and having a stream of fire or less pure light in its wake. He made the hour, however, about 9 o'clock, and did not observe either sound or vibration, as mentioned by the correspondent of the Argus. The object took a southerly direction, and travelleil with rapidity, but illuminated the heavens for some time.
From the Brooklyn Star of Monday, Jan. 7. A currespondent, signing himself Wm. H. W***, writes us that he, in company with others, saw on the night mentioned above, while standing at the Fulton Ferry, near the Franklin House, a very bright light, with a tail of crimson red trailing after it, travelling with great velocity through the heavens. It appeared in a northerly direction from here at first, and travelled south till out of sight. From the Brooklyn Evening Star of Tuesday, Jan. 12.
The Weather. “There was a sudden fall of temperature of 3 degrees, at 9 o'clock last evening,-both wires and thermometer. This morning at 7, the thermometer is is 15fo, and the wires have vibrated but half a degree, while the thermometer has since 9 last evening, fallen 610."
The Weather. The temperature from 3 P. M. yesterday to 8 o'clock this morning, has vibrated but one degree by he thermometer, and has been most of the time in Equilibrium. The wires have vibrated but 3 degrees since 10 o'clock yesterday morning, and has been much in Equilibrium. A distant disturbance is thus indicated.
E. M. Thursday morning, January 14.
I had not seen the newspaper accounts of the earthquake at Albany, on Monday night, when these notices were written, for the situation of my family precluded it.
The depression of 3 degrees in both the wires and thermometer, on Monday evening at 9 o'clock, is the usual earthquake depression heretofore several times observed, and the disagreement of the ther. mometer with the wires the rest of the night, the wires being nearly in Equilibrium, and the ther. mometer falling 61o, is a strong evidence of the great accuracy of the wires. We shall probably hear of earthquakes at a great distance. The response of this shock noticed above. E. M.
.. CONVULSION IN LAKE ONTARIO. I received this evening four newspapers from a3 many different correspondents, containing an account of a convulsion in Lake Ontario, on Friday, January 8th. The following is a copy :
Alarming Occurrence. The writer of the following letter will accept our thanks for his communication : To the Editor of the Coburg Star.
Grafton Steam Mills,
Grafton Harbor, Saturday, Jan. 9. SIR,-A most singular phenomenon occurred at this place yesterday afternoon about 3 o'clock, which may be thought worth a place in your paper. The Lake was calm, and the wind in the North, when suddenly The Lake receded from the shore in one im. mense wave, upwards of 350 feet, leaving the beach perfectly dry for that distance; it seemed to gaiher itself into a vast cone, and immediately returned in one unbroken wave four feet higher than it usually is, burying the wharf completely, and overtlowing its usual boundaries upwards of a hundred yards, sweeping everything before it, accompanied by a dreadfól noise. This happened 8 or 9 different times, gradu. ally decreasing in violence until the Lake resumed its usual appearance. You know the position of the wharf yourself, and you would hardly credii che fact that at the end of the wharl, where there is generally 12 feet 6 inches of water, admitting the largest steamboat, there was only two feet of water lelt; and on its return the water stood a loot deep in the engine bouse, which is over two hundred yards from the beach. Do you suppose this singular phenomenon was general, or do you suppose it might possibly be connected with some volcanic action working its way to the surface of this particular place? The only sufferer here was Mr. Davis, whose boat lay, as he supposed, high and dry alongside the harbor Company's scow, which latter was listed bodily, and went smash on the top of the boat.
I remain, Sir, your obed't serv't,
Miller Gration Steam Mills. Our readers will remember that in 1845, we chronicled an occurrence similar to the above, as having taken place in our own harbor. The same convul. sion that affected the Lake at Graston Harbor on Friday, ran along the coast from that place to Port Hope. It was, however, unattended with the heavy thundering sound heard at Gration,
We know the writer of the above letter, and place every confidence in his statement. We have also received a confirmatory letter fron the proprietor of the Grafton Steam Mills, A. G. Allan, Esq.
