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The great

From the Journal of Commerce.

STATE OF THE COUNTRY. “ We have been laboring for many months to avert war; and when we thought the danger was over, suddenly a mine has been sprung in another direction, and we are at war! Already some hundreds of human beings, probably have been hurried into eternity, and their blood will be required at the hands of--whom? The shock has come upon us so suddenly, and the reasons for it were so imperfectly known, that we have hardly been able to form an intelligent opinion about it. We are at war: not with England,-a nation which is a match for us, and which might have sent her thunder all along our coast,--but with a sister republic; a feeble, distracted, unfortunate, bankrupt state, priest ridden, with no Bible to guide her; with Mexico, more entitled to our pity than our vengeance. What are the causes of the war?

It is not of any great importance to know according to the practice of nations we have cause for war, which men in the exercise of bad passions saw fit to make so. question is one of right; and the second is one of national interest and honor.

Mexico owes us several millions of money. It is a just debt, and more than just ; for it is the reparation which she agreed to make us for spoilations and robberies committed against our citizens. She has solemnly promised to pay this money, and has paid a part of what she promised, but does not pay the rest. She has never said that she would not pay. On the contrary she has repeated her intention to pay, though for the time unable, for want of money in the treasury. The last instalment which she attempted to pay (not having money in the central treasury,) was met by Treasury drafts on the provincial custom houses, but they were not paid. It would hardly do for a nation comprising so many States which do not pay, to make that simply a cause of war, especially if inability were the reason of delinquence, for we have determined inability to be very modified culpability. Besides, it must be a disgrace to the country to allow a mere money question to involve us in war, especially if it were certain that the expenses of the collection would be five times greater than the debt.

Mexico has refused to receive our ambassador or negociate with us. Every nation claims the same right, and it would be a very strange presumption which should make this a cause of war. But Mexico promised to receive an ambassador, and before he could be received, another Administration was in power who would not receive him. This was a wrong clearly, but small ground for war. Mexico has invaded our territory, we say, -or some of us,--for the people of the United States are by no meane agreed on tliis point. Some of our leading democrats do not consider the territory on the Eastern bank of the Rio Grande as within the United States. If we are divi. vided in opinion, we cannot wonder that Mexico should consider her title “ clear and indisputable;" and it would seem to be the least that justice could demand, to leave rights about which we ourselves are in doubt, in abeyance for the present. But Congress having, perhaps thoughtlessly, included this territory in its legislation, the President took possession of every inch of it, and our military commander planted his loaded cannon in such positions as to command the opposite shore. This last movement was the occasion of the war, beyond all doubt. If our army had remained on the Neuces, no scout from it would have been attacked, and there would be no war. We advanced into a questionable territory. Mexico immediately considers herself invaded, and declares her determination to wage a “defensive

Some of her troops, how many we do not know, also pass into the disputed territory, and a slight conflict ensues between them and a detachment of our troops, several miles from their camp, and instantly the cry goes over the land that the sacred soil of the republic is invaded, and the nation is called to arms. Our commanding General calls for five thousand men to aid him, and the President recommends and Congress order fifty thousand; not to repel invasion, not to act on the defensive merely, but to carry fire and sword through Mexico, and even to humble her pride by tramping our horses' feet upon the pavements of her splendid capitol. To be sure, with all this we proclaim the most just and benevolent intentions, and our President declares that he will treat, whenever Mexico will consent to receive or make propositions. But can he stop his victorious generals with fifty thousand men ? Can

he put out the fire which he has kindled up through the nation? We ask our countrymen, and we ask the President, to consider (for he is accustomed to look upward,) how the record of this matter is likely to stand on high? If we have the law of nations on our side, have we the law of God? Will He who is the Father of the Mexicans as well as of us, and as compassionate towards them as us, will He believe this “a just and necessary war ?" The rulers of Mexico may be much to blame, and yet that circumstance may do nothing to relieve our responsibility."

The remarks above which we have copied from the New-York Journal of Commerce, are well deserving preservation. The worthy Editors might have added that the United States Government in annexing Texas to the United States, bought a law suit. The ability of the administration to make such a bargain is a grave constitutional question, and the most that should have been attempted under the circumstances was to protect the disputed territory from bloodshed. The other disputes in relation to depredation upon our commerce by Mexico, should have been settled by other means than raising an army to enter the territory of a neighbor already overwhelmed with trouble.

The Journal of Commerce has within the last twelve months copied three different paragraphs from the Union, the administration paper, recording three distinct meetings held on the Sabbath by Mr. Polk and his Cabinet upon Mexican affairs. There is no excuse for such a desecration of that day, and it is no wonder that the great officers of the government should be in confusion.

A war with Mexico, or with any other power, in the present state of the world—in the present state of society-is an injury of vast and untold magnitudeits demoralizing influence will pass down the current of time accumulating evil consequences until at length they will become overwhelming.

The people of the United States should never become a military people.

We have looked with fear to the Mexican borders ever since General Toledo entered the State of Tennessee, with his sand dollars.

