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3d, To a building fifty feet square, five rods should be used, all cost not to exceed five dollars, except putting up. If fifty feet long and thirty feet wide, three rods are sufficient.
In all cases terminate the rod in the water, or deep in the ground, and let the rod diverge from the building in its descent to the ground.
Iron wire of No. 1 size, measuring six feet to the pound, costs in New York six cents per pound, or one cent per foot. This size wire has never been known to fail-the cost is so trifling, that it leaves no excuse in neglecting protection.
A wire of this size will not support itself, and should therefore have a wooden support over the roof. Where it is necessary to pass a wire through a staple, we should suggest a tin tube, of six or or more inches in length. When the tube is of tin, let it be in the shape of a hollow tube, and narrowest at the lowest point, so as to aid the lightning on the way past the points of the staple pointing inward.
Where tin spouts terminate above the floors of basement rooms which are occupied, it would be well to connect a wire with such termination, leading to the well or cess-pool, or deep into the ground, and to avoid short turns in such spouts that should cause the water in heavy rains to fill up the inside.
LIGHTNING OF THE THUNDERS. gas set on fire-deliberately extinguished the flame The influence which lightning exerts upon the
and escaped unharmed. atmosphere is very great; recorded facts and long
Water thrown freely upon persons struck by lightcontinued observation, will enable us to learn much
ning, has in numerous cases restored them to activity,
and this fact indicates the importance of its use in of this active principle in the great machinery of
all cases. nature. It has been said that feathers are a protection
We have before frequently said, that iron wire, against injury from lightning. The facts and obsery
of No. 1 size, weighing one pound for every six feet, ations recorded in this volume, prove that feathers
is a good lightning conductor, and our desire, in so afford no certain protection.
frequently repeating this opinion, is not with a wish Metalic lightning conductors do afford protection,
to establish a theory, but to show that protection and no instance has yet been found in which loss of
against damage by lightning, may be had at a small life or injury to a human being by lightning, has ever
cost, and thereby most persons, from the cheapness occurred in a building or vessel protected by any
of the rod, can avail themselves of this mode of prokind or form of metalic lightning conductor, reared
tection. We repeat-these wires have never failed,
and the cost is less than a dollar for a single rod of 70 for the purpose of protection ; and this fact alone, it
feet in length. would seem, should be sufficient to satisfy every in
We have expressed the opinion that bright surfaces telligent mind.
are preferable for lightning conductors to dark surBuildings protected by metalic conductors, have
faces ; we still entertain that opinion. In the partibeen struck by lightning, and sometimes injured, but
cular examination we made of the hardware store, in no case has yet been found in which a vessel protected by a metalić rod, has been in the least injured by
Pearl street, struck by lightning in 1845, we found lightning, if the rod terminated in the water and ex
metals with bright surfaces fused, but we could not tended above the highest spar of the vessel.
ascertain if the surface thus fused was in contact with
other metal, for the metalic implements struck had A comparison in this, affords the illustration which demonstrates conclusively that a metalic rod extend
been removed from the places in which they were ing above the surface desired to be protected, and
when the lightning passed over them. We have a terminates in the water, is sure and certain pro
tinned iron fork in our collection, which has several tection.
spots upon it where the lightning fused the metal. As to the extent of the surface which can be deem
An oil holder, made of bright tin, was fused in three ed to be protected, we must have recourse to the re
places by the lightning in the same store. cords of the lightning, and these are ample.
If the lightning rod terminates in water,--which Buildings in blocks, of various heights, are often
we would suggest as preferable in all cases, when a seen, and among such blocks are numerous cases in
well or cess-pool is accessible,-it matters not whether which a building of a less height has been struck by
the lower end is blunt or pointed. lightning, while the next, and immediately adjoining We have seen iron nails that had led the lightning building of greater altitude, has escaped altogether. into the inside of buildings, and others where the This was the case in Pine Apple street, in Brooklyn, lightning has followed the same conductor out of the and in Pearl street, in New-York. We examined building, and hence we argue that iron staples deboth of those buildings with great care. Adjoining signed for fastening rods to the sides of dwellings, are to each, and within 25 feet of where the lightning improper appendages to lightning conductors. struck, was a building of more than ten feet greater We examined a highly varnished mahogany table, elevation.
the surface of which the lightning had passed over, Fences are sometimes struck in barn-yards, while and found the varnish had been removed to the exthe buildings close alongside escape. We examined tent of the length of the track, and to the width of a case of this kind several years ago. An instance is from one eighth to one quarter of an inch. recorded in this volums, of a vessel being struck upon the bowsprit, while the masts escaped altogether.
We have heard of no case in which the lightning has ever struck the vessel between the masts, or the ground between two trees which were not more than 50 feet apart.
In the protection of vessels by rods, the conductors diverge and reach the water several feet outside the vessel these rods have never failed, and therefore offer such conclusive testimony in favor of that position, that leave us no room to say a word in favor of rods that descend perpendicular, in preference to those diverging.