Grallon is upon the northern shore of Lake Ontario, between Cobourg and Colbourne. I examined this locality in 1844, and found immense bodies of fossiliferons bituminous lime slone, at some former period volcanic action was very disastrous at this locality,destroying whatever bad life in the water, and embalming the whole in bitumen, I have more than a hundred weight of fossils which I collected from this neighborhood. Mr. Stewarı Sirong writes from Colbourne, January 17, that the Lake rose dine feet, carrying off tences and doing greal damage.
The Brooklyn Star of January 9, has my recorded observation as tollows:
THE WEATHER.—The temperature this morning at 5 o'clock, 130-wires 43o, both have been in Equilibrium.
Saturday Morning, January 9. E.M.
The numerous convulsions I have chronicled in the Farmer and Mechanic for a year past, sustain most wonderfully the suggestion of the great disturbo ance of our Earth. Monday, Jan. 23, 1847.
November 2012, 1846. E. MERIAM, Esq.
Dear Sir: I assumed in a former letter that the motion of two dependent globes is always more or less spiral and never in pure circles; also that motion is the expression not of centripetal or of centrifugal tendencies, but always represents the uncancelled difference, in every subsisting case between these aptitudes of atoms or globes.
Any iwo equal masses spirally advancing atound a common central line have their radii to describe, like areas in given time; but if the masses are udequal the toci of the less body by increased speed describe areas apportionale to the greater mass with its minor velocity in given time.
Centripetal forces operating without an opponent force in the same body, among its atoms collectively, or between foreign dependent orbs would lead all maller with increasing velocity toward an ultimale immobile centre.
However numerous may be atoms or worlds, every one being knile cannot fill expanse in any given time, for the future will continue, as well as a still broader space and however enlarged are the bounds of the creation some one point must always be more central than any other points, ibus for ever giving unity of order instead of confusion among stellar arrangements.
On the other hand il centrifugal action received no check the arranged creation around us would, by infinite dispersion, lose its qualities of law in the abyss of eiherial sameness.
If the dispersive tendencies were for an instant withdrawn from our air and seas and the crust of the earth, a sudden and inconceivable collapsing torce would be succeeded the next instant by explosion,
Nebulosities in the heavens for long periods exbibil to us groups of neutrality between these laws, while luminous expansions of cometary substance, suddenly over billions of cubic miles, indicate intense dispersive force, but on the planets a strong preponderance of gravity prevails.
Other circumstances aitaching to rotation of a globe being equal, it may be inferred that in proportion to ascendancy of gravity among its own parli. cles will be the rotary velocity.
The axiom that attraction of gravitation is graduated by a primeval impulse of motion, apart from the constitution granted to matter itself, is no less hypothetical than is our asssumption that motion always indicales unadju: led differences belween dispersive and attractive relations of the atoms or globes under the circumstances and for the time subsisting.
Nor does the one or the other hypothecation derogate from the Copernican established truths, more iban a change of letters would impair the demonstration of a theorem in Euclid ; yet, in every physical research it is best that causes and effects should as far as possible be considered and placed in their proper order.
I cannot conceive that inatter of itself esteemed to be ipert, can have more tendency to advance in a direct line than by any other course, nor can I believe its momentum ever represents inore than the efficient means directing orbitual advance require.
Whilst it may be admitted that matter without properties is inert, yet since no such state of inalier has ever been cognizable and as we know the properties ol' matter are incessantly efficient and do constitute affiliated as well as warring classes of powers denominated laws why not conceive of these properties and describe them as cognate-atomic states of being ?
In a general sense gravitation implies the collective attractions jointly emadating from and connecting masses of matter remotely situated, but at minule distances the same relations exist among atoms, modified it is true by the constant elective affini. ties which are pulling to pieces the works of its more orderly compeer.