In this volume, pg. 331 is recorded the awful visitation of the hand of Almighty, on the 21st of February, 1844, in the destruction of human life on board the War Steamer Princeton, when two of the Cabinet Ministers were destroyed by the very engine which the government had prepared for the destruction of others.

That some awful visitation will befall the American People, is greatly to be feared.

We trust that more wisdom will be found in the National Councils than has heretofore characterised some of their proceedings.

The way to“ conquer peace” is, to not give offence.

as far as he could possibly do, into the condition of the agriculture of the Empire, since it appeared to him to be much the most important of its interests, as also into that of the humble but useful mechanical arts of the country, both of which he thought had been less adequately attended to than many of the more popular pursuits. On the return of Mr. Slocum to the United States, a correspondence between himself and Prof. Fischer, the imperial botanist, ensued, which resulted in an invitation, sanctioned by the Emperor himself, from his Excellency, M. Peroffski, the Minister of the interior, who has charge of the imperial domains throughout the empire, being given to Mr. Slocum, to introduce into Russia such improve ments in the implements of agriculture and the useful arts, as, in his opinion, were suited to the condition of that vast country. For this purpose a fund was placed at Mr. Slocum's disposal by the Russian government, to be so laid out as he should consider most expedient. Under this arrangement it is that Mr. Slocum is thus far on his way to St. Petersburg, accompanied by a practical ironfounder and machinist, engaged for the purpose of manufacturing in Russia such implements and machines as seem best adapted to the requirements of that country. Mr. Slocum takes with him a very general assortment of the more approved agricultural implements and machinery used in the United States. He has also many of the best varieties of field and garden seeds, fruit trees, &c., cultivated in the United States. Among these are cotton seed, rice, and many descriptions of maize and tobacco seeds, all of which, he thinks, will answer well in some part or other of the Empire. Mr. Slocum is a practical American farmer, and displays very great intelligence, so that much interest will attach to the result of his experiments, in another soil than that to which he has been accustomed; and it is but due to the liberal and enlightened Sovereign of Russia, under whose immediate auspices the enterprise is undertaken, and to his able Ministers, through whom the arrangement has been made with Mr. Slocum, that attention should be directed to the subject.”

We had several interviews with Mr. Slocum prior to his departure for London, on his return to Russia. We accompanied Mr. Slocum to Mr. Bogardus' machine shop in Eldridge Street to examine the Eccentric mills, invented and constructed by Mr. B. Mr. S. was so well pleased with them that he gave orders for two of these mills for the Russian Government, and they have already been shipped to Russia. Mr. Bogardus is among the most skillful and intelligent mechanics in the United States, and we should not be surprised at his being invited to take up his residence at the Russian capital. He would be a great acquisition to any country. His mills perform wonders-take up less room than a flour barrel, and will grind ten bushels of corn per hour—they are sold at $80.

Mr. Slocum was anxious to know how Mr. Bogardus came to possess such faculties, as his name indicated a Dutch ancestry. Mr. Bogardus replied that his mother was a Yankee. Mr. Slocum remarked that he had spent much time at the Patent Office in Washington, and found that nearly all the patents were granted to persons north of Mason & Dixon's line.

Mr. Slocum was very anxious to obtain some information in relation to the process of refining sugar at the mammoth establishment of Messrs. Woolsey & Woolsey in this city. These works are not accessable to visitors. The proprietors who are among the very best men in our land, superintend the concern and retain the valuable knowledge of the peculiar process within their own bosoms. When the city of Pittsburg was almost overwhelmed by a destructive conflagration, Mayor Harper's Committee applied to the Messrs. WOOLSEY's for aid and they gave them $600, the

est donation given by any individual or firm in the city. Messrs. Woolsey's concern is one of the most prosperous establishments in the United States—a prosperitywell deserved.- Ed. Gazette.

war.

From the Syracuse Daily Journal of July, 1846.

JOSEPH SLOCUM, Esq. To the Editors of the Daily Journal: Enclosed I bend you an extract from the London “Morning Post," received a few days since per Great Western.

The friends of Mr. Slocum in this vicinity, will be pleased to see that the importance of the enterprise in which he is now engaged, is duly appreciated by one of the most influential journals of the British Metropolis.

W. From the London Morning Post, May 12. “By the next Hamburg steamer from hence, an American gentleman, named SLOCUM, will proceed for St. Petersburg on a very interesting mission with reference to agricultural affairs. During a residence of about four months in the Russian capital in the year 1813, Mr. Slocum was induced to examine

ness.

