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of their work. Accordingly, they determined to The cost of the machinery and buildings, £36,000. hours; and, allowing for contingencies, the Lake erect three gigantic Steam engines (from the designs Two other Engines of equal size and power are will be be pumped out in about 400 days, at a total of their engineers, Messrs. Joseph Gibbs and Arthur now being constructed by Messrs. Harvey, ot Hayle,
cost, including the price of the Engines, buildings, Dean, of London, of a peculiar construction. and Messrs. Fox & Co., ol Perran, in Cornwall,
&c., not exceeding £140,000. By the old system of The first of these Engines, called the Leeghwater, who also manufactured the Leeghwater: no higher
Sieam Engines the cost would have exceeded £240,was completed last year, and has been experimental encomium can be passed upon those establishments,
000; and to do the same work in four years by wind, ly worked during several months. The result has than the simple fact of their being entrusted with
would require 114 first rate vindmills at a cost of been most satisfactory to the Commissioners-the
the manulacture of these, the three largest Engines £308,000. The annual cost of keeping the Lake consumption of coal has been reduced to two and a in the world.
drained by wind would have been £6,100; by the half pounds per horse power, per hour, or one-sixth part The united action of the three Engines will dis old system of steam engines £10,000; and by the only of the average consumption of the ordinary drain
charge about 2,800,000 tons of water per twenty-four | improved system but £4,500. ing Engines; nor has the performance of the Engine, as regards the quantity of water lifted, been less successful; it will raise 112 tons of water 10 feet high at each stroke, and is capable of discharging 1,000,000 tons in 254 hours.
It is impossible to foresee the luture results of this great improvement in the economy of Steam-engine fur litting great bodies of water to a comparatively
HAARLEM small height; it will completely revolutionize the present system of drainage in the Netherlands; and in the South of Europe and the Tropics may be productive of enormous benefits, it applied to the irrigation of lands bordering the rivers, which, in the dry scason, are frequently ten or twelve feet below the level of the surrounding country.
HAARLEMMER MEER A short description of the Leeghwater Engine may prove interesting to our readers; we have, therefore, engraved a diagram of the Engine and Pumps. It has two steam cylinders, one of 84 inches in diame er (A,) placed within another of 144 inches diameter (B B;) both are fitted with pistons;
AMSTERDAMI the outer piston is of course annular, and the two pistons are united to a great cross-head, or cap, C, which is furnished with a guide rod, or spindle (c;) both pistons and cross-head are fitted with iron plates, and together, with parts of the Engine attached, have an effective weight of nearly 90 tons. The Engine House is a circular tower, on the
ZUIDER ZEE walls of which are arranged 11 large cast iron bal. ance-beams, which radiate from the centre of the
The Blind SAILOR AND HIS FAITHFUL DOG.–There I nale. The falls of rain has been light and the weaEngine. Their inner ends, furnished with rollers,
is frequently to be seen upon the steps of the Park | ther bas been warm, both operating together, are the are brought under the circular body of the great cap, Theatre a blind sailor and his faithful dog lying cause of the low state of water. and their outer ends are connected to the pistons of
beside him. The dog leads his blind master to these
steps and watches him while he remains there. The STORM AT ALEXANDRIA.-There was a severe storm 11 pumps of 63 inches diameter each ; the stroke of blind sailor has a small box filled with cigars for
at Alexandria, D. C., on Saturday, the 7th, the tide both ends is 10 feet; and the discharge from the
sale with a label upon it, saying that he is a blind rose very high, and two new buildings were blown pumps 66 cubic metres, or tons, of water per stroke. sailor, that he has a little family to support and begs down by the wind. The action of the Engine is very simple: it is on
the buyer to deal honestly with him. It is instructive
THUNDER AND LIGHTNING.–There is not to be the high-pressure-expansive-condensing principle. nipe fidelity, and it is humbling at the same time to found on record an instance of loss of human life The steam is admitted first beneath the small pis human pride. The dog seems fully sensible of his
by lightning in a building or vessel protected by a ton; and the dead weight of 90 tons is listed, carry charge, and truly faithtul in the discharge of his du. ing with it the inner end of the pump balances D, ty.
metallic lightning conductor, nor in a building A few peonies dropped in the blind sailor's box draws from the faithful animal a look full of mean
stored with iron. The fact requires no argument. and of course allowing the piston to descend in the
ing, for it has an indescribable expression of grati pumps E. tude.
SAVINGS OF LABOR. The deposites in the Savings The equilibrium valve then opens, and the steam
Institutions in this State, the product of Industry, the
CHARITABLE Societies.-Good men, whose hearts savings of labor, exceed in amount all the specie in A passes round to the upper suface of the small, are filled with the milk of human kindness are in all the monied Institutions in the Staie. and annular piston ; puts the former in a state of aoxious to promote all benevolent objects, and we see the names of such individuals among the patrons of
The PROSPERITY OF THE PEOPLE OF MASSAURU. equilibrium, and presses with two-thirds of its force Christian Societies. It is often that a humble suf
SETTS.-The wealth of the people of Massachusetts upon the annular piston, beneath which a vacuum ferer will make an application to an individual for
is the result of their industry and frugality. Massais always maintained-thus, the down stroke of the aid who would nut apply to a charitable society and
chusetts has no mines of either gold or silver, (save Engine, and the elevation of the pump pistons (F) kiod-bearted people should not turn away such ap
that newly discovered gold mine in Dedham) and and water, is produced by the joint action of the de
yet the people are more wealthy than those of the plicants with ihe reply that they must apply to the society. A kind word to the humble and distressed
richest mining district of the world--are more intel scending dead weight in the cap and pistons, and the
applicant, and a little reliet, will not only gladden ligent, and possess more enjoyments, pressure of steam on the annular piston.