The diagram is designed to represent a building 50 Steamboats require no protection-are rarely struck || feet long-N, the north chimney; S, the south chimby lightning, although filled with iron, and when ney, and A, the ridge of the house. The two rods struck are never injured-nor is there an instance on extend each seven feet above the highest point of the record of the loss of human life on b ard of a steam ridge, and at a distance of 25 feet therefrom. This or, by lightning. We record one instance, in this is the diagram used on page 522 of this volume, to volume, of a person being stunned by lightning on represent the Lancastrian School House, while struck board of a steamer on the Ohio, by the breaking of a | by lightning, as described by Professor OLMSTEAD, thunder bolt.
to which page the reader will please refer.' Iron ships and iron boats, and iron buildings, are We suggest this alteration in the position of the the best of protection from lightning.
rods, viz: Buildings with metalic roofs, afford protection, but 1st. That a rod should project six feet or more metalic eave troughs and spouts, for conducting the above the centre of the ridge, making a gradual bend rain to the earth, should be straight. Spouts with a few inches above the roof, and following the slant short turns in them, obstruct the water, and also ob of the roof to the eave trough,--after passing over structs the lightning, and causes it either to explode that let it diverge in its father descent, so as to reach or force its way through the metal, and in such case within four feet of the ground at a distance of twenty it may take a horizontal direction and pass into the feet from the building, at which point it may be bent building and do injury. We have in our Cabinet, tin so as to terminate in the water of a well or cess-pool, sponts that have been broken through by lightning, and if neither are close by, it may be extended to and we have examined numerous tin spouts to build such a termination by running it along a fence. iuge struck by lightning, and the result is the same in
2d. Instead of leading the rods to the ends of the all these cases. The lightning in all the numerous
building, along side of a chimney, let them diverge cases we have examined, descended the inside of the
from the chimney, the upper point terminating in the spout, and in no case passed through the water or en.
atmosphere four feet higher than the chimney, and tored that fluid.
six feet distant from it, over a portion of the roof of Carbonated hydrogen gas ignites when in contact the house, and when reaching the side of the roof, with lightning, and the lightning at the same instant let the rod diverge from the roof so as to reach with disappears. This was the case in Pearl street, and a in four feet of the ground, twenty feet or more from person setting within three feet of the gas pipe, when the house, and terminate as in the first case of the it was struck by lightning-the pipe melted and the il centre rod.
EARTHQUAKES STORMS, AND CALMS.
The Journal of Commerce of January 13th, 1846, contains the following:
“EARTHQUAKE AT MEMPHIS. The Journal of Commerce of Saturday contains an account of an earthquake at Memphis, Tennessee, on Tuesday the 23d of December, at half past nine o'clk. in the evening. I was engaged the same evening and at the same hour in making meteorlogical observations upon Brooklyn Heights, and was surprised at the sudden depression of the mercury in my thermometer of three degrees. The temperature until this change was 28°—it fell to 25°, and continued at that for 11 hours afterwards, when snow commenced fall. ing. I discovered nothing in the appearance of the atmosphere at the time to account for the sudden change. I noticed this change in the Brooklyn Star, of the next day (Wednesday the 24th). On the 7th of April last, three severe shocks of an earthquake were felt at the City of Mexico, two of which occurred between the hours of six and eight o'clock in the evening, at the same time a snow storm commenced upon the Hudson River during the continuance of which, the Steamer Swallow was stranded upon the rocks at Athens. At the same time a snow storm was raging at Chicago, Illinois, and next day snow fell plentifully at Quebec.
E. M. “[It is very unsafe to rely upon a mere coincidence of time, as throwing any connection between events occurring at far distant places, and having, so far as we know, no natural connection with each other. ]-Editors Jour. Com.
We wrote Mr. HALLECK, the Editor, a private note on the morning of January 13th, after seeing the editorial remark appended to our communication, ex. pressing in substance the opinion that we hoped we should be able to convince him of the correctness of our views in this, and of the incorrectness of those contained inthe Editorial comment.
The paragragh referred to as published in the Journal of Commerce of Saturday, was that of January 10, 1846, and was in the words following:
“Earthquake.-The Memphis Eagle of Thursday Dec. 25th says: A very sensible quaking of the earth occurred at about half-past nine, on Tuesday evening, starting many of our people to their feet who were not on them, and frightening many others; the agitation was accompanied with a roar, or rumbling noise, and apparently proceeded from a north westerly di. rection, it lasted about half a minute."
The Journal of Commerce of March 7, 1846, contains the following notice of an earthquake at Cincin
succeeded by a fixedness of temperature in the atmos- one P. M., 240 ; 7, 20°. This morning at 7 o'clock, natti, on the 28th of Feb., 1846 : phere.
20°, with a clouded atmosphere, indicating another fall
of snow." " Earthquake. Several of the gentleman at our After the December earthquake, the mercury in boarding house-the Howard House, on Main Street,
The Brooklyn Star of February 20, 1846, contains my thermometer remained stationery 11 hours after ; mentioned to us on Saturday, that they felt the shock
onr meteorlogical memorandums, as follows: that of January, 11 hours; February, 11 hours, March, of an earthquake about 10 minutes to 8 o'clock in the
"Saturday was the warmest day for the month of morning. One gentleman, sitting in the parlor, felt 23, 11 hours, March 24, nearly the whole day, and January—the temperature rose to 520 at 2 o'clock P. the undulating motion with such force that it was with April 28th and 29th, 11 hours
M.; at the same time a black cloud appeared in the difficulty he could maintain his sitting posture. Two
northwest; which in half an