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ous emigrants for the Mississippi valley I crossed the mountains and arriving at the verge of habilations we prepared to enter the wilderness and encamped at the eastern base of the Cumberland moun. tain.
After taking repast it was concluded a severe storm was near at hand and with pine torches we commenced ascending half up the mountain that night, and between 10 P.M., and 3 A. M., we took rest and again decamping we reached the suo'mit at sun rise, having through she night got in advance of above a hundred emigrant camp fires.
Whilst preparing breakfast we sent back six horses to aid the nearest ascending team as was the custom and soon the stranger crowd increased on the brow of the mountain among whom sata woman and her daughter bitterly weeping because their pack horse had fallen dead.
The company present at once contributed money to buy and present them another horse and the lowering sky invited all 10 descend to the high table plain siretching as far as sigbt could reach.
Whilst the conductors were lying brushy saplings under the axles and locking all the wheels of every vehiclee besides placing four men on each side holding ropes, the dangerous descent was commenced and I went forn ard to see the grave of the valiant and gigantic Spencer who had guarded many emigrants across these mountains.
His monument was a vast natural ashler or rock standing 30 or 40 feet in heigih, from the top of which he feil and was scalped by an Indian that lay concealed with his rifle and shot whilst Spencer was surveying the pass.
Looking :o the top of the rock I saw one of our own pioneers composedly shaving himself, without soap or water, to win a small wager.
There were many Indians around clothed with single blankets and muccasins and anxious to sell bear meat, venison and wild turkeys and I found that they had not horns and tails as my fancy in earlier years had attached to them, but still I could not taste what had been carried on their backs.
At sundown the fires were made in an extensive crab orchard where were no large forest trees and during supper the sky was overspread with lurid continuous flashes while the mutierings of thunder indicated the equinoctial storm was approaching.
Soon the reverberations echoing from the mountains to the valleys and back again became ceaseless and the crashings of the neighboring forests showed the storm had come.
The hail and rain dashed along by fitful starts, the fires were extinguished and the camps cast down, while women, children and dogs hastened by the light of the flashing clouds to the central parts of the encampment, but their screams were unheard amidst the roar of the storm tor above an hour and then the joyful news flew round that none were injured.
This table plain is about 30 miles in width stretching across the state and everywhere underlaid with stratified horizontal sand stone strongly imbued with chalybiate constituents.
During very dry seasons the intersticial openings are deprived of water and gas of different qualities fills its place which being driven out on the accession of rains floats along the surface and nourishes green slippery mosses very detrimental to health.
Aller leaving this table plain we descended to an. other level about 15 miles broad, whose western escarpments overlooks the horizontal lime stratum
1000 feet in thickness and covered with rich easih and heavy forests over a surface of 50,000 to 60,000 square miles in continuvus extent.
We soon took up our quarters within the borders of Kentucky, procuring salt, coffee, hog meat and grain from Pioneers of that country and afier the equinociial storm of March, 1807, we retired to lower parts of the great valley belore us.
'The winter log cabins we bad constructed were all unroofed by the storm of March and I was awakened by a pelling of hail and rain amidst a roar of the elements impossible to be described !
The heavy forest around us for half a mile in breadth was torn and totally prosiraled.
The escape of all our people and live stock seemed miraculous and in no instance did any boards or other timber happen to fall within the cabins that were levelled to the height of about six feet.
When severe storms like this occur passing Northeastward it is common fur ibe gales along the Atlantic coast to pursue the opposite course and vice versa.
It was in the next year 1808 a branch of a terrific hurricane passed within my view, Smith county, Tenn., doing great damage in ils passage from the Sabine by the Palmyra bend of the Mississippi and crossing the Yazoo entered Tenessee passing near Columbia, thence by Sparta and the Crab Orchard ils path passed near Knoxville and up the Holston valley to the Alleghany Mountains.
At Knoxville by day light it appeared, in passing, to be a black mountain of moving brushwood, leaves and other sub-tances which were borne along at the rate of 100 to 120 miles per hour.
The forests were levelled and trees apparently twisted off killing many animals and in the vicinage of Knoxville right persons were killed.
Most of the hurricanes from the South follow the track of this one.
On the 20th December of that year Fahrenheit's thermometer near Nashville rose from the extreme point of 8 degrees above zero to 40 degrees, when it commenced snowing and up to 24th the depth increased to 11 inches.
Three years before that snow fell to the depth of 36 inches in high districts of the same parallel eastward and remained for months, but on the occasion reterred to storms of rain attended by thunder and lightning dissolved the snow and on the 28ih of December a fearful flood spread through the entire Slate.
The Cumberland river at Nashville rose seventyiwo feet in perpendicular measure from low waler mark and the Tenessee river 56 feet at the Suck and
thirty-six, above and below that point, where the Il channel averages near half a mile in breadih.
The rains thunders and lightning continuing until the 1st of January 1809 the walers were highest on the 24, 31 and 4th since which in 1827 March, the rise was 66 feet near Nashville and the Tenessee al the Suck rose 50 feet, the Tuscaloosa 52 feet as reported and the Ohio about 50 teet though this river afterwards rose 62 feet at Cincinnati.