So also in a collective sepse the dispersive or eclectic law composes a vast conclave ol united for ces not only keeping the almosphere and the seas and the entire crust of the earth in constant antago
Hot WEATHER ON THE MOUNTAINS OF VIRGINIA. On the 31st of December the temperature at Salt. ville was 7110, and on the 1st of January 700.-At Syracuse on the 31st Dec. temperature 440.
nistic action against the stilling influences of gravi. ll years are historically 6,247 since the Adamic 11 were stationary or starting points from which obe tation, but disturbing the interior earth, there causes Epoch.
served motions of comets may be defined. carthquakes and sending forih columns of light to the Therefore if these 6,247 years be historically cor To illustrate my suggestion, I need merely say that moon and ihe sun, seeks for mastery in all quar. rcct the recession must increase the art of its motion if the Sun revolves with one or more compeers as we see ters and through every distance.
in order to effect an entire encircling spiration other stars do, in many parts of the sky, and it our This law of dispersion it is, which forces column during twenty-four thousand three hundred and forty -sun's revolution is once completed in 24,348 years, ar emanations of light from the sun to all his planets eight years or revolutions of the earth.
it is evident that a comet making a periodic visitaand to distant sars along all the paths of gravila Since the days of Hipparchus, who made a map tion, only once in half that time, must at alternate tion, and without which enlarged action every sun, of the stars, near two ihousand years ago, the lon visits, approach our sun from opposite points of he under gravilaling protection alone, would soon veil gitudes of the stars bave changed from a fixed meri Heavens and for shorter times of visitation corresils lights forever.
dian about thirty degrees and when two thousand pondent variations of approach and departure would But if atoms under control of the laws indica and twenty-nine years to come shall have elapsed, be presented. ted, can thus evolve and again merge sundry prop our polar axis should have direction to a point thiriy Doubtless in the peribeliac juncture of the starry erties with absolute verily and witbout reference degrees distant from its present course.
systems described by the Herschells, many comels, to human cognizance, it is a fair inference thal The direction of the axis must ever remain at arriving at such periods were, by the conflictire influe groups of law or classified properties springing from right angles to the plain of the equator or longest ences of the periheliac action, compelled to abandon matter, may, under certain circumstances, not only diameter of the earth and under certain compensa their erratic habits and to come into the infanhave separate subsistence, but may reacı un matler ; live mutations this plain obtains position from the tile rank of planets soon to be filled up for intelligent and over and above this, can form alliances offen. Heliacal mass.
life. sive and defensive among abstract assemblies of But if the greatest diameter of the Heliacal mass, I could be readily made to suppose ibat when the each other both near and far off from globular in obedience to its compcer in opposing courses of planet of Herschell was discovered, Le Verrier's was, masses.
orbitual motion, must occupy the same plane, then the and still may be, emilling auto-pulsive light. Now, is the materialist and the sceptic, upon direction of the sun's axis must traverse a spiral in In the above remarks, I have adverted to astroenquiring fairly into the powers granted to Physical 24 349 years and as a corollary so must the axis of nomical views more at large stated, in a previous being shall find abstract law directly ruling dead all his planetary dependents.
letter to you, because the chronological principles I atoms, how can he cavil that spirituosity should em If magnetic polarity of our earth be a result of am about to introduce here seem to have been preploy living organic senses in ihe demonstrations of differences unadjusted belween the laws of dispersion diraied on these very opinions whether they be truths moral beauties upon analagous principles ?
and of aggregation as we have intimated, and is not or errors. In the foregoing observations I have repeated governed by influences reaching the earth from he. The Julian Period is a conventional standard of some positions iaken in a former letter with a design yond the boundaries of our solar system; then also 7,980 years so placed as that its 4,714th year falls at to state them with more clearness and I will devole musi the magnetic poles revolve or point round the the beginning of the Christian Era and according to the remainder of this letter to :he remarks ( prom circle of the skies as well as the axis of the earth. our chronology commenced 314 years before the ised upon the ancient modes of time-keeping.
It seems also to be a fact that the axis of the Adamic epoch and extends 666 years after the I do not however, mean a critical inquiry, but earth as well as the phenomena of magnetic polari. 7,000th year of the world, thus affording a convenmerely to set forth the general views proving that zation, under the compromising agencies controlling ient measure with which all other eras may be comthe human race have not occupied the earth above their movements, nulate or oscillate so as to describe pared and arranged. 6,247 years of past time.
serpentine lines on the north and south vault of the The revelation of future events would be futile, The history of man with no lillle obscurity reach skies, always bounded by two lines corresponding in unless the recipients, without precise equations of es back to the Adamic Epoch when the recession of width of belt to the space of the tropics as demarked all the movements among the globes defining our the Equinoxes entered the twin constellation of Ge in the celestial expanse.