the heart of the applicant, but it will at the same time The steam is expanded from six to eight times its sosten the pillow of the person giving relief, will add
Rock MILLS.-Mills for grinding rock are of great original volume.
to lengih of days and afford in the evening of life use to the farmers. Mr. Bogardus, No. 40 Eldridge
sensations that all the riches of earth beside would street, constructs small mills for grinding rock that The Engine has two air pumps, of 40 inches di. be inadequate to purchase.
are capable of reducing hard rock to an impalpable ameter, and 5 feet stroke each.
powder. There are several species of rock which it The waler is lifted by the pumps into the Canal
WATER OF THE RIVER AT ST. LAWRENCE.-The ground as fine as flour and thrown into a hill of corn,
Kingston, Upper Canada Chronicle states that the a handful in each hill, will be equal in value with H, from which it passes off towards the sea sluices.
water of the River St. Lawrence is three feet and manure. The rock now lyin's waste on the farms The total weight of iron employed for the Engine,
five inches lower than it was ten years ago, and that in the United States, exceed in real value all the pumps, &c., is 640 tons.
ll if it continues to fall it may seriously affect the ca- | gold mines in the world,
October 30, 1846. E. Meriam, Esq.-- Dear Sir:-In my iwo letters, observations on meteorology and concerning the earthquakes of 1811–12 were made, and in this I will extend my remarks to the phenomena of tides as connected with atmospheric changes.
The most ancient astrologists currectly assumed that motion of atoms or masses represented not the direct allraclile, or rejectile forces singly, but was an exponent of the uncancelled differences constantly arising between those forces inherently allaching to all malter.
By the action of th: 'se opposing laws it is rendered impossible that any iwo foreign globes can come into contact without their prior dissolution into elas. tic gas.
To illustrate these laws by the phenomena of our tides, I may assume that if the sun and moun's substance were formed into a hollow sphere surrounding the earth, no inequalities of iide could arise.
But aside from solar interference, the greatest lide is yielded when the moon acts with the greatest obliquiry through the equatorial plane or longest diameier of ihe earth.
Wherefore it may be inferred that the opponent tendencies of gravitation and repellence originale lides during inchoate efforts at equations, between home conservative and foreign disturbing forres.
The earth and moon each emanate a conic column of relations concentrating upon their joint pirot of motion, but at the same time, the pariicles of both orbs preserve stronger action convergent on their own respective true centres.
The movement of water is an eqnipoising atiempt to provide against the accruing differences between the home and foreign influences upon the same matter and hence an altitude of 40 feet lide, near the Arctic Circle, when the moon's declination is 28 degrees from the plane of the equator, wouid be resolved into a lide ot' 20 feet, were the moon's action coincident with that plane.
In every case ot tides, it happens that the sides of the earth and the moon next each other grant an ascendency to the foreign attractions over the recipro. cal repellent actiun, but on the exterior sides the at. tractions, are counteracted because ihe mutual repel. lences have no opposition from the exterior direction, to their action.
This elevation of tides equally in opposite direct. ions is therefore no paradox else we could not find the magnetic allractive and repellent attribu:es cvetaneously resident in the same mariner's needle, yet, in the one case !he resulis are very diminutive and in the other very magnificent.
The solar hear, form of ocean beds, sea-currents and other causes which might disturbelecir-galvanic forces in the earth's crusi, may and do n.odily lidal phenomena.
The sun's tropical influence whilst advancing round the world induces winds, clouds and many chemical effecis which for the time widely aiffer 1rom results in arctic regions.
In the tropics springs flow by force of these causes but in the arctic circles water becomes solid and yet equal. amounts of water can be evaporated in either region and at every point it should be remembered, the hail or any growing apple became uplitied before falling to the ground by gravity.
It is certain that all those classes of properties termed calorific, luminous, gravitating or elastic, or any designated as electro-magnetic-effluence are actual subjects of intangible law and do even become viv. ified instruments for manifesting moral capacities.
By living organization, spirituosity altains devel. opement and seizing upon simple instinctive percep. tions tests the soundness of verities and by careful collocations reaches remote deductions in rationalism.
The inferior animals enjoy many instinctive ca pacities for knowing in common with the human race, but man only posesses an interior self capable of employing simple instinctive conceptions for abstruse reasoning.
Between all substances near or remote dependen would force the latter 10 expand and a circular cies exist and the motion of the moon impresses i he plane might result. earth in all its paris, por can antipodes move on the Itihen ihe rolaring velocily were again doubled the earth without transfers however insensibly, of elec central parts passing toward the enlarging exteriro-magnetic influences between them.
or would form a ring and yet the periods of rola. Were the axis of the earth a hollow cylinder, an tion mighi remain the same, the space iraversed by iron rod extending through, might remain pois any radius being always proportionale to the time. ed and it an iron ring reaching round the at By means of sufficient distance from a pivot, one mosphere were suspended on the poles, the ring
pound may counierpoise one hundred, and other would accompany the moon and sun's place as bodies out of ihe way every two orbs must find a lides do, at an eclipse.
point between thein at which their relations being Needles suspended on such a ring indicate latitude
equivolents, the motion of one, in any direction, by dipping and a chronomeleri ndicare longitude by
involves motion of the order in 'he opposite way, observing the ring's position.