In the year 1793 these rivers rose still higher, the Cumberland at Nashville being 76 feet and the rest in proportion, but I would remark that now, by clearing, the limbers off the banks, the channels have be. come widened and the waters spreading on the first flais run rapidly forward, without the impediments once interposed from dense forests of timber and reeds.
In 1829-30 the waters of the Ohio, Cumberland | II and Tenessee caused a great rise in the Mississippi, 0
the rise in the Cumberland being about 56 feet at that time and usually such freshets occur during the winter months after the prevalence of North-eastern winds and black snow-clouds, are met by heavy thunder clouds from the South.
In Tenessee I have seen the snow on the plains in 1843 eighleen inches deep and in 1840 in the mountains thirty-six inches before it had seliled compactly, but the average annual tall of snow would not exceed three inches on the plains and six inches upon mountainous ranges, while the mean fall of snow and rain water in a series of years is ihirty-six inches.
Prior to the cuuing down of forests and the arundinaceous growth the mean fall of rain and snow in the same regions was forty-four inches and tortyeight or fifty in certain districts.
The quantily of rain has seriously diminished, but cannot decrease in the same ratio for time to come and the present supply is sufficient.
The mean temperature since the settlement of the country has become much colder in winter, while the suinmers are warmer, the comparison being 96 against 90 degrees; and of cold, zero against 8 degrees above that point.
The entire month of March 1843 had a mean temperature in the parallel of 360 of thirty-one and a half degrees of Farenbeit being the coldest March ever known there.
The three cold days of February 1835 in the same latitude killed oak forests in the Cumberland Mountains and I will here give the temperature along an east and west line from Nashville across the Alleghanies.
At the water edge of the Cumberland river the degree below zero was 18 and on the cliff at Nashville 20 degrees, 70 miles eastward 26 and on the summit of the Cumberland Mountain 30 and in the valley at its eastern base 17, at Knoxville 40 miles east 11; and at Saltville a little north-eastward 20, at Mount Airy 14, at Wytheville 11, at Christiansburgh on the Alleghany 12, and at the eastern base of the Blue Ridge the cold was only 5 degrees below zero.
I observed that as the cold ranged down from 10 to 20 below Zero a large amount of icicular frost fell giving the sky a deep cerulian blue, such as I had never belure seen.
When the atmosphere is cooling or heating so as to pass the degree of iemperature in running water a rapid evaporation happens within the range of 12 degrees above and below.
If the temperature of the air be changed either up or down beyond this, rain or hail is apt to tall, within a range of about 12 degree, but if exceeding this either heating or cooling, again commences rapid evaporation within certain variable limits and uncer extreme cold the air expels vapor.
This would lead to a supposition that always in the air are strata having aplitudes for expelling as well as receiving more or less moisture.
Sometimes snow is rapidly evaporated without passing inio the prior condition of water and indeed unless this were true the polar regions would eventually acquire the main share of all water by icy chains.
The delta of the Mississippi river is well adapted sor extensive evaporation containing as it does a iriangular area of alluvian 150 miles on every line and above the delta along the river for 500 miles the flats exceed 40 miles in width mostly subject to inundation during high water.
The fogs and clouds cominonly move northward or north-eastward resupplying the drainage of half - a milion of square miles, returning all the while by
the river channels but chiefly from January till July into the main river.
In giving these data I intend it to be inferred that the variations of iemperature and the concomitant actions of evaporation and condensation do mainly produce storms and give order and direc:ion to their movements over these very extensive regions.
I do not esteem the electro-magnetic inpulses, nor light, nor heat, nor the repletive or dispersive apii. tudes of mater to be materialized being only the properly manifestations arising under various conditions of substantive atoms.
The exercise of the laws or fixed relations of these properties do however, like what is called Phys. iological Tunctions, give specifie results among all the atoms or masses subjected to their control either on a small or larger scale.
I imagine these properties in regulating the joint dependencies of Solar and Terrene malier do pass in pyramidal columos from one of these bodies to the other in constant exchanges not only for yielding storm effects here, but also for subserving much more important ends both of special and of general utility in the material and in the moral universe.
In the great valley referred to it is singular that local storms are greatly less frequent during the last twenty-five years than in a like periud before, while the hurricanes flowing from the Mexican Gulf towards the Northern lakes are not much diminished in frequency or in violence.
In many places I have compared the mounds of up-routed forests exhibiting by their condition five and six generations on the same fields, indicating that not less than five hundred to one thousend years have elapsed during which storms prostrated trees apparently as in the present times.
In 1809 I saw two local storins of great severity and one without wind which over a space of about 2000 acres poured down hail as large as rifle bullets to the depth of aboui three inches ending with copious rain that washed it into heaps at low places where it lay for months.
In 1810 for some days I saw dark spots in the clear sky, moving along somewhat faster than common clouds, giving a frying sound like sand under gently breaking waves along shore and before leaving my view glittering rain streams from all round ran towards the centre, aster which a clouded appearance was presented before a total disappearance, without raining on the ground.