years, could use means for a reasonable approxima. mini and as fable indicates, Cancer the Crab retro In thus alluding to axillar direction and polarity tion of the day or years of fulfilment. gading carried backward all the starry firnament. it must be borne in mind that I am describing the The ancient reliance placed upon prophetic an
Since then it is astronomically certain the reces. progression of phenomena demanding twenty-four nouncements was the strong incentive in Palestine, sion of the equinoxes has passed over Gemini, Thousand years for completion without here selling Babylon and Egypt for enforcing the most accurate Taurus and Aries and has now entered ibe fourth forth the analogies that the yearly phenomena of rules for time keeping and the entire Hebraic writconstellation called Pisces. these facts manitest.
ings exbibit great attention to dates of events, During this perion the long diameter of the earths It is possible that the more rapid motion of the King James's Version makes 1656 years before orbit has actually changed its direction in regard to earth during its yearly periheliac half of orbit ab the food and 2344 years more to the Christian adthe starry vault, above ninety degrees of the Zodiac stracis somewhat from the quickness of diurnal ro vent, according to Calmet's plan, but, under our estibelt.
tation and whilst passing the aphelion balt adds male 2056 years elapsed before the flood and 2344 This is a mean annual difference of one twenty relatively to rotation ; for since the causes of motion years more to the birth of Christ, making together four thousand three hundred and forty-eighth share must act in the agregate all complexities of submo 4,400 sears from the Adamic to the Christian epoch of that circle according to ancient Pyibagorean cal
tion consume shares of the gross motive impulse al or 6,247 years in all, to A. D. 1847. culations. taching to one system,
The Septuagint version gives 2242 years antideluThis recession causes a falsification in nautical It is from data supplied under the short and long vian being 14 years less than Josephus makes the tables of star longitudes equal to nearly a mile of
equations of planetary movements that many in same because he allows 187 years to Lamech and sea surface annually and rendering new estimates
valuable deductions have been made in astronomic 182 to Methusela as does the Hebrew Version. or corrections, every few years, essential for the
calculations and out of such principles Le Verrier The Septuagint and Josephus both assign 100 safety of mariners.
in his room of study was enabled to indicate ihe years to Adam an: 100 to Seth more than the HeThis recession is ascribed by J. F. Herschelland place where his new planet was found.
brew and as to Adam, Seth, Lamech and Methuother eminent astronomers of our day, as it was by
By similar modes of investigation it can be deci selah I esteem the latter to be correct. the astrologists three thousand years ago to an ai.
ded in what portions of Saturn's ring the greatest In other respects adopting the Septuagint years vance of our Solar system, causing the equinox to
masses of malier are placed and upon the same the time is 2056 years to the Caieclysm, alter which vary its position or line of place in reference to
principles it may be ascertained thai whatever at and prior 10 Abram, the Septuagint, giving 100 remote stars at the present rate of 50 1-4 seconds
mosphere may be chemically generated on this side years more to che several Patriarchs than does the yearly.
of our moon is soon transferred to its opposite flai Hebrew copy, produces an erroneous excess of 802
tened surface-lhe character of its oscillations cer years, which added to the 200 years of excess beSir John F. Herschell sustaining a conjecture of tainly indicate that its body is nouo deficient in ro fore the food makes 1002 years of error to the his distinguished father states the Sun is now ad tundity.
birth of Abraham. vancing toward Zeta Hercules, the stars of that The late investigations by Siruve, Herschell, The Samaritan estimale before the flood is 1367 region seeming to recede from each other, while at Nichol, and others respecting Stellar connected sys. years, but, embracing the Septuagint 802 years of the opposite section of the Heavens the stars appa tems, will cast new lights upon the nature of come error from the flood to the Exodus, as well as the rently approach a common centre.