presenting by necessity circularity or spirality of Such rod and rings would contain points strongly
orbits. polarized while their centcs mighi prisent the op The positive and negative parts of magnetized posile tendency in a duplex degree.
needles, cast into collissiun, shew the principles of The lav of gravity hypothecates the altainment of
circular equipoise. absolule repletion, while the electro dispersire lendencies
But since foreign agencies prevent two bodies search after cntire negation, but during the arranged as
from defining a stationary distance and then preserv. condeney of gravity over the face of our globe, neither
ing it without change, the like influence may primaof these extremes can be consummated,
rily give extreme eccediricily to æritorm productSoinething approximatingihe extinction of matter
ions, which streaming millions of miles as they pass, happens, when steam deflagrales, or the lightning
may, from the action of'a ibirillike influence, sud. decomposing the moisture in the Aak, rends it with a
denly lose that eccentrie action by exchanges of negasudden expanse anıt sequential collapse.
live and positive or more properly altractile and reElectro-Magnetic relations probably compose the jectile properties atijmes of greatest proximity. chiel media of columpar intercourse between sun An æritorm comel sometimes strikes its course as and sun and world and world ihrough all the sky, if for the sun's centre or edge of his disc, when distances serving perhaps as paths for intelligent ac instantly changing iis polarities, as do sireains of tion, as it were, along Telegraphic wires.
light, gravily, and caloricily, the course of travel is Wherever the concentrative and ihe dispersive laws reversed, leaving the sun, with as much vehemence equally govern any substance, it is usually gas. as lightening leaves a cloud. eous and elastic as it indisposed to become either In order rightly to apprehend the force and control more eiherial or more solid.
of nature's laws these in ust be examined into as opeThere are many nebulæ or flocculent misis in rative in all stales of matter and of all efficient stales the skies which at last disappear streaming through of properties before and after constituency of a living the heavens with elecıric velocity.
body or of a world. Are such æriform comets aliment for suns or Having in a desultory way, stated the foregoing do they derive support from the latter until filed lo facts and opinions, I may deduce the following prinbecome planets ?
ciples as indicating general laws. These clouds are supposed to form nucleal mass The first law embraces gravitating or aggregative es whose orbits attain less and less eccentricity un tendencies among aloms and globes and is conserul they become denizens of some solar system.
vative. In 1811 l wilnessed the rapid approach of the The second law antagonistic of the first decombrushy tailed comet to the sun, which apa parently poses and finally destroys all configurations, even interchanged polarizing lendencies with that Lumi vulgarding the extinction of gas into etherial samenary and recreated with like velocity, describing ness. the lines of an acute angle.
Of course both these imply a primordial originIts nucleus was said to be about 2760 miles in di ator. ameler, and its presence, as people supposed, pur The third law pervades organic living attributes lended war pestilence and earthquakes.
whereby the two preceding laws, to some extent, are The lale comet of 1843 should have the elements aided, and in other respecis subdued. of its motion compared with that of A. D. 1220 and The fourth law attaches to spiritized morals with 1402 having a periodicity of 88 years, pert:aps al that auto-pulside subsistence which ascending above ternately with 83 year period.
the straial state of being, seems necessarily to be I saw the comei ol 1843 on March 20,616,71h, 11th ever-during in all the principles of conscious idenard 171h, al which last dale iis luminous probuscis tily. was 80 or 90 degrees in length and on 24th extend The two last laws are merely alluded 10, and the ing above Sirius.
two first seem to embrace all the varieties ol altractOn the 25th the luminous stream was very dim ive and repellaul attributes belonging to inanimate and early in April disappeared from view.
maller. It is said to have appeared in December and in Under every condition of inanimate substance the January a surprizing brilliance belonged to the sun, mulion of mater is a direct exponent of uncompen. giving a burning sensation like the summer heat. saied balances subsisting between the iwo first des.
Stormy black thunder-clouds from the south were cribed laws or classes of relations congeneral with succeeded by heavy Show-storms from the north. malter.
In March and April the twilighis of evening and Because motion of maller is a product, grades of morning were ot too long duration, and so loity velocity must always represent the alternating as. were several thin strala of clouds that I concluded cendancy of the one law over the other, as well bethe cometary stream had left for our air, part of its tween adjacent atoms, as between remole inasses in wispy electric lights as it passed swilily near our the same systein. earth.
The tendency lo depart from a right line is thereThe mean temperature of March was 32 degrees, fore a seyuence of opposing central and centrifugal lat. 35, long. 9 degrees.
excitations craving an absolute equation rarely alCould that comet, afier partial dissolution, have lainable. executed several revolutions in the sun's deep almos. Under approximate contact gravitation sustains phere and atier reversing all its affinities with the atoms against the segregart aptitudes, which would sun, was cast off with electro-magnetic lights such as indefinitely expand ihe same. were witnessed ?
Alter every extensive dispersion of atoms or The rapid Aight of cometary streamers in void globes, lhe aggregative law finds ultimate ascendan. space and the subsequent retreat of such vapors back cy, and a nucleal beginning gains superambrient to the comet, indicate an enlarged action of some materials which war with each other, till most conlaw opposed to gravitation or else an action, incon venient affinities being finished, comparative quies. sistent with the unity that ought to attach to that cence is allained as now appears on the face of our pervading influence.
globe. It the world could become suddenly extinct leav Globes are definite in form and in number at any ing its revolving atmosphere, no collapse would ne given time and although ever creating, cannot fill cessarily ensue, but if the rotation were doubled, immensily, por if advancing, as must be the case, the polar parts advancing upon the equatorial II loward one center, do all reach there before passing int extinction, since, like vegerating successions, the waste of one gives place for others.