Such indications denote dry weather, but at the time referred to a tornado succeeded, throwing down several inches in depth of large hail and so much rain that in hollows of the hills many trees torn up were washed with masses of earth and stones to the foot of the hills where yet in Smith county the heaps may be seen.
Being in the woods and anticipating a severe blow from the manner in which the clouds collected from every course, I took refuge in a cavern around which fell the larger share of adjacent trees without any distinguishing sound from their crash, because of the winds and the thunders and the rumbling tremors of the ground.
In another local storm that passed amung short black locust limber I counted about a dozen stricken, by lightning killing several cattle and hogs,
It is strange that in a country abounding with heavy beech forests I never saw or heard of a green
beech tree being struck by lightoing while no other species of tree is exempted.
I observed a local settling of clouds for hours around Huntsville on one occasion until at last hundreds of streams of lightning shot towards the earth with reports like rifles ofien striking trees, houses and the ground and alter half an hour the clouds not moving off became exhausted and a clear sky appeared.
Before closing I will mention one or two extended hurricanes, the first leaving the Sabine passed near Palmyra and across the Mississippi around New Madrid and thence crossing the country eastward blew down the little town of Charlotte in Tenessee excepting one large house in which the people had taken retuge on hearing its approach.
The Court House of brick was torn to the foundations and the records scattered for 60 miles eastward; a Mr. Colier who was sleeping in it felt the house crumbling to pieces and found himself sailing along holding to his bed until at the distance of a few hundred yards he struck the ground having two limbs fractured.
I saw this flaming cloud as it passed near twenty miles off and going on ward it razed the houses of the town called Shelbyville, Court House and all, except a large hotel in which the people had sought sa tery, though six or seven persons were killed and others wounded.
A gentleman leaping from his office that was being lified up was killed by a flying door and his companion was carried by the wind a hundred yards and seizing a standing brush woud, held on till the wind abaicd.
In 1840 near the Alleghany mountain in the evening a black cloud 12 miles off covered with continuous streams of lightning and flying with confused motion at the rate of about sixty miles per hour was carefully observed by myself and others.
I gave it as my opinion that it was the remains of a gull hurricane which had destroyed more lives than any storms that had ever ascended the Mississippi Valley and it was indeed, the storm which passing Natchez the day before had slain two hundred people besides wounding many and doing much damage on its path to Western Tenessee and thence eastward it reached the summit of the Cumberland Moun. tain after two or three abortive efforts to cross and leaping from the summit done no damage till it struck the ground 10 miles from that point.
Space will not allow further details.
changing its channel left an island of irregular form at that place.
The Mississippi from the Missouri downward bears against ils Eastern bank washing away and transferring to the opposite side the undulating coun. try stretching fitiy or sixty miles along the Eastern side of its main current.
Moal of this undulating district lies over deep masses of quick-sands saturated with water from the River and its tributaries-quicksands and smoke of sulphureous smell, often burst forth in the prairies near New Madrid, but these I think of local origin depending on certain chemical changes occurring below-such evolucions shake most when the River has overflowed.
In some places the submerged timbers, by silification, compose a substance well adapted to the use of hones or whetstones.
I would conjecture that a strong electro magnetic current of forces, from the Southwestern toward the North-Eastern mountains, is always crossing the watery sands of this valley.
These wel quick sands are not less than one thou. sand feet in depth and may average 60 to 100 miles in width walled in, on the East, by cliffy horizontal stratified beds of old secondary limestone, al some places however interrupted by sandstone and distorted strata, as if the disturbing force had been upheaving.
Below the sandstone and limestone slaty-structures of great thickness are known to exist and probably continue across the valley, the quicksands there supplying the deficiency of limestone and hard sandstone.
I think out of this heated slate-structure exudes bi. tuminous mineral springs and oils which in the watery sands finding a “specific level” is now, ihrough slow chemical processes, forming immense fields of mine, al-coal, embracing in its bed many vegetable and animal substances of recent growth,
At the grand Gull' where sandstone is being formed, at some distant day may perhaps be found imbedded not Saurian skeletons, but steam boats with assorted cargoes buried in the present channel six hundred feet deep and again gradually upraised may, long hence, appear exposed to the light of day.
The land of the best sugar cane, has so much bituminous oils in it, as to soil blue cloth and the yearly deposits may be traced downward until from pressure, age or other ancient causes they now preseni layers not thicker than sheets of paper.
From the valley of the Mississippi proper exten's Eastward a sheet of limestone averaging one thousand feet in thickness, stratified and alınost horizontal, but cut above ground by numerous water channels, even to the range of the Cumberland mountains and other cotei minous ranges of the Alleghanies.
Near these mountains the same lime strata split by some great force has been raised many hundrer teet bove the plain country presenting a cliffy barrier, having deep lateral fissures from which the mountain streams disembogue iheir waters.
Above the table limestone-. benches of the same mountains, are massive Lime rocks and sandstone evidently never composed through alluvian or dilavian agencies, but framed outside of water beds under cold and by turns hot currents of winds and showering ice and waters of which our present tranquil elements affurd no examples upon this earth.