tary movements and if some comes in aerilorm 853 years which actually transpired, the whole term ir Libra be the constellation at which the Sun's
stales pass from solar to solar system, it will be to the Exodus is thus made 3022 years, while the orbitual motion approximates the mean rate of found that when once pucleal or solidified their mo actual time is 110 years less, or 2912 years in all. Periheliac recession, probably in Pisces is represen. tions will be confined to that single system in which, After the Exodus the best constructions and comted the mean rate of Apheliacal recession the
soon afterward, they must assume planetary office and parisons of Bible and other data make 891 years whule spiration involving excentric equations anala distinction.
in the first Babylonian captivity of the Jews and gous to equations of time in the annual revolutions
And if it be true according to the most ancient 600 years from that event to the beginning of the of the earth around the line of the Solar advance. Pythagorean philosophy that all stars move spirally Christian Era. At the above rate of mean recession across three
about family lines progressing in space, it must fol. Hales and Jackson including the 1002 years of signs of the Zodiac 6,087 years would be occupied
low that ihe excentric spiral movements of comels Septuagint error as above explained, make the for every quadrature and it the recession has now obtaining perihelions only at very long intervals of Christian Era to commence Anno Mundi 5,426 and entered Pisces 60 years, this estimate would give time must supply data by which the course and ve 5,411 ; others estimate the same at 4,427, or 4,305, 6,147 years for the whole period of recession from locity of our own solar motions may be veryyearly or 4,161, while Usher makes 4.004 years. entering Gemini to the present time, A. D. 1847. approximated.
Sedar Olim estimates 4,359, and others 4,220, or But it is reasonably certain that the first Sethoic, Although many star systems are not at those in
4,184, while the Talmudists say 3761, and Rabi or Sothic year began ihe 160th year of Adam and its fourth cycle of fourteen hundred and sixty true mense distances indicated by modern astronomers,
Lipinan only 3,616 from Adam to Christ. yet they are sufficiently remote 10 cause ibe space Bedford made the same time 4,007, Melaorthon years expired A.D. 1600 ; since which iwo hundred ||
occupied by any to appear very small, and relative. 3,961, Scallegar 3,950, and among estimates derived and lorty-seven years having elapsed the entire il ly to us almost immoveable thereby affording as it through so many discrepant sources the mean of
aros by Bernd
Ro0 Lo Patriarche
4,400 years best corresponds with sound authori. ties.
There are in the annals of various nations detailed reigns of regular descents showing the time subsequent to the flood is 2,344 years.
But without extending these remarks further I will proceed to another branch of our subject indicating special principles of ancient efforts at time keeping
From the Remains of Berossus (300 B. C.) gleaned from Abydenus and Appollodorus the Chaldean partitions of time seem inade in agreement with space measures so that 60 seconds were one minute (equal to 24 of our minutes) and 60 minutes composed one day (of 24 hours,) and 60 days made one sos or two moons arbitrary; and 10 Sossi one neros equal to 600 days; six neri one Saros 3600 days or one Patriarchal elective lerm; ten Seri one age ot 100 years, seven ages one lesser cynic and three cynics one cynosure, or “Zodiac House," while twelve cynosures constiluted one great year during which the stars revolve once around our Sun.
Abydenus says "a Saros is 3600 years," a neros 600, and a sos 60 years and yet he makes 1000 true years or 1200 patriarchal years of rule at Babylon equal to 120. Sari and therefore must have misapprehended the time given to one Saros by Berussus from whom he is quoting.
The Patriarchal year appears to have contained 300 days viz. 60 seconds lime measure being one minule; 60 minutes one hour; 24 hours one day; 30 days one arbitrary lunation; 10 moons one Sos (300 days) 10 Sossi one Neros, 300 days; 12 Neri one Saros 100 years (the Myriad being 120 years); 7 Sari one cycle of canis Minor; 3 lesser cycles one sign or“ House” and the recession of 12 - Houses" constiluted a term of 25,200 years.
In the latter day of the Jewish Theocracy the Sos, Nerus and Saros indicated different periods; and in Arabia 600 Neri denoted the 50 years jubilee lerm, while Josephus uses the same to imply a cycle of 600 years.