Yours respecifully, *****
October 5th, 1846. E. Meriam, Esq.
Dear Sir:-In my last letter I laid down some general laws apparently attaching to malier and ever yielding certain specific results instead of chance medley effects or absurd contradic:ions.
The failure of globes in given systems to express perfections ot space and time ratios in their motions so far from showing any detect, do actually constitute mathematical data for surprising attainments regarding the unitary excellence of the celestial mechanism.
Of this character are the long equations of onr planetary dependencies, embracing under the wing, groups of lesser aberations bearing against other currents of defalcations and all searching for the ultimates of adjustment.
The line of 47 degrees of apparent circuit described on the northern sky by the telluric axis around the mean north pole during the long period of 25,000 years is not owing to all the starry vault revolving around our solar system, but it is the product of certain changes of the solar system in its own home positions.
William and John F. Herschell both assert that the stars near Zetta Hercules on the northern confines of the Zodiac seem to recede from each other, while in the opposile point of the Heavens, the stars apparently approximate one cenler.
Hence it is inferred that the solar system is advancing to the first and removes away from the other point.
The sun does in fact move spirally around a pyramidal or columnar expanse of the sky whose direction extends coincident with the plane of Saturn's equator or nearly so and in its spirations down that column towards some remole gaol spire seems to be completed during one whole cycle of our equinoctial precasion.
According to this assumption, the plane bisecting Zeta Hercules and the corresponding opposite point of the star vault, must cut the plane ot Saturn's equator at a specific angle, while the line of bisection indicates the mean direction of the column round which the sun is moving.
The semi-diameler of that column may be ten billions of miles and the suns path probably ascends it at an angle of 52 to 66 degrees, coursing at the present time toward Zela Hercules, at a departure of aboul 28 degrees from the plane of the earth's equalor and the velocity of solar motion must be fully three times that of the earth.
These hypothocations involve the fact that all Heliacal constitutions embrace two or more reciprocal suns, as necessarily belonging to every sun's system, our own as well as others.
Now, it may be possible that six thousand years ago, the axillary north pole of the earth was directed to a point 90 degrees eastward from the present place among the stars, and therefore, 6,000 years herealier, the mean axillar line extended among the stars must point ninety degrees west of its present northern position.
Other star systems executing similar revolutions are so remote as not materially to inicrrupt our sun or be seen by our imperfect inspections.
But the principles hereby involved are not lelt to conjecture as Herschell and Struve's late researches abundantly prove.
They say many related stars give contrasted light | 500 related stars are found, and at greater distances and commonly the bigger star has a red orange hue | apart still more related stars are known to exist. while the smaller is blue or greenish as in jola ot
Castor and its companion are about 5 seconds cancer and Gamma of Andromeda both being dou
apart, while the companions of Atlas, Phidam, ble stars.
Gamma, Coronis, Zeta Hercules, Tau and Lamda Eta of Cassiopea presents a big while slar with a
Ophinci with others are less than one second apart. small one o: ruddy purple and in other parts of the
Sir. Wm. Herschell concluded some double stars sky are stars red as blood of which color in the time
bad motions about a common void center, or else it of Abraham was Anulis which now is very whiie.
involved a change of place in regard to our solar Herschell says the iwo stars No. 61 Cygni for 50
system, wholly inconsistent with the phenomena of years have been 15 seconds apart while ibeir posi.
The yearly parallox of the stars. tion among adjacent stars has shisted four minutes
It may hereafier appear that all stars are not so and 23 seconds or 54 seconds annually; so also Mu
remote that a triangulation based on the earth's orbit Cassiopea moves 31 seconds and others change
cannot appreciably measure their distance, otherwise yearly.
what would be the velocity of those binary stars Hence arose the ancient opinion that when two
which revolve at so short dates, on the assumption suns became incubative one soon lost its light as
that they are above 20 billions of miles or 1000 bilPhaeton's did in the moist constellation of the Bear.
lions distant from us? Herschell stales Omicron Ceti revolves with a
In round numbers radius is to the sine of one secdark and a bright side every 334 days being bright ond astwo hundred thousand to one and this exceeds est 14 days and for 'three months losing light, again the radius of the earth (four thousand miles) as acquires brilliance for three months, in the same ap twenty-four thousand is to a unit. parent rolation on its own axis.
Visual errors arising from certain properties in Algols luster increases 21 days and then in 3 light to be presently alluded lo, probably interposes hours is above halt reduced and Goodrick thinks the only real obstacles to ascertaining distances by large dark belts cause this phenomenon.
the paralactic method of measurement. Delta Cephie gives variable light every 5) days, Herschell assigned to Castor aad its adjunct star and Beta Lyra in 6j as Goodrick observed in 1784, a period of 334 years only, for one revolution and and Pigot the same year reported Siame Antonei at to Gamma Virginis, at first six seconds and now less of days.
than one apart, he gives 708 years and to Gamma Herschell reports Alphe Hercules at 60 days and Leonis 1200 years has been assigned. Harding states Serpentes varies its light in 180 Sigma Coronis has its revolution in 286 years, daytimes.