It is gevlogically worthy of notice-ihat amidst all the changes of the crust of this region, the very
November 15th, 1846. E Meriam, Esq.,- Dear Sir:-Yours of 24th ult. is received; you ask are the earthquakes in western Tennesee local or connected with some remote volcanic action ?
I think the surrounding alluvian plain of New Madrid has a substratum containing the immediate causes of earthquakes in that region, but I inter the remore exciting influences are to be searched for in the tropical districts of central America.
I witnessed flakes of semi-biluininous matter rising to the water's surface during an earthquake at little Prarie in (1829 I think it was) near New Madrid.
The town of New Madrid stands upon original soil and is almost the only part of the western bank of the river, from the Ohio to the Gulf, which is noi of the modern alluvian formation.
The River once run west of the Town and in
same valleys and mountains with waters or ice and vapors flowing along them have continuously existed.
The Cumberland and its appending chains along a course of 500 miles, observed at many crossings by me, are found to have a general curvature, the convex side of which is loward the South-east; but the most of the curve was induced by cross fractures of the mountain fifiy or more miles a part in the great rage, and 10 or 20 miles a part in the lesser ranges./
Where these fractures appear the rocks are broken and more or less separated in line, on the Sonth-east escarpments, but on the western sides are compressed into sharp curves or crushed into fine fragments all executed at once and forming the surface with little variation from its present state.
At these crushed points currents of water and ice at various times crossed from ihe North-west bearing the fragments South-eastward into the valleys and according to the present courses of running waters, these fragments were borne along down stream.
This is demonstrable by the fragments proper and peculiar to any break of the mountains being always found in the valley opposite and thence along the streams and mountain sides down the present streams.
Very often buulders of great size were forced over low hills of the valleys, possibly from being connected with floating ice, but aller being deposited, there remain, or are found down stream at such point as the latest agencies might convey ibem.
These remarks are not of course designed to have application to cosmogenic or other appliances at work prior to the stratification of rocks in general.
I cannot but believe ihat the solidification of the world's interior mass, must have been a sudden work, perhaps, resembling the production of meteoric stones in spaces above our denser atmosphere.
Once solidified it never since has been dissolved, notwithstanding its air, walers and entire chemical crust must have passed through several general and many important partial mulations.
It is almost certain that whilst rivers flowed along channels of this region, the material composing stratified linsslone was deposited and probably some waters frozen receiving such deposits from a disturbed and vast vapory mass above, afterwards when the ice was dissolved, left the immense cavernous channels of the West.
At any rate the perpendicular cliffy or losty limestone banks of many Western rivers denote that their waters conveyed a way the deep unconcentrated lime deposits belore they assumed their present hardness.
Besides, the successive deposits of vegetable and animal organic remains being found on the surfaces of lamina, at long successive dales, shows that, alter each few feet of lime deposit was made, other changes occurred destroying life many times in succes. sion.
It is also clear that in the earlier stages of organic being not only was the saline qualities extensively diffused but that in many places the quantity, for long intervals, was very attenuated in whatever medium contained the supply.
That at the special times when trilobites and many other organic beings were occupants of different surfaces, a comparative quiescence of the chemical agencies had arrived at some points of the earth's surface, admits of little dispute. - I should however suspect that ihese periodic changes were caused either whilst the earth's perehelions
were quiting its cometary wanderings or else some foreign heliacal mass, approaching our system so as to elevate the waters and the most suscep'able chemical superstructure of the world, caused 1requent changes of its Ecliptic, and thereby rapid successions of life and death among the early animals of the North andhe Sou ith climates.
Speculative as such suggestions may seem, they will soon command grave enquiry, if I be not mislaken in the results of some of the latest astronomical researches.
In the field of chemical action subsisting around the earth, more or less obedient to solar and lunar intluences and greatly affecting the life and sound health of animated creatures, much remains for scientific investigation.
I have seen at periodic times immense generations of insects peculiar to certain localities and also special plants, fruits and trees, passing through succes. sions of flourishing lite all of which reached periods of decay and ol epidemic disease and death.
Do poisonous almospheres move around the earth under the direction of the stable laws imposed by lunar and solar influence without being worthy of sapatory allention ?
But a few years elapse during which the air is nearly all transferred, with various admixtures of foreign gazevus and other substances, around the earth westwardly; our does a century pass away without the mass of watery elements also making a revolution around the earth by atmospheric, tidal cceanic currents and other availalile means of transfer.
The politicaland social state thrives not, if the physiologic condition is the prey of extensive maladies.
Agricultural chemistry and solutions of epidemic causes of disease are receiving and must receive, examinations adapted to the state and condition of new eras in society.
Perhaps no where on the globe is found so large an area based on the primeval unbroken deposits as that between the great Lakes and the Mexican Gull, the Rocky Mountains and the Alleghany Ridge.
The variety of soils and climate, of vegetable and animal life, all appear new and vigorous, and at many points the present forests are the first which have grown, while in some districts are evidences that five or six aged generations of trees succeeded one another.