Eras kept on various plans could be and were equated at the close of every Sothic Era composed of 1460 true or 1461 Sothic years, as used by the civil and sacerdotal authorities in Egypt, because, only on the last day of an Olympiad ending that 1460 year cycle, was it possible that Syrius, "the Star of Nuba" could rise concurrently with the Sun upon the first day of Thoth, iben about to be the initial day of a new similar cycle, as may be easily explained.
The Nabonazar Era of Assyria established 766 B. C. and alterwards used in Egypt was kept by terms ot 1461 days cach, the last day being intercallated or not counted, for the same reason we every tourth year throw upon February one leap day.
But under the Sethoic mode of time keeping no days were intercallated until the close of 1461 years when one whole year of 3654 was thrown in, thai true time might be attained in agreement with the Nabonazar Calendar.
It is an historical truth that Amasis, with Pythagoras at his Court,vetoed an attempt in his Egyptian Kingdom about 520 B. C. to substitute the Nabonazar era for the venerated and most ancient Soihoic cycle,
Paramus or Phul "the Phylactorate" -the Tasso King of Babylon, on acquiring the throne of Ninevah 774 B. C. established the Olympiads,alihongh in Asia Minor, for a long time, they had been used at the Olympic games in an irregular manner.
At Ninevah Pul or Phul was surnamed, Enemes. sor Ninus 2nd whose son Salmanazer the “ Thil gath Phul," "crowned of the Tigress" was “Nazar Nebo, the Prince of Baal-Samin,” which Prince on his own accession to the Assyrian throne ordained the Nabonazar era 746 B. C., the same being his first year, anrulling all other modes of time keeping and burning the false records of anterior dates.
The Luni-Solar Cycle of 18 years, of which 120 composed 2220 years furnished rough data to the Magians for predicting Eclipses at Babylon even so early as the beginning of the Nabonazar Era.
Suidas calls 184 years a Saros or Cycle, 120 of which he says coinposed 2222 years and says Laer. tes, records of observed eclipses exist to the number of 373 solar and 832 lunar eclipses, before Alexander invaded Asia.
The Chaldeans had still another mode for defining the "Jong cycle” of 36,5224 years because in that time so many sidereal yearly turns of the earth occur, upon the Sun as an axis, that counted as days, 100 years would thus be composed, representing the fabulous lise ol the Myrrh-ball Phoenix and twelve times this long period constituted the magnificent " Cycle of Anubis," composed of four hundred and thiriy-eight thousand two hundred and filty-four of our years.
Berossus supposes this grand cycle is 432,000 years while Cicero alludes to 470,000 years, ridiculing its application to the history of mari's experience.
It was thought the beginning of the equinoctial recession was at the fiery confines of Capricornus and thence one and a halt recessions were finished before the twin human beings were inade.
The Zodiac of Tentyra and many ancient remains teach that at every resurrectional quadrature of ihe Solar recession the protecting or "double divinilies" are bodily present and Seneca alludes to the watery days of this Cycle as being twelve thousand years separaied from the Ecpyrosis or burning days.
Eusebius tancies that when the recession passes Aries which it has lately done and has entered Pisces that some great change was expected and Seneca from Berossus says when the planets under Cancer come into conjunction with the sun's equinocials, fire will consume every thing and floods afterward will occur under Capricornus bui, the meaning probably is, when the equatorial planes are in parallelism these evils will happen, for without an æriform dissolution first, it is not probable that all our planets can obtain lineal conjunction or apposilion with the sun.
St. Peter says except those saved in the ark the antideluvians all perished by water, but that at the latter times a fiery destruction will overtake the impenitent then remaining upon the earth.
The Hebrews seemed to have believed that it would be more miraculous if their Creator withheld all information regarding the future from them than that prophecies should be tendered to them.
Geologically, historically and by revelation it seems mankind have not always subsisted and it is no less reasonable that his race will not forever continue upon the earth.
To comment upon the excited and absurd conclusions to which men have often arrived toward the expiration of periodic predictions, would present a part of man's frailties not very creditable.
The connection of historic events fixing and defining special periods in the several eras and times below siated is quite curious if not chronologically instructive.
The most appropriate partition of past time I think is the antidiluvian embracing 2056 years; the Post diluvian or Myocene period 1600 years reaching to the first Nabonazer year 746 B. C. and thirdly 1000 years thence succeeding to A. D. 254 which may be called the Pliocene era, chiefly to be distinguished by its martial character and diversified advances of man's civil and religious condition.