Castor 282 and 70 Ophinci, named Aselepias, has Fabricius gives 324 days to Omicron Ceti; Mr. 80 years ; Xi Ursi 58 years; Zeta Cancer 55 years, Kirch 396 days to Chi Cygni, and Mardi gives 494 and Ela Coronis only 43 years. days to a star in Hydra, while Janson assigns 18 Mayer and Bradley 1756 and 1718 stated the places years to No. 34 Cygni.
of Gamma Virginis which aided the estimates conAbout 125 years before Christ Hipparchus saw a cerning ils perihelion in August, 1834. new star which caused him to draw up a new cata. Since Dr. Herschell examined Ela Coronis it logue of the stars and in A. D. 329 a star bright as passed its perihelion and will soon complele one reVenus shined forth for three weeks near to Alphi volution, 'says Sir. John F. Herschell by evidence, Aquilla and then disappeared.
as clear as that demonstrating Saturn's revolution, In 1839, I observed near Sirius a flaring star and and the terms of the long elypse proves the same arriving at Sparta by stage found many persons ex laws of motion there prevail, as in our solar systein. ainining it and calling it the “dancing star," and I
During such perihelions the aliendant planets may could not detect it a few days afterward.
receive damages as perhaps Juno, Pallas, Vesla and In A. D. 965, 1264 and 1572 a brilliant star ap
Minerva once did, under like circum stances, in peared between Cepheus and Casenpea and on the
our system. 11th Nov. 1573 i1 again suddenly shone out, so as to al According to the Hermaic Symbols all related Iract public police, but was dim in December and
stars deseribe opposing spirals continuing onward disap peared in March, 1574 says Tycho Brahe.
and not relurning into the same places, after the On 1012 March 1604, a star in Serpentarius be
fashion of the figure of eight bandage but at every came visible till Oct. 1605 and A. D. 1670 ; in the
perehelion may not pass equally near. Swan's Head was one that varied much for two
The Egyptian opinion was that every 12,175 years years ther alter and was no more seen.
alternate fire and water destroyed the lace of our On 9ih May, 1828, Hersehell found 42 Virginis
globe and this implies a trine of Coparcinary suns. had disappeared nor has it since appeared. The ancient Job speaks of the 7 stars, but now on
Josephus asscribes to Noah the opinion of such ly six are visible.
periodic destructions and his descendants by way of The chief stars are cast into classes for the sake
securing their archives built a pyramid of brick as of convenience as follows, viz:
best suited to securing against fire and another stone The first class contains 20 stars whose light is pyramid more enduring under the action of water. rated ai 100.
The sybils speak of the centralizing influence of The second class 40 stars whose light is rated at
the sun over its dependant orbs and Macrobus sta.es 25; the third class 120 stars whose light is rated at
all things were in obeyance to that luminary. 12; the 4th class 480 stars whose light is rated at 6; Josephus refers to 12 globes deriving order from the 5th class 2400 stars whose light is rated at 2; the same source and the Patriarch Abraham is reand the 6th 14,400 stars whose light is rated at 1; || ported to have demonstrated to the Damascenes the nearly all which are astronomically registered. one Creator of all things from the regulated move. Besides these are six other classes of Telescopic
ments of all the celestial bodies. stars.
Homer also makes allusion to the views of Atlas Within apparent distances of 30 seconds above " who held that cones of properties extend between
all globes upon which in their oroits they remain size, whose passage through our regions of the skies poised.
may be connected with solar motions. Orpheus conceived that by successions limited It is possible that periodically all suns become creations always manitested the subsisting scale of opake and are for the time illuminated by their own an unity, the product of one author toward whom planets and, this interchange might be many times all things were moving.
repeated before their date for extinction has arrived. Euripides says,
The Orphic system assumed that the counselling “Thou sell-sprung Being that dost all en:old
spirits so fram d the mundane egg that its progeny And in thine arms dost Heavens whirling fabric
casting away ancient exuviæ acquires new beauties Who art encircled with resplendent light [hold
as it spirally advances without the use of feet. And yet liest mantled o'er in shady night,
It was supposed too, suns remotely placed, reci. Around whom the exultant fires
procated simulacra or properly semblances, which Dance glancing round, in constant spires.”
meeting on the way formed marital alliances whereIn allusion to interchanges of sun-light the Poet
by these imageries became invested with rudiments, Milton says
that at first etherial, became gaseous and chaotic
and fluid and solid and when the Prime spirit soor“With their attendant worlds thou wilt descry
dered, the shell bursting many organic animals Communicating male and female light
came lorib. (Which two great sexes animate the earth)
Orbs that stand so related as to have their iplerStored in each orb with some that live."
vening equations to fall within the body of either (as The fitness of the progressing spire over any other the moon's does in the earth's mass) would in the curve for graduating velocity is apparent in the Hermaic sense be incapable of any cosmogenic purmovements of the common steam governor and by poses. analogy it would seem that any two approaching The Arabian Alchemy always having its laborabodies of like mass would thus best guard and gra tory within the earth's control erred in supposing duate their velocities or it one be il greaiest mass melals could be created or transmuled. the centre of relations is transferred toward the But like disabilities may not attach to the lumilarger.
nosities appearing balf way between binary or lerThe Hermaic system assumed a munad at rest, nary star systems. then a new atom toward which the first tended Ii is no derogation from the creating energies of and then a triad produced, caused a departure from the first cause of all being to admit that flowering rectilinear motion.
trees or two animals adapted to generation may Pythagoris' point without dimensions represented yield embryos or similar constitution and likeness The monad principle, the duad of positions indicated to themselves. the line without breadth and a triad of positions des. That these principles were admitted among the cribed superficies without depih, while a quartern Pythagorean ancient astrologists admits of little of positions, being a prismatic cone, exhibited a cavil, but, why, the Creator uses instrumentalities solid.