NEW-YORK CITY CHARTER. We have received from the Hox. STEPHEN ALLEN, now a member of the State Convention, the draft of a City Charter, drawn up by himself, some months ago, a copy of which we here present. When we received this draft in manuscript, we made an examination of the twelve first sections and suggested in writing, several amendments thereto, which we submitted to Mr. Allen; he approved of these amend. ments, and kindly permitted us to retain the paper and make such other amendments as we should deem right, and make such disposition of the whole as we thought best—in accordance wherewith, we have put it in print and now present it to the public. Mr.

once well qualified to judge of the various provisions need. ful to guard the rights of citizens in a bill of this description. Mr. Allen drew up this paper before he was elected to the State Convention. As it is probable that the State Convention will place all Municipal Corporations in this State upon one and the same footing, the draft of this Bill may be found useful as containing valuable suggestions. It will be seen by a careful reading of the first section of this bill that Mr. Allen has deemed it necessary to define the power denominated legislative as inapplicable to the inhabitants of the city who are under the government of the laws of the State. Great mistakes have been made by Corporation officers in supposing that the Common Council possessed the legislative powers of the City—that, belongs to the Senate and Assembly of this State. Our amendments follow the bill. An Act to amend the Charter of the City of New

York. “$ 1. The legislative powers of the Corporation of the City of New-York shall be vested in a Board of Aldermen and a Board of Assistants, who together shall form the Common Council of the City. The acts of the said Common Council shall be confined solely to the passing of ordinances or laws, directing the performance of specific duties relative to the good government and other important interests of the Cor. poration.

“52. Each ward of the city shall be entitled to elect one person to be denominated the alderman of the ward, and the persons so chosen, together shall form the board of aldermen. And each ward shall also be entitled to elect, in the proportion, as near as may be, of one person for each ten thousand inhabitants, exclusive of fractions; but each ward shall have, at least, one representative in the Board of assistants, and the persons so chosen, together shall form the board of Assistants.

“\ 3. The aldermen shall be elected to serve for three years, and the assistants for one year. Immediately on the assembling of the board of aldermen, after their election, they shall be divided, by lot, as equally as may be, into three classes. The seats of the first class to be vacated at the expiration of one year; the second at the expiration of two years, and the third at the expiration of three years, so that one third, as near as may be, may be chosen every year.

• 34. The annual election of charter officers shall be held on the first Monday in November, and the offi. cers elected shall be sworn into office on the first Monday of January thereafter; and all the provisions of law now in force, in regard to the notification, duration and conduct of election for members of Assembly, and in regard to the appointment, pow. ers and duties of the inspectors holding the saine, shall apply to the annual election of charter officers.

** ŏ 5. The first election for charter officers, after the passage of this law, shall take place on the first Monday in November, 1847, and all those persons who shall be elected under former laws regulating elections of charter officers, and shall be in office at the time of the passage of this law, shall continue in office until the officers elected under this law shall be en. titled to be sworn in.

“6. The board of aldermen shall have power to

direct a special election to be held to supply the place “ 16. Neither the mayor nor recorder of the city of of any alderman whose seat shall become vacant by New-York, shall be a member of the common council death, removal from the city, resignation, or otherwise

thereof. and the board of assistants shall also have power to “$ 17 Whenever there shall be a vacancy in the direct a special election to supply any vacancy that office of mayor, and whenever the mayor shall be may occur in the Board of Assistants, and in both absent from the city, or be prevented by sickness, or cases the person elected to supply the vacancy, shall any other cause, from attending to the duties of his hold his seat only for the residue of the term of office office, the president of the board of aldermen shall of his immediate predecessor.

act as mayor, and shall possess all the rights and powers “$7. The boards shall meet in separate chambers, of the mayor, during the continuance of such vacancy, and a majority of each shall be a quorum to do busi- absence, or disability,

Each board shall appoint a president from its "§ 18. It shall be the duty of the mayor, own body, and shall also choose its clerk, and other First. To communicate to the common council, officers, determine the rules of its own proceedings, at least once a year, and oftener if he shall deem it and be the judge of the qualifications of its own mein- expedient, a general statement of the situation and bers. Each board shall keep a journal of its proceedings, condition of the city, in relation to its government, and the doors of each shall be kept open, except when finances and improvements. public

Second. To recommend to the adoption of the

common council, all such measures connected with which shall recommend any specific improvement, the police, security, health, cleanliness, and ornament involving the appropriation of public money, or tax

of the city, and the improvement of its government, ing, or assessing the citizens of said city, shall be pub- and finances, as he shall deem expedient. lished, by&the clerk of the common council, not later Third. To be vigilant and active in causing the than two days after passage, in all the newspapers laws and ordinances of the government of the city employed by the corporation; and whenever à vote to be executed and enforced. is taken in relation thereto, the ayes and noes shall Fourth. To exercise a constant supervision and be called and published, in the manner aforesaid ; control over the conduct and acts of all subordinate and for every neglect of said clerk to publish as officers, and to receive and examine into all such aforesaid, he shall be subject to a penalty of fifty complaints as may be preferred against any of them dollars, to be recovered by any person who will sue for violation or neglect of duty; and generally, to for the same.

perforin all such duties as may be prescribed to him “$ 9. Each board shall have the authority to com- by the charter and city ordinances, and the laws of pel the attendance of absent members; to punish its this state, and the United States. members for disorderly behaviour, and to expel a "Ø 19. Annual appropriations shall be made by proper member, with the concurrence of two thirds of the ordinances of the common council, for every branch members elected to the Board, and the member so and object of city expenditure ; nor shall any money expelled, shall, by such expulsion, forfeit all right and be drawn from the city treasury, except for the object power as an alderman or assistant alderman.