On limestone plains of most recent formation the greatest commixture of the vegetating kingdom occurs, and in progress of time, those plants and trees to which the soil and climate are best adapled, eradicate and take exclusive possession from the others.
This is especially observable along the Gulf and Florida coasts and interior districts, where immense animal and vege!able deposits under shallow fresh waters compose new rocks and superincumbent soils, richly iinbued with lime in a softened condi. tion.
In these districts the animaculous and zoophilic organities in their collective capacity effect gigantic productions preparatory to higher orders of life.
You ask whence comes the germs that rapidly give varieties of timber to the open prairies of the West ?
I cannot determine that question, not having a sufficiency of facts connected with the subject before me.
I do not call an organization, that inevitably results from certain states of matter, "spontaneous."
linter that the properties of inanimale globes, reactive upon each other, may originale olher globes according 10 methodized relations implanted by the intelligent auubor of the Universe.
I know that in the vegetaling and in the animal | organizations, certain male and female aptitudesexist for procreation of kindred offspring.
At some time every organic being had its incipient state and must reach the time of dissolution, and I know not a reason why new organic products might not be as well now created in our ihealre of things, as occurrences of like kind in later cosmogenic localities of the skies.
The whole phenomena of parasitic and engrafted and mongrel varieties of species preseut subjects for inquiry by no means prohibited by the Mosaic record of peopling the earih.
At that time the much greater design, had not displayed 10 our moral world, the fact of the regeneration by revivification of the human body, and in the future “things no less startling” are on the wing for developement.
I have seen no evidence that the African race may not have been originated after Noah's Deluge, by the Author of the Adamic Creation.
Nor, after all the human race shall have become extinct under the fixed Astronoinic laws controlling our solar system, is there any sound reason for supposing that the Benificient Ruler of all, may not cause this field of his vineyard, so well adapled 10 the labors of reason, again to be inhabited by conceptive animals as well as by a race having capacities of rationality such as man now has.
Be this as it may there is no scriprural annunciation or any revelation proving that the Crealor at any time will deprive himself of the power of its exercise for effecting utilitarian objects suited to the exigencies of the moral system every where prevalent in the Universe.
It is curious that the grub-worm from which is made the chrysalis for the June bug, sometimes, in decayed moist timber, will be found dead with a vcgelative plant or sprout arising from the inner part of the body, back of the head.
I often heard that various shrubs had been so found generating and I was surprised at finding two of them myself, the worm being entire and the plant stems above an inch in length resembled the tender bean stem a few days afier sprouting.
I came to no conclusion about it, being opposed to admitting that any new organizations have arisen since the Adamic creation.
I have wiltnesseil in wild meadows and cultivated swampy lands annual and extensive changes in grasses and plants and afier cutting down forests have been unable to guess what trees would newly appear, unless first practically acquainted with the habils of such lands in the vicinity.
Very often new growths entirely, spring up from recently cleared forest lands and the last being cut away, after twenty or thirty years growth, still a different class of trees will appear, but it is said the primeval families will arise atier many successions upon all lands.
I have in no instance seen a tree or plant spring forth which may not elsewhere be found of like species but, in the latest formed lands of the Floridas a strange mixing of Northern and Southern trees and plants may be observed.
In the Mammoth Cave are craw.fish and a small smooth skinned fish without eyes, such organs in those dark recesses not being necessary for animal comforts,
If any new animal beings have been creaied on 11 I have then, merely made some suggestions in 11 rolled over them whilst the composition was yet the earth within the last six thousand years I should Il yankee fashion, instead of answering what I do not !! solt. still conclude with Mr. Lyell that nature is exceed. know.
In the caverns to which you refer and in their bu. ingly economical in affurding such specimens.
Iu regard to your question whether in the sand. rial grounds by personal inspection you could learn The subject has never yet been exainined with that stone plains of the Cumberland Mountains the many trails allaching to the habits ol these ancient variety of experiment and observation applied to bridge-like sound from carriages passing over may people. many less interesting questions. not arise from cavernous openings below ? (
*** The ancient Microbeons "the long livers" were suc answer, no, because caverns rarely are found in ceeded by the Arabian Alchemists in the same re sandstone formations and the sound is better account.
From the Boston Transcript. gions and it is far more certain that lives were very
ed for by the fact that their lamina in many places prolorged than that metals were transmuied as was lalterally compressed are sprung into slightly arch
Artesian Wells. idly supposed.
ed form, and in dry lines no water fills the interprYet under their alchemical mystics appears hidden sing spaces.
An experiment is now making at East Boston, an ancient knowledge of magnetic polarity and cer The strongly feruginous character of the sand. on a grand scale, to determine a polot of immense lain chemical and vitalizing effects which might yet
stone also adds to the capacily for giving out sounds; importance to the present and future interest of be worthy of careful experiments. I observed however al one place where the arching
that thriving section of the meiropolis, viz. : whethVital organization negatives the electro-dispersive sand-rocks overlay a coal stratuni of unknown. tendencies as well as the allractive qualities of alo depth, within three miles of steam navigation on the
er a sufficient quantity of potable water ean be obmic properties, to a very strong extent, and it seems Tennessee river, that a horse passing over causes a
tuined, 10 supply the necessities of the inhabitants, to ine probable, that imitations of the same neutrali rumbling sound which alarmed me when passing by boring into the earth. Believing that the details zing charcter may vivity certain atomic combina. over it in the dark for the first time.
of the operation may be gratitying to others, as they tions which previously had no lite.