The fourth partition of time I would also make 1000 years extending from 254 A. D. to 1254 A. D. embracing the “dark ages' demanding the chivalric crusading spirit to clear the sorbonean mists from the benighted people.
Since then 1254 A. D. to 1854 A. D. a period of 600 years will have elapsed, composing a 5th era rich in historical interest and from A. D. 1854, the sixth era for future history might commence. The chief periods to which the Hebrews attach importance were first the 2,056 antidiluvian ending Anno Mundi. The Post Diluvian to the Nabonazer era 1600 years duration A. M.
3,656 The current Nabonare: Era used by )
Daniel for his 2,300 year periods. 5,956 closing 1554 Anno Domini. The fourth period, Daniel's prophetic )
1290 years succeeding the last of 7,246 which now, 1000 years is unexpired.)
Seven other successive periodic times may also be mentioned. The first from the Creation to Enoch's /
. 1,287 Il translation Anno Mundi, 1287.
The passage of Noah from the ark 7707 A.M.2.057
years afterward. The next, 1008 years to fall of the 1 3.065
Macrobeon Ethics in Ethiopia. The pexi, Daniel's period of 1335 years 1 4.400
to the “ auspicious Epoch." . The next, 590 years of 666 years the years of the man Mabomet born 1 1 4.990 A. D. 571 and his system establish: 1 ed by 666 Anno Domini.
The next John's prediction of the church tribulations. 1260 years, extending to A. D. 1850 1 6,250
from Anno Domini 590. The last 1000 years yet to come pro- « 7250 phetically announced.
The moral eras of man's history seein rightly di. visible as follows. The first 160 years of the eratíc teach- ) ing io the beginning of the
160 Seihoic system. 1127 years Sethoic Institutes till the translation of Enoch
1,287 A. M. 1109 years Lamechian or Pyrrhonic Instituics of
2,396 Enoch 10 Melchizedic. 1000 years Thabeon Mel.
chizadec's Institutes till the 3,396
lothe birth of Christ, Anno.
to the present date.
period is A. M. The Chaldean Phrase a time, times and half” seems to designate the recession of one sign, of two signs and half a sign equal to 105 degrees change in the Zodiac longitude requiring 7,102 years for completion, but as yet only 6,247 have elapsed leaving 855 years to come, besides some apparent lee-way of the recession to be yel made up, by increased progression.
It seems to be true that acquisitions of knowledge enlarge the area of evidendy unknown things, thereby rivetting upon limited intellection, the bards of superstition, which forever cement wisdom with inquisitive toily and excessive credulity or its opposite.
Every primary idea of organic animals is palpably intuitive, representing truisms not the less real because sometimes erroneous, for; salsities are positive antagonists and not mere unproductive effluenis in Psychology. By intuitive ideas or truisms I mean all experimedial consciousness or ideal phantasms which have not been subjected to or had inductive offspring from the exercise of reasoning powers. . But it all ideas of animated creatures are primari. ly intuitive, every grade of animals must originate conceptions according to the completeness of their sensual organs upon the correct action of which they may for practical objects implicitly rely.
Hence man in common with inferior animals knows things within and exteriorly of his own personality intuitively-the pervading truisms are presented in the same general manner to all alike-lhey conceive of the same sun through organs susceptible to impressions of the same light, while interior and exterior sensorials are obedient to laws of the same common theatre.
But it does not follow from this community of surrounding media and similarity of animated lunctions, and of identity of primary truisms that all animals are in the same grade, in reference to capacities for using the intuitive truisms which appear, as organization is more or less perfected for recipiance.
Even granting that all primitive truisms are exact counterparts of the same ideas manifested finitely in the supreme conceptions of the same objects, still it may not follow that all the inferior grades of animation must forever have perpetuity of individuality, bút the inference is rather that they are of temporary subservience and subjects of possible extinction.
Be this, however, as it may, the chief proposition, sought here to be offered, is that man having ideas, of true character, derived within media common to many creatures, has within his own personality, a