for which the money had been previously appropriaØ 10. The stated, and occasional meetings of each ted, and in no case shall the sum drawn exceed the board of the common council, shall be regulated by sum appropriated. It shall be the duty of the Compits own ordinances, and both boards may meet on the

troller, in the event of an appropriation being exhaustsame, or on different days, as they may judge expedi- ed, to give notice of the fact to the common council, dient.

and the reason of its deficiency. “Ø 11. Any law, ordinance, or resolution of the "$ 20, Unless by a special act of the legislature for common council, may originate in either board, and that purpose, the common council shall not have auwhen it shall have passed one board, may be rejected thority to borrow, in any one year, on the credit of or amended in the other.

the corporation a sum exceeding in the aggregate, “O 12. No member of either board shall, during five hundred thousand dollars, nor for a longer period the period for which he was elected. be appointed to, than nine months; nor shall any loan so made be reor be competent to hold, any office of which the newed, or its time of payment extended, unless the emoluments are paid from the city treasury, or by same be funded under an act of the legislature, passfines directed to be paid by any ordinance or act of

ed for that purpose. the common council, or be directly, or indirectly, in. "21. It shall be the duty of the comptroller, in terested in any contract, the expense or consideration the month of January of each year, to publish, in all whereof, are to be paid under any ordinance of the the papers employed by the common council, a full common council, under the penalty of impeachment and comprehensive statement of the cash received on articles preferred before the board of which he is during the year, and from what source; the cash disa member, by one or more of the Heads of Depart- bursed during the year, and for what object. Alsor

the loans made, both temporary and funded, and for “ Ø 13. Every act, ordinance, or resolution, which what object made. Also the sinking fund account, shall have passed the two boards of common council, and of what it consists. before it shall take effect, shall be presented, duly “22. All ordinances, or amendments of the ordicertified to the Mayor of the city, for his approbation. nances, shall be published by the clerk of the comIf he approve, he shall sign it; if not he shall return mon council in all the public papers employed by it, with his objections, to the board in which it origin- the corporation, as soon after their passage as praca ated, within ten days thereafter; or if such board cable, for a neglect of which, the said clerk shall be be not then in session, at its next stated meeting. subject to a penalty of fifty dollars, to be recovered The Board to which it shall be returned, shall enter by any one who will sue for the same. the objections at large on their journal, and cause "Ø 23. All the executive business of the Corporathe same to be published in one or more of the public tion shall be performed by distinct and separate denewspapers of the city.

partments in accordance with ordinances now in force “D'14. The board to which such act, ordinance, or or hereafter to be passed by the Common Council, resolution shall have been returned, shall, after the not inconsistant with this act; and no member or expiration of not less than ten days thereafter proceed committee of the said common Council, or of either to re-consider the same. If after such reconsidera- of the boards of aldermen or assistants, shall perform tion, two-thirds of the members elected to the board any kind of executive duty, acts or business, or shall shall agree to pass the same, it shall be sent, together carry into effect, except such as relate to the office of with the objections, to the other board, by which it magistrate, commissioner of excise, or supervisor, shall likewise be reconsidered ; and if approved by any of the laws resolutions, or orders of the common two-thirds of all the members elected to such board, council; but all executive acts, duties or business it shall take effect as an act, or law, of the corpora- shall be performed, and transacted, by the particular tion. In all such cases, the votes of both boards shall be department charged therewith ; and the said departdetermined by yeas and nays, and the names of the ments respectively, shall be responsible for the due persons voting for and against the passage of the performance of the duties enjoined on them by this measure reconsidered, shall be entered on the jour- act, and by the laws and ordinances of the Common nal of each board respectively.

Council. "$ 15. If the Mayor shall not return any act, ordi- "§ 24. There shall be an executive department to be nance or resolutions, so presented to him, within the known as the City Commissioners department, to contime above limited for that purpose, it shall take effect sist of three competent citizens, one of whom shall in the same manner as if he had signed it.

be a civil engineer. They shall form a board, and

ments.

MORTALITY. Mortality in the city of New-York.—The City Inspector reports 425 deaths in the city of New-York from the 11th to the 18th of July-one week, of which 51 were from Convulsions, 26 Dropsy in the head, 20 from inflammation of the brain, and 21 from Coup de Soliel. It is an awful mortality. Panse, mortal man, behold

waited upon

have the general supervision care and control of the corporation wharves and piers ; the paving and repaving of the pavement and all matters relative 10 the streets ; to the lamps and gas; to the public roads and highways; to the public markets; to the public buildings and repairs; to the assessment for wells and pumps, and sewers; and generally for the improvement of streets, and the collection of such assessments; to the engine houses and the engines, and fire apparatus, the making of contracts for work or supplies, and generally to have the care of the public property of every kind and description.

"Ø 25. There shall also be an executive depart. ment known as the Finance department, to consist of the chamberlain, the comptroller, the receiver of taxes, the collector of the city revenue, and the public administration. The comptroller to be the head and chief of this department, and to have the general direction, supervision and control of the business transactions of the whole department.