The people stated there was a great coal bed beThe Magical Zodiac destroyed by the Epileptic low and specimens from the vicinity were shown of are to myself, this paper at your disposal. Cambyse; was supposed to possess powers for ex excellent quality and yet it was neither bituminous The locality on which the work of penetratending life, it not for originaling energies not com nor was it anthracile coal of the ordinary kind.
tion to a depth never before attempted in New mon to ineri particles of matter, and to this Homer, In that vicinity are inexhaustible mines of iron 1100 years before Christ, alludes as the directive ore which may be quarried, lying in flakes of red
England, is going on, is on the easterly part of agency which could guide the ships amidst storms dish color like red sand stone and requiring no wash
East Boston, above the margin of the marsh, beand darkness. ing or fluxing tor furnace work.
yond the settlement. A few houses only are in the I have observed that strong impulses upon the Higher up the river are cliffs of ore 80 per cent
neighborhood. A framed building was erected in mother's mind during gestation will cause special in richness and for miles along the valley the pine impresses to be made upon the fætus during the first forests stand over great depibs of clean pure black
the begining, and an excellent steam engine set, up six months of pregnancy, either implanting peculi. sand containing from 15 to 75 per cent of pure iron with various kinds of appended apparatus 10 con. arities upon its intellect or affixing imprints of sen the sottest and most maleable and tenaceous I have duct the labor with economical facility. Mr. Higsible objects upon its physical structure.
ever used. A lady of this vicinity hearing her husband was
gins, the Engineer, already tamiliar with the busi
Lower down, the projected railway, (130 miles slain by Indians at his camp after being shot through long from Chatanooga to Nashville) will pass through
ness, having sunk many Artesian wells in the city the knee, became insane at the news and her off an extensive coal field reported to me eight feet in to eighty, ninety, and one hundred feet, has devised spring some months afterwards was found to have thickness.
a new instrument for drilling down through all opdeep indentations upon both sides of the knee, with As to the Cavern about which you inquire near scarlet lines and warts representing blood trickling Columbia Tennessee, newly discovered. I know no
position, unlike any tool in ordinary use for the from the imaginary wounds down the leg. thing, besides the newspaper account representing its
same purpose. He has abandoned the common I have observed too that pioneer hunters acquire extent to be like that of the Mammoth Cave.
earth augur, the handle of which is lengthened from peculiar motions of the muscles and by failing to The Sauda Cave on the Tennessee river and the time to time by locking on a succession of iron rods, exercise the higher energies of intellect during seve Big-bone Cave in Warren county contain great
turned by a winch and by hand power. His invenral generations, those portions of brain proper to the quantities of saltpetre earth and many human and higher pursuits of reason, remain undeveloped to a other bones.
tion is essentially as follows: a cast iron tube, eight great extent, so that a low retreating forehead with From the latter was taken the skeleton of a huge inches in diameter, ten feet, or thereabouts, in length hair reaching near the brows is one result. animal shaped like a bear, the fore pa ws of immense
is armell at one end with two prodigiously strong I knew a tribe of hogs which for thirty years had size and the spine had joints 10 or 12 inches in difed ainong heated ashes, generation aller generation,
chisels; and just above them is an ingeniously deameler. until all the offspring acquired hard long claws, Near this skeleton in the nitrons earth were the vised valve. At the other extremity is a wrought like eagles, turned upward, both hoofs and dew preserved bodies of an Indian male and female, their iron bandle, fastened to which is a stout, short linkclaws.
arms einbracing each other and each having a sepa ed iron chain, to raise it up and down. When in The race was a few years since killed and are now rate matting-woven-cover besides a larger ceremenextinct at the place. lal garment around both.
action, it operates upon the principle of a common I need not multiply examples of such mutations of I saw a portion of the maiting abou: 1812 and one chopping knife, so familiar in mince pie manipulastructure, since the vegetable and the farm dumestic of the large bones_ihe maiting or cloth was made lations. The engine raises and then lets it fall, like animals afford specimens of constitutional change of of Paupau bark and strippings of feathers well wo
the perpendicular movement of a dasher in the color and ot habits and of structure to every observer, ven and carded on one side so as to have a velvetine yet I am firmly persuaded that all such variations appearance.
obselete method of churning buiter. As the bits of are confined within certain fixed latitudes or contin Cul. Mathas found in another cavern a very large stone or other materials accumulate every time the gent "circles of rule” which may not be transgres Indian man perfectly preserved in nitrous mould and massive tube drops, they are forced up through the sed. having very long black hair like those first named.
the tuhe, and retained. Finally, when enough has I think experiments of the daguerreotype im
In the Mammoth Cave I have heard was found presses continued upon germinating seeds and young the preserved body of a sinall woman and of a
been chopped to fill the cylinder of the drill,—the plants, together with the action of magnetism equal child.