for continuing his material works may not be learnMeta phisically christians allude to analagous re ed during the present state of man's existence. lations between the facher, son and their communi Snould observation show tha: the earth's axis excant understanding.
tended, describes a Serpentine line along a space of The Platonists saw in the one Primeval principle the northern sky forty-seven degrees in breadih, at the definite monad and the duad was its conscient the rate of 52 seconds per'annum, the time necessary seinblance, whilst both communicated through a to complete the entire revolution would correspond third means.
with the period of the equinoctial recession. It was these abstruse speculations that paved the The Egyyplian Astrologists asserted that in a periway for the spiritized melemsichosis system of Egypt od of 48, 697 mean terrene years the sun rising and and soon bewildered the Pythagorean astronomy the selling would be twice reversed, apparently caland mathenatics.
ling for circuily of polarization. The astronomy of Pythagoris esteemed the moon It seems most probable however that variations to move spirally about the earth's path and not by may be executed around a permanent mean magepicycle leaps as Ptolemy taught.
netic pole. In each year the moon by its own proper motion Yet, the general centre of the material universe advances near eighteen millions of miles, upon a may not be stationary, for that would require equal. radius of 240,000 miles long but in the same time ity of cosmogeny in every direction upon the exte. the earth carries forward the moon above 540 mil rior and in the interior. lions of miles, so stretching out the lunar pain, that A conjecture might be hazarded that the shortest it is always concave toward the sun and on like direction to the present exterior of creation from our principles the sun bears onward the earth whilst in world ; would be southward and below the great its yearly orbit.
Megalhonic clouds. Herschell says in a zone crossing the gallaxy In the mechanism of star systems il may be safely nearly at right angles are many well defined rings of granted that as much variety prevails as we find in wispy light and some resembling floculent dust. the types or the constitucions of the vegetable and
Where Virgo, Coma Berinice and the Big Beare animal kingdoms of our earth and yet special rules are crossed, are seen concentric star bands like our of form and action pervade all, giving a certain exmilky way.
tent of uniformity, among "the wheels working Presipe exhibits stars of a sun-system of vast ex within wheels." tert that moves spirally in a direction opposite to the The varying belts of Saturn and of Herschell incourse of our sun and without some such correlative timate that all appetencies for human lite are not support as that system might give to our sun, how complete; even lalrly the planet Herschel manifescan the equinoctial precession be explaineds?
ed star light and also much later its moons were surNear Nu Aquarius also is a dark body of great || posed to be self-luminous.
It all systems spirally advance toward one grand centre it must follow, that the angulations of any one spire cannot be unitorm, at distant dates, but must be ever accommodated to existing exigencies, that collisions may be avoided.
The perpetual Conservations as laid down by Laplace and Legrange, by no means, agree with the successive production and decay of the celestial mechanism.
There is no doubt our world has underwent great exterior changes by too near contact with some foreign visitant and these land marks on future inqui. ry may indicat.: the time and the direction whence the same danger will arise.
Should our seas rise into vapors twenty or thirty thousand miles deep as on Comels nearing the sun, our then ipmerfect globe would be cast upon a new axis of diurnal rotation and during the slow replace. ments of the waters many rough mulations would cause overflows, leaving geologic monuments such as are every where offered of some ancient catastrophe.
According to the best Egyptic astronomic chronology as given by Eusebius and others the present constitution of the globe had existed during one and a hall precessions of the equinoxes representing thirty-six thousand five hundred and twenty-five years.
At the close of this period man was placed on the earth and to the present year, the precession have passed over the signs Gemini, Taurus and Aries and has entered 52 1-2 minutes into the constella. tion Pisces.
Now according to the same computation of time the period since Adam's creation is 6,147 years to this current year, which agrees well with the Mosaic date of that event.
This duration will under the circumstances account for the geological crust of the earth and the six grand quadratures of time in one and a half precessions, were the six periods symbolyzed, in the Adamic creation, during six diurnal rotations of the world.
The seventh period lately closed and during all man's history some great physical or moral exhibition has been predicted, when the solar precession should leave the constellation or Star-Houses of Aries.
The precession of the equinoxes set off from Capricornus under Ecpyrosis, or chaotic fiery state, mentioned by Seneca and Pliny and during 6,087 years traversed 90 degrees to Libra.
Dark vapors now hung over the earth and the chaotic elements became consolidated.
During the 21 Era of 6,087 years ihe precession passed to Gemini and the earth's crust received de. posites of Gneis, hornblend, clay, slate, and stratified metamorphia rocks making provision for vegetation.
During the 31 Era of 6,037 years mica schist and its affinitive rocks were deposiied and the salurian and other rocks and light appeared.
During the 41h Era of 6,087 years the arching ring above held waters above from the waters below un. til these windows poured down the flood of water.
The dry land was seen and the early orders of plants appeared.
The inoon and sun marked the seasons and trilo. bites, Shellfish, Sauriens and Paledogic beasts apppareil.
During the 5th 6,087 years the ecpyrosis appeeared, again breaking up the order and destroying the life of all things.
The seas evaporated and the upper crusts of the rocks were infracted and variously dispersed.
The moon also gave out great heal as a sun and possibly had a higher declination than after the return of the vapors and a settled order of things were regained,
The 6th Era of 6,087 years was during the precission from Libra lo Gemini when man was created.
In the early part of this period the Lias and Oolite deposits and the proper tertiary system were made.
The 7th Era of 6,147 years has been finished to this date embracing all the history of man.