"26. There shall also be a department to be known as the police department. This department shall consist of the mayor of the city, the chief of police, and magistrates of the city. The mayor to be the general advisatory, head and to possess all power delegated by law; but the chief of police to be the chief and permanent head of the department.

"Ø 27. There shall also be a department, to be known as the Alms House Department, which shall consist of the superintendent of the Alms House, the superintendant of the penitentiary, the superintendant ‘of the city prison, the superintendant of the nursery and the resident physician. The superintendant of the Alms House shall be the head of this department and shall have the general control, supervision and direction of the business transactions of the department including the procuring the necessary supplies, and the eutering into contract for the same.

"$ 28. There shall also be a department known as the water department, to consist of the commissioner of the Croton acqueduct, the water purveyor, and the water register. The commissioner of the croton acqueduct to be the chief head of the department, and to possess such powers and perform such duties as may be required of him, or of the department, by ordinance to be passed for that purpose.

“29. The departments thall not appoint any subordinate officer whatever, except day laborers, and such as shall be specially authorized by ordinance of the common council passed for that purpose, and by which their salary or pay shall be fixed and establish. ed.

“$ 30. It shall be the duty of the common council to pass ordinances designating and prescribing the special duties to be performed by the respective departments and by each officer of the same. They may establish such additional assistants to the several departments as the public interest may require.

* 31. The city commissioners, and the chief or heads of the several departments shall be elected at the next election for charter officers after the passage of this act, and shall hold their oflices for three years, They may be removed from office by impeachment before the board of aldermen, on articles preferred by the board of assistants for gross or improper conduct in office.

“TM 32 In all appointments to office by the common council, except those attached to their respective boards, if the two boards shall not agree upon the person to be appointed, they shall meet together and vote by joint ballot, when a majority of such votes shall decide and be conclusive.

“ 33. The members of the Common Council, and all officers of the corporation are hereby prohibited from receiving or using any gift of free passage on any railroad or ferry, or any free entrance into any garden or place of amusement where the grant or lease shall have been obtained from the council, and where a charge for travel or entrance shall be made to other persons.

"§ 34. The clerk of the board of aldermen shall, by virtue of his office, be clerk of the common council, and shall perform all the duties heretofore performed by the clerk of the common council, except such duties as shall be assigned to the clerk of the board of assistant aldermen; and it shall be his duty to keep open for inspection, at all reasonable times, the records and minutes of the proceedings of the common council, except such as shall be specially ordered otherways.

“V 35. It shall be the duty of the common council to provide for the accountability of all officers and other persons to whom the receipt or expenditure of the funds of the city shall be entrusted, by requiring from them sufficient security for the performance of their duties or trust, which security shall annually be renewed, but the security first taken shall remain in force until new security shall be given.

"Ø 36. This act shall not be construed as repealing any of the provisions of law or charter now fin force, except so far as they shall be inconsistent with the provisions of this act.

AMENDMENTS SUGGESTED. Sec. 6. Removal of Alderman or Assistant from the Ward should be deemed and taken a resignation of office.

Sec. 8 The reports and resolutions required to be published after passage, requires this alteration-a resolution introduced into the Board of Assistants, and passed by that body, should be published before it is acted upon by the Board of Aldermen, by which means those interested will be informed in time to remonstrate in the board to which the proceeding is sent for concurrence, hence both boards should be interdicted from acting on any matter involving taxes or assessments, during the same week, or say within an intermission of 12 days. Reports should, before being adopted by either board, be published, and a delay of 10 days after publication. The penalty should also include any damage which any person may suffer by the omission.

The 10th section if amended so as to require one board to meet on the first Monday of every other month, and the other to meet on the 1st Monday of the intervening month, would give a substantial check to hasty proceedings.

Section 12 requires amendment, requiring each member to subscribe an oath that he would not violate the charter under the pains and penalties of perjury.

Section 13 should require the President of the respective boards to certify the passage of every, act by his board on the face thereof, and if required to be passed by ayes and noes, that should be stated. The same practice is pursued by the president of the Senate of the State and by the Speaker of Assembly.

Section 15 should be struck out.
Section 17 requires amendment.

Section 18 requires amendment. The duties of the Mayor should be specially set forth.

Section 19 requires amendments. Appropriations should be special and not general. No money should be drawn from the treasury except on the warrant in favor of the person to whom it is due and owing,

Section 20 requires provision for the funding of the present indebtedness. Also should provide that all bonds issued be registered by the Mayor-by the Clerk of the Common Council, and by the Comptroller, and the page of each record should be endorsed on each bond, and each bond when paid should be cancelled by the City Chamberlain by cutting the same with a punch an inch in diameter, taking out the centre of the bond.

The amendments to remaining 16 sections we will give in our next number.

We submitted MR. ALLEN's draft of a charter and our amendments to the Hon. GABRIEL Furman, Chairman of the Select Committee, appointed by the Hox. THE SENATE OF THIS State, in 1841, to investigate assessment abuses in the city of New-York; he has returned them to us, with the following endorse

“I think well of this amended charter with your amendments.