name of it, -the engine draws it to the surface to be ly surrounding and neutralizing ordinary gravity and Usually many bones, earthen pots and other Indi emptied. The cost of the one Mr. Higgins is labor. chemical impressions, might exhibit some curious an relics are found in caves.
ing with, was six hundred dollars. results in reg ird to variations of functions and or One that had a fancy to examine caverns might ganisins. long employ himself in Alabama, Tennessee and
Before resorting to this unique contrivance at all, The germ in the egg, and every fetal creature, Kentucky; as for mysellt I never had much liking -an ordinary well was dug 140 feet--lo a stratum not only have inpale functions but receive exterior for such houses.
of hard, compact gravel interspeased with wateraid from the living matrix or from chemical appli That people who irterred their dead in conic
worn stone, of various sizes. On this Mr. Higgins ances during the incubescent condition.
mounds over all sections of the Mississippi valley Every ovarian state of individuality is parasitic, I think did not much reside in caverns.
set a cast-iron tube of len inches diameter-and usuriously claiming subsistence, from the parental, *They reared Indian corn, eat the wild artichoke another on the top of that, secured by water-tight as well as from other adventitious sources of sup and perhaps the wild Irish potato, nuts, acorns, the joints, and so on to the very outlet above ground. port. tomato and used the wild tobacco and sunac for
This long, ponderous cylinder, is carefully braced In Zoophitic and other lowest grades of organiza smuking. tion the surrounding matter is appropriated with They resided in villages near which the corn
on the outside all the way, to keep it exactly perpenvery slight dimunutions of its chemical liteless apti. grounds of the communily were cultivated and com. dicular, and within it the mighty battering ram is tudes, and when budies still living or lately deprived mon fish ries and muscle gathering were carefully let down and set in motion, against the realm of Pluof lite are changed into myriads of animalculous managed.
to. As fast as the hole was deepeneil, the weight of worins, whence do these insects have character ?
Some pieces of native copper badly hammered You perceive after my long desultory lelter is they used for ornaments as well as pearly portions
the superincumbent pipe, pressed down farther, par. closing that no satistactory reply is given to your of the muscle shell-some beads were made of the ing the sides as it goes. All accumulation from enquiries respecting the earthquake regions of Ten fossil apiocrinites and anklets of the bones of the bea.
that source, with its own chips, were secered by the nesee nor in regard to the origin of trees and of ver and the deer-sun dried bricks were rarely used plants over the great barrens and prairies of the for the ftooring of the Council House and usually their
valve. After passing ten feet of the mixture descriwest.
earthen pols bear the impress of ears of corn being bed, the instrument struck a hard blue slate stone, rivers it was formerly the custom for boatmen to determine wbich shore was nearest, and how far distant, by stamping on the deck, or giving a shrill whistle, and noticing the return of the echo from the nearest shore-a little practice will enable the observer to estimate distances with great accuracy.
The construction of a partments for public speaking is a very nice matter, and should receive more attention than is generally given to this subject.
It is as easy to ascertain the hygromatic state of the atmosphere of an apartment, as it is to determine the temperature of the air. Yours, &c. Nov. 27, 1846.
Rain.—The tall of rain at Saltville, Va., in the month of November, 3 inches 63.100 ot an inch, of which, two inches and seventeen hundredths feli in the night time. At Syracuse, 6 inches and 15.100 of rain fell in November,
EQUILIBRIUMS.-In November, at Syracuse, New York, 9ih, 10th, 11th, 20th, 21st, and 22d, and atmos. phere in a peculiar state 1st, 30, 12h, 13th, 16th, 18th 23d, 25th, and 28th.
through which Mr. Higgins urged his way at the lis lar greater than the labor of speaking in a cold
sation of his men a mile distant. Capt. Parry winFinally-on Saturday evening last - the cutter lered in the same latiude with the ships Hecla and penetrated right into that straitum-making the en. Griper, and during the coldest weather, the labor of tire depih alihat date-303 feel. The tube rests on ciearing ihe ice and moisture from the timber about slate, by which it is sustained and water, soft and the births where the men slept, was great, in conseagreeable in flavor, rises in it to the height of 200 quence of the condensing by great cold the vapor feet ; propably it comes from between the seams and produced by the breaih of the men. The windows fractures of the rock, since none can be possibly forc of a room twenty feet square become frosted during ed in laterally.