In regard to time keeping according to the equinoctial precesions I have some curious ancient facts lo offer in my next letter.
Yours, respectfully, *****.
Coal Ashes--a Remedy for the Potato
The following interesting letter was recently read before the Brooklyn Natural History Society, on the subject of the potato disease, as it is the result of experiment we would suggest 10 our agricultural readers a particular attention to the subject. If coal ashes should prove a successful remedy for the potato rot, a market will be opened for a vast quantity of whal is now, in our towns and cities, entirely useless.
HARTFORD, November 2, 1846. To the Society of Natu 'al History, Brooklyn, N. Y.
GENTLEMEN, -The last time that I had the honor of allending your meeting, I promised to give you the result of my experiments in the cultivation of the potato. I have finished my crop, and will now give you the result.
About the first of April last I prepared two acres of ground for an early crop. A part of the field was a strong sandy loam; the other part, a strong clay soil. About one hall I manured in the hill with good, rich, barn yard manure. The potatoes grew finely.
I commenced digging them about the first of July: and finer potatoes I never saw. In the course of ien ou filleen days I found them very badly affected with the rot;--so much so, that I gave up digging them, thinking it better to let them rot in the ground than to dig them and lose all my labor; for the disea se was so prevalent here ihal palatoes would not sell at any price. I let them remain till last monib, and on digging them, I found at least three quarters of the entire crop were completely decayell.
Halt of the other part of the field I manured in the hill with coal ashes, pulting about half a shovelfull to the hill.
I found on digging at different times through the summer, that there were no rollen polaloes to be found where the coal ashes were.
To see how it would work, I let them remain till alter I had gathered the other part of the field; and to my great astonishment, on digging them, I must say that I never saw tiner polaloes than these were: there were no rolten ones among them; they were all sound and very large, yielding at the rate of two hundred bushels to the acre; the rest or the field not yielding more iban forly.
The next rows on each side of the coal ashes were badly rotted, while those planted with coal ashes were of the very best.
I prepared another field of about two acres for a late crop. The soil was a black strong loam, with here and there a patch of gravel. I planied a part of the field the last of May, but did not finish planting till the first week in June, owing to a long rain. Not baving manure convenient, and having dry wood ashes enough for about half of the field, I pul a handfull of the ashes to each hill until all the ashes were used up. On the other part of the field I used plaster,--about halt a handlull to the hi
The result was, that where I used ashes, more than ibree-fourths of the entire crop were rollen, and where the plaster was, there were no rotten ones.
The potatoes were very small, owing to the extreme wet weather when planted. Some of those planted with plaster that were on higher ground;for instance, those on the ridge, where two furrows were turned together;-were very fine and large.
Now, whether it is in the soil, the atmosphere or sunrise, 29.36; 9, A. M., 29.30; 2, P. M., 28.76; manure, I am not chemist enough to delermine; but and at 9, P. M., 28.96. The temperature al 9, P.M., this I do know; that where I used coal ashes, I had of the 12th, 58, and continued at that and in an potatoes of the first quality, and where I used ma Equilibrium state until after 7, P. M., of the 13th. nure, they were of the worst quality.
The dew point on the 13th, at sunrise, 50, and at I have made diligent inquiry among my neigh 3 P. M., 57. Rain fell on the 13th, from half past 5 bors, and find that whenever the manure came in A. M., lo half past 7 P. M., and to the depth of one contact with the potatoes, they invariably rolled; jnch and 60.000 ot an inch. On the 10th, the wind but where they were planted without manure, and blew from the North all day; on the llib, East all where the manure was spread anú ploughed in, they day; on the 12th, Souih all day; on the 13th, wind invariably had good crops.
SE. at sunrise, and al 9 A. M., East at 3 P. M.I have, therefore, come in this conclusion: that The wind sbitted West at 7 P. M., blowing a perstrong manure, in contact with the potato, is rank fect gale, Therinomeler at 58, Barometer at 1 P. poison.
M., 29.00; 3 P. M., 28.76; 4 P. M.. 28.64; 5 P. M., I believe that if the ground is well prepared, and 28 50; 6 P. M., 28.44; 8 P. M., 28.44; 8 P. M., the manure well ploughed in, so that it will not 28 66; 9 P. M., 28.86; 10 P. M., 28.96. Heavy frost come in contact with the potatoes, we should have on the 11ih. Clouds light cirrus al 3 P. M. The far belier crops.
dew point on the Ilih was down to 28. The mean If the above information will be of any benefit to temperature of the 10th, was 45 25 ; 11th, 47.50 the public, I shall be satisfied in contributing this 1211, 55,50; 13ih, 56 50; 13th, 48.25. The allitude small mite to their use.
of place of observation at Syracuse, 400 feet above I remain, gentlemen,
The New York Herald contains accounts from
al 10, P. M., of the 10th ult.-- wind NE.-Barome
ter 29, 68-temperature 80; 12, midnight Barometer The Great Gale of October.