GABRIEL FURMAN.”

PRESERVED FISH. On Thursday the 23d inst., the individual whose name heads this obituary notice, departed this life at the age of 81 years. Mr. Fish possessed a remarkably strong constitution, was an active business man, and a man of great decision of character. A delegation of the Anti-Assessment Committee

him in March 1843, to ask him to serve as Chairman of the meeting of the citizens at the Merchants Exchange on the 5th of March of that year. His prompt reply to the question, “ Will you consent to preside at the meeting as President with sixteen other individuals, members of both political parties, as Vice Presidents," was YES."

The abuses that that meeting was convened to ask the Legislature to redress, yet exist. Will the State Convention allow them longer to remain ?

The proceedings of that meeting are to be found on pages 245 to 248 of the Municipal Gazette.

Thus one after another of the aged of our city-pass away—and ere another hundred years shall have rolled around it is probable that none of its present inhabitants will remain this side of the grave.

MOUNT HECLA. We had copied from the Journal of Commerce of July 3, into this paper a paragraph stating that the eruptions of Mount Hecla had ceased about the 5th of April and accompanied the paragraph with a remark that ther must have been done error in the statement, as the account came from Copenhagen of the date of April 10, only 5 days after, and wrote Mr. Halleck, the editor, a note to ihat effect. We now find in the Journal of Coinmerce of July 22, an account from Iceland of a later date, showing that we were correct. It is as follows:

Iceland. The eruptions of Mount Hecla still continued, according to the latest accounts of the 15th of April. IN CONVENTION,

Friday, July 24. CORRUPT EXPENDITURE UNDER THE REG

ISTRY LAW. Mr. Tallmadge offered the following resolution : Resolved, That the city comptroller of the city of New. York report to this Convention copies of the bills which make up the item of $1,748, 24, set forth in his former statement as paid for “ printing and posting of registry and maps of districts for registration, expenses of election of Norember, 1810;" also, copies of bills which compose the item of $3,319 18 set forth in said former statement, as paid for “ printing and posting list of registry and map of districts for registration, expenses of election in April, 1841;" and also copies of bills which compose the item of $3,099 39, set forth in his former stutement as "paid for second registration expenses of Noveinber election of 1841."

Mr. Brown moved a reference to the committee on the elective franchise.

The motion was debated by Messrs Tallmadge and Harri. son and agreed to.

ment:

Rights of Citizens.-The important Report of Committe No. 11, of which Mr. TALLMADGE the distinguished member from Dutchess, is Chairman, will be found on page 584 of this number. The worthy Chairman is honored in his report.

THE REGISTRY LAW IN THE CITY OF NEW.

YORK. Attempts have been made by Corporation officers to render the registry law un popular by representing the expenses of the office very great. It is not often that officers boast of their own shame. It is, however, the case in the representations made of enormous expenses. The expenses were very great. Ten times as much money was paid for the registry books as they ought to have cost. Let the State Convention call for these books and the Bills paid for furnishing them, and an abuse will be exposed which will be a great gain to this State.

POSTSCRIPT, July 28...EARTHQUAKE. > The Journal of Commerce of this morning, states, that a slight shock of an earthquake was felt at Vera Cruz,

on the morning of June 21st. This did not produce an equilibrium here but had the same effect upon the atmosphere at Syracuse, as the earthquake at Cincinnati of the 28th of February had on the atmospere here, viz: a rise of three degrees and an equilibrium, and was followed by a snow squall on the mountains of Huntingdon, Pa., and a cold almosphere, the same as the earthquake al Mexico, on the 7th of April, 1845, when the steamer Swallow was stranded at Ateens.

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6 Tax Assessors' Books now open for Examination.

STATE CONVENTION NOW IN SESSION

AT ALBANY.

long. 72.01

p. m., 78.

Earthquake at Guadaloupe and Mar- 12 to 20 miles wide and extends in a direction from “Brig Helespont, at Providence from Charleston, south west to north east. It is underlaid by rock,

reports : 13th inst., off Cape Fear, at 4 A. M. took a tinique. The Island is therefore like a great terestrial 'needle, heavy gale from north-east, which lasted till 6 P. M."

" Schooner Governor Bennet, Warfield, of N.York, The Journal of Commerce of July 30th, contains and Brooklyn Heights may be regarded as one of its poles and the north eastern extremity the other. It

encountered a heavy gale on 12th inst., in lat 35, the following:

will be seen by looking at the map that no land inter“ A smart shock of an earthquake was venes between the north shores of Guadaloupe and the

Thunder-storm at Indianapolis on the 13th, during felt at Point a Petre, Gaudaloupe, and also south shorses of Long Island.

which Thomas Ramsay, a carpenter, was killed by

lightning at Martinique on the 16th ult., (June 16,)

EARTHQUAKES AT MESSENIA.

Terrible storm of lightning, hail, rain and wind, at but no damage was done."