a single night in very cold weather, hy the vapor of A singular accident occurred last week, the
the breath of one person. In a clear cold morning relation of which may be of service to those en
the vapor of the breath of a person may te seen at a gaged in a similar undertaking. An Irishman,
considerable distance as il passes from the mouth and whose duty it was to tend the brake-and ease
nostrils, this vapor becomes frosted in cold weather, the drill down slowly, neglected the lever for and may often be seen on the hair that bangs around an instant, when down run the whole, embrac the face, or on the garments that happen to come in ing a chain 300 feet in length, with tremendous contact with the breath. These facts show that the velocity, the last end flying from the barrel around va vor which arises from the human breath is highly which it was wound. The momentum wedged it in charged with moisture, and if from one person so to the long lonely tube as snugly as though it had great a quantity is prodcced in a single night, an esbeen driven in with a piston. By patient efforts timate may be easily formed of the aggregate pro. trom Tuesday till Saturday, a link was luckily duced in a heated apartment from the breath of 1000 caught with a fish-hook. Cautiously drawing the persons during two hours. There is a difficulty be. line hand over hand, the chain was ultimately recov. yond all this-in a large assemblage there may be cred, when there was a singular and unlooked tor dif. many persons whose systems are disordered, and ficulty. Some mischievous fellow had dropped in the vapor o! their breach very highly charged with what mechanics call a cold chisel, of hardened offensive matier, and this floating in a heated moist steel, six inches of which was broken ot by the cut atmosphere, becomes injurious to a healthy person ters of the drill, and brought up by the faithful valve. to breathe, and still more injurious to a person who The other part, some two or three inches long, by is speaking for an hour at a time in such an atmoshall an inch square, being still at the bottom, a phere. small magnet was sent down on a message, but Steamboats afford an opportunity for illustration. brought up nothing but splinters. Mr. Higgins In the cabins of large steamboats filled with passenconcluded to wait till Monday, (to day) and then gers at night, the at nosphere in the morning is very drop in one of the largest magnets 10 be procured, unpleasant to a person going into the cabin from the entertaining no doubts, in regard to the feasibility deck. of bringing out the obtrusive tool.
Persons who sleep in apartments in which no fire
I have made my couch on the high mountain top
with green boughs and used the same for a coverTo W. H. STARR, ESQ.,
ing, as well as for a pillow-and I have reposed in Doar Sir:-I notice in your paper of the 26th ult., a snow house in the wilderness and in both slept a paragraph headed." Importance of good ventilation," more sweetly than I ever slept in a crowded cabin copied from an English paper.
in a steamer, for both on the mountain's top and in The ven:ilation of an apartment must be in con the snow house, I had a purer aimosphere to breathe. formity with the temperature of the atmosphere of Sound is wonderfully affected by temperature, that apartment.
hence the calculation generally made as to the size Formerly, in New England, it was the custom to of apartments in reference fo the labor of the speakerect meeting houses on high ground, these build. ing is erroneous, the size of the apartment has but ings were not surnished with either stoves or fire little lo do with the estimale. The temperature and places, ministers who preached in these meeting hou. peculiar shape of the apartment governs the sound. ses were healthy and long lived.
I have made experiments upon sound on the pinna. The practice in New England, in this, has chang. le of high mountains, on broad rivers, in the Mamed within the last forty years. Church edifices are moth cave several miles under ground-in circunow furnished with stoves, and ministers are less I lar apartments surmounted by high hemispherical healthy, and shorter lived than their predecessors. domes, and the result of these was most convincing.
The labor of speaking in a crowded beated room, 1 Duriag dark nights on the Mississippi and Ohio
The Great HURRICANE IN CUBA.—The Diario, of Havana, publishes a list of the houses destroyed or injured, in and about the city, by the terrible hurricane of the 10th and ilth of October. Houses destroyed, 1275; more or less injured, 1038. Of the former, 36 were of stone, and 1239 of wood; of the lauter, 225 were of stone, and 813 of wood. In the district of Guanabacoa, there were ten persons killed and twenty-eight wounded, more or less grievously. In Tepaste, where there were fifteen coffee-plantations, the most of the plant was destroyed, with a full third of the sugar cane. In Potreros full three. fourths of the tobacco plants were annihilated ; also, the white and black beans and vegetables; the ban. anas are all lost. The potatoes and yams escaped without much injury, being under-ground productions. An immense quantity of domestic stock, cattle, pouliry, etc., were destroyed. In Buenavista and San Miguel, the polatoes, Indian corn, bananas, and vegetables of all descriptions suffered immensely.- True Sun, Dee. 14.
Had an earthquake accompanied the storm, the stone houses would have suffered the most. It is highly probable that the hurricane was the offspring of an earthquake.
EQUILIBRIUMS.-In November, at Sallville, Va. 6th, 7th, and 8th; atmosphere in a peculiar state on the 1st, 3d, 4th, 11th, 12th, 18th, 19th, 220, 24th, 27th, 28th and 29th.
TEMPERATURE.-The highest temperature in November, at Saltville, Va., 700 on the 2d, from 2 to 4, P. M., lowest on the 27th ; 90 from 6 to 7, A. M.Highest at Syracuse, New York, on the 3d, at 3, P. M., 690. Lowest at sunrise on the 27th, 200. At Brooklyn, New York; highest on the 3d from 2 104, P. M., 6710. Lowest on the 27th, at 8, A. M., 24o.
COLD IN THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE.—The whale ship Merrimac, of Newbury port, was off Cape Horn on the 4th of July of the present year. Snow storms prevailed, aodice islands were abundant and of great height. The cold was very severe, the thermometer ranging from 40 deg. 10 48 deg below zero. Cape Horn is in South Latitude about 56 deg.,
and West Long. about 67 deg. This is very cold I weather for that laliluae.