29, 50; October 10. 4 A. M., Barometer 29, 24, tem. This terrific storm has lett a sad record of its vis
perature 80; 6 A. M., Barometer 29, 14, wind NE.
and NW.; 9 A. M., Barometer 29, 05, wind at its itation in the destruction which marked its path.
height lill half past len, temperature 79; halt past Ils approach was indicated at several places, where 10, Baromeler 27, 74, wind north, 11 A. M., wind observations of the state of the atmosphere preceding NW. and squalis; 12 M., wind NW. and WNW: ils arrival, were made and registered. The Brook
Barometer 28, 35; 2 P. M., Barometer 28, 91, wind
WNW. and West ; 4 P. M., Baromeler 29, 23, lemlyn Evening Star, of the 13th of October, which was
perature 80; 6 P. M., Barometer 29. 30. put to press before the storm reached here, contained There was an Earthquake Equilibrium observed my recorded observations sent to that office the morn on Brooklyn Heights on the 6th and 7th of October, ing of that day, at 7 o'clock, and were as follows:
and an Equilibrium had commenced running on the
night of the 12th of October, and was broken in the "THE WEATHER.-The highest temperature yes. night time by an extraordinary rise ot temperature terday was 620, at from 1 to 2, P. M;- from 7 to 10, of four degrees. There was an Equilibrium at SyP. M., 57, and this morning, at 4 o'clock, 61, being
ricuse on the 12th and 13th of great duration. It
will be seen by the state of the thermometer, noted a rise of 4 degrees during the night, a rare occur
at Havana, that there was but one vibration of one rence,"
degree mentioned; had the temperature been stated At 6, A. M., 62: 7, 62 1-2; and at 8, 64, when rain every hour, we should have been able to make accu. commenced falling. The temperature remained at
As soon as I receive accounts from Salıville and 64 until 11, A. M., when it commenced rising with
from beyond Cuba, I shall be able to present a map the rise of wind-The wind increased, at 12, 64 1-2; of this storm. Violent storms are often preceded by 1, 65; 2, 65 1-2; 3, 66; the wind commenced blowing Earthquakes, but rarely if ever accompany earth. a terrific gale, in fitful and furious blasts—the lem
quakes, unless they be ligbining storms.
E. MERIAM, perature remained at 66, until 5, P. M., the wind all the time blowing a hurricane. At 6, P. M., the
The Weather. temperature rose to 67, and with this rise, the wind abated its violence, at 7, the temperature rose to 68, The temperature of the atmosphere from Wedand the wind continued decreasing; at 8, the tem nesday, 28th of Oct., to Wednesday, the 18th of Noperature fell to 67, and remained at that at 9, when vember, part of both days, inclusive, has been as my observations closed for the evening, but were re follows: newed in the morning at 4 o'clock, at which time Wednesday, Oct. 28, 7, A. M., 471; 8, 51; 9, 501; the temperature had tallen to 55 degrees, a depres 10, 50; 11, 52; 12, 48}; 1, P. M., 501; 2, 51; 3, 52; sion of 12 degrees from 9 o'clock the previous even 4, 49; 5, 44, 6, 42; 7, 40; 8, 39; 9, 39; 10, 38; 11, 38.
Thursday, 29, 6, A. M., 36; 7, 36; 8, 43; 9, 40; 10, Al Flatbush, the temperature in the evening of 44; 11, 46; 12, 49; 1, P. M., 53; 2, 441; 3, 52; 4, 511; October 12, was 59 degrees, and on the morning of 5,53; 6, 51, 7, 50; 8, 49; 9, 48. the 13th, was 61, being a rise of 3 degrees during Friday, 30th, 6, A. M., 43; 7, 46), 8, 46; 9, 46); the night. On the 10th, at noon, the Barometer com 10, 46; 11, 51; 12, 51); 1, P. M., 54; 2, 55. 3, 54, menced rising, and was at 30.25; in the evening, at 4, 54; 5, 53; 6, 53; 7, 491; 8, 48; 9, 46. 29.30; on the llih, at 30.40 all day; on the 12th, Saturday, 31st, 5, A. M., 45; 6, 45; 7, 45; 8. 45; 9, cominenced laling, and continued going down until 46; 10, 465; 11, 48; 12, 491; 1, P., M., 52; 2, 53; 3, the evening of the 13th, when it reached 29 15, which 504; 4, 51; 5,51; 6, 50; 7, 49}; 8, 494; 9, 491; 10 is the lowest point reachell in October. Flatbush is 491; 11,491; 12, 49%. but a few feet above the level of the sea. Rain sell Sunday, Nov. 1st, 4, A. M., 491; 5, 491; 6, 491; 7 on the 13th to the depth of 85-100 of one inch. On 50; 8, 50; 9, 491; 10, 491; 11, 49.); 12, 53; 1, P. M., the 10th, the wind was Norih all day; uth, North 53; 2, 52; 3, 51; 4, 51; 5,508; 6, 50; 7, 49; 8, 49; 9, East; 12th, South; 131h, South East; and 14th, 50; 10, 49; 11, 50. North West. Frost on the 11th.
Monday, Nov. 24, 6, A. M., 52; 7, 53; 8, 55; 9, At Syracuse, N. Y., the Barometer, at 3, P. M.,
55; 10, 57; 11, 57; 12, 58; 1, 58); 2, 591; 3, 601; 4, on the 10th, commenced rising, and was at 30.00; at 9, P. M., 30.02; on the 11th, at sunrise, 30.02, and || 60; 5,58; 6,58; 7, 59; 8, 583; 9, 59. the same at 9, A. M., afier which it commenced fall
Tuesday, Nov. 30, 6, A. M., 591: 7, 58. 8, 60; 9. ing; al 3, P. M., 29.00; at 9, P. M., 29.86; 121h, at
62; 10, 62; 11, 66; 12, 66; 1, 664; 2, 671; 3, 67t; 4, 29.96 at sunrise, and the sainat 9, A. M.; al 3, P. 11 M., 29.60, and at 9, P. M., 29.52; on the 13th, at || 674; 5, 65, 6, 63; 7, 63; 8, 61; 9, 60.