Nashua, New-Hampshire, on the 14th, doing great We find in the Journal of Commerce of August

damage. The Brooklyn Star of the 18th of June contains my

5th, the following account, copied from Galignani :- On the 15th inst., a terrible hail storm, accompanied meteorlogical observations of the 17th of June, as

A letter from Athens, Greece, of the 20th of June, by lightning, rain and wind, at New Sharon, Stark, follows:

informs us that great disasters had recently occured and Mercer, and also in Somerset county, State of " The WEATHER.—The state of the tem

at Messenia, in conseqaence of repeated shocks of Maine. Thunder storm near Three-mile Run, New

earthquake. The town of Micromani has been en- Jersey, during which a barn was struck by lightning, perature to-day indicates a disturbance of

tirely destroyed, and the villages of Baliaga, Gliata and with its contents consumed. Loss $3,000. Rain, very considerable extent at a distance within and Aslanaga have shared the same fate. In the thunder and lightning on Brooklyn Heights. On the last few hours. The accounts which town of Nist, a number of houses have been thrown Brooklyn Heights the temperature was as follows:will be received from other sections of the

down, and at Colemata even the public buildings Augusti 1th—4 and 5 a. m., 66 ; at half-past 2 to 3, 77

have been overturned. In the country parts, great -being the highest during the day; at 8 p. m., 70. country will determine the particular locality

mischief has also been done. Several plantations 12th—4 to 5 a. m., 66; 2 p. m., 81-the highest duof the disturbance. It is a singular fact that were completely ruined, and the ground has opened ring the day; at 9 p. m., 701. but little of the arctic ice is leaving the polar

in various places and vomited forth torrents of water 13th-At 4, 5 and 6, Equilibrium, a. m., 70}; at 3

and mud. The loss of life was said to have been in- p. m., 881—the highest during the day; at 10 p. m., regions; and the lightning is taking its de

considerable, but the exact amount is not yet known. 78. parturefrom the distant northwestern sections

The last letters received from the scene of devasta- 14th-At 4 and 5 a. m. 72 ; at 20 minutes past 3 p. of our continent, and is journeying to the tion, to the 16th of June, announce that the shocks, m., 89—and distant thunder in the south-west; at 9 south west.

E.M. though less violent, were still going on, and that the

great uneasiness was far from being calmed down. 15th--4,5 and 6 a. m., 75-6.20 rain ; at 3 to 4 p. m., Wednesday evening, June 17.”

The Government sent assistance of various kinds to 83—the highest during the day; thunder at 20 minThis communication was delivered to Mr. E. B. the Messenians, and subscriptions have been opened utes past 5 p. m. ; at 9 p. m., 76.

at Athens for the victims. Several persons spontaSpooner at the Evening Star office, at about 5 o'clock,

On the evening of the 2d, and morning of the 3d, P. M., of the 17th of June, the day following the oc

neously left the Capital to proceed to Messenia, to there was evidence of a partially disturbed atmocurrence of the earthquake at Guadaloupe. The at

keep up the spirits of the people-amongst them was sphere at a distance, and on the evening of the 20th mosphere was in that peculiar state that inade its dis

the Minister of France, accompanied by M. de and morning of 21st, evidence of a greatly disturbed tant disturbance perceptable, and I felt a peculiar senRoujoux, Consul of the Cyclades."

atmosphere at a distance. sation during its continuance, which I cannot de

The scene of these Earthquakes is in that part of scribe, and it was during that state of feeling I wrote the Morea which lies in about lat. 38° n. long. about,

THE DIAL OF A CLOCK. the above communication and carried it to the office 22°, east, and nearly opposite to Catania in Sicily, and of the Brooklyn Evening Star, to Mr. E. B. Spooner, about 450 miles, distant therefrom.

The large church edifice at Caracas has upon each

of the four sides of its tower a dial to its clock. In and remarked to him that an earthquake had taken

CATANIA.

1812, the city of Caraccas was rent by a terrific and place at a distance. The human mind is sometimes

awful earthquake. At the very moment that the fatal so constituted that a powerful impression of the oc- The city of Catania, convulsed by the earthquakes

shock rent the earth and shook the foundations of its currence of such an event, may itself be the cause of

of the 22d and 28th of April of the present year is in church edifice, the vibrations of the pendulum of the that peculiar state. the island of Sicily, in N. latitude 37° 28' 20''. East

clock ceased, and thus the minute hands of the clock It will be seen by referring to the Municipal Ga- long. 150, 5' 15'. In 1693, it was nearly destroyed

were made to mark the precise moment at which zette of July 27, page 588, which page was published by an earthquake during which 50,000 of its inhabi

thousands of the inhabitants of that ill-fated city were several days before the account of the earthquake tants perished. In 1669 the lava from the eruptions

buried in one common grave. The church edifice and reached here, that the temperature of the atmosphere of Mount Etna, reached the city of Catania and des

clock has since that time been repaired, but one of the at 8 o'clock in the morning of the 17th June, was at troyed 15,000 of its inhabitants.

dials of the clock has been allowed to remain undis68 ; 10,70; 11,70; 12, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 71.1 ; 6.70: 7, 69;

turbed, with the minute hand still pointing to the fatal 8,69 ; 9. 66 ; 11, 15m. 63, and next morning 4, 63; 5,

The Graham (VOLCANIC) SHOAL-Malta, June

moment when the grave of thousands was suddenly 64, and 6,64; and although the period of 11 hours was 19.-Commander Graves, the senior surveying offi- opened, and as suddenly closed by the earthquake's not made up of an uninterrupted equilibrium, still the

cer in the Mediterranean, whose departure we lately awful mandate—a wonderful memento-the record, in equilibriums were numerous, viz. the first of 2 hours, announced, in the Locust for the coast of Sicily, un

a language that is universal, with an emphasis of ex--second of 2 hoursthird 6 hours-fourth of two der orders to examine whether from the late earth

pression that speaks in the still small voice that is inhours-fifth of 5 hours, and sixth of two hours. It quakes, or any other cause, the sounding over the

telligible to the contemplative mind. Oft is the tender will also be seen by referring to the storm record on the shoal, formed by the disapearance of Graliam Island

bosom swoolen with emotion, while the human eye same page, 588, that on the evening of the 17th, at and Volcano, had suffered any material change or rests upon the mute monitor--and then busy memory Middle River, Virginia, a thunder storm took place, variation, returned to Malta on the 11th, after having, travels back to the dreadful moment of awful agony by which a female was killed. On the 19th, violent as we understand, spent two entire days in making

and woe. wind squalls, accompanied by thunder, lightning, his survey ; from the result of which it has been ashail and rain was experienced at Harrisburg, Pa.,

certained, that, since it was last surveyed in 1841, PRIVATE RESPONSIBILITY CLAUSE. New-York, Quebec, Rochester, Boston, Portsmouth, the sharp pinnacle then covered by only 14 fathoms N. H,, and the next day at Bucks County and Dan- water, with deep sounding all around, and an irreg

Mr. Townsend in his views of the individual revelle, Pa., New York, Albany, Sand Lake, Pittstown, ular bottom of lava, cinders, &c., has now sunk down

sponsibility of tsockholders in incorporated companies Brunswick, Nassau, Poetens, Kiln, and also at Spring- to the depth of 32 fathoms, (or as much under, as at

of any kind, beyond the capital actually invested, is field, Mass. its greatest recorded elevation it was above water,)

wrong-for no man who has property would be a and in its descent it has gradually spread out, and

stockholder in an institution thus shackled, and the Martiniqne is in latitude 14, 23, 43, to 14, 52, 47, now forms a flat bank, with a sand and coral incrus

private respousibility clause as to a stockholder of no N. ¡ long. 60, 46 to 62, 15 west. The island is mountainous and the mountains are volcanic. The summit tation of a similar form and appearance to the banks

other property, would be of no value to the public. of Montague Pelee is 4429 feet high, and Piten du marked in Capt. Smyths charts, and named by him

Mr. Townsend would do well to consult the Report Cabet 3960 feet, Length from N. W. to S. East 38, nerita, triglia, prima marina patella, &c.; all of which

made by himself when Chairman of the Bank Com. no doubt owe their origin to volcanic causes.-Malta

mittee in 1839 and 40, when he recorded the fact average breadth about 10 miles. Mean annual temMail.

that a short crop in England made the Bank of Eng. perature about 81° and the annual rains average about

land a borrower of the Bank of France, notwithstand. about 85 inches.

“ SUPPOSED EARTHQUAKE.-The Journal of Com- ing her immense deposits in gold. At the wresent Guadaloupe is in latitude 15 58 to 16 13 North,

time the Bank of England is overloaded with gold. merce of August 22, contains the following :longitude 61 15 to 61 55 west.

Banking institutions cannot be made by either funda

• Fincastle (Va.) Democrat of the 15th inst., states, A chain of volcanic mountains run through ijs entire

mental or statute law superior to the elements. A that a supposed earthquake' was felt in that vicinity length of the S. W. portion termed Guadaloupe proper.

famine will empty their vaults. It is the agriculon the 12th inst., between 1 and 2 o'clock. The The mean height about 3000 feet, but the volcano of

ture of a country that form its precious deposits—that shock' (it says) was felt by many persons, and was is the mine of wealth—specie compared with corn is Soufriere at its Southern termination has an altitude of 5,108 feet. It has an area of about 534 square

accompanied by a sound resembling distant thunder, of small account-it failed in amount when the Bank

but rather more harsh and protracted. Several obmiles. About 80 inches of water in rain fall annually served at the same time a meteor in the south, mov,

of England became aborrower—there was not enough and the mean annual temperature is about 80.

of it in all the kingdom to buy corn for the people. It ing from east to west. It was broke into pieces, and was so in the time of the Pharoahs—the money was "Brooklyn Heigh's are the western extremity of Long descended twards the earth gradually, assuining the exhausted—then the cattle, next the land, and at last Island. This Island is about 140 miles long and from appearance of vapor.'

the people became slaves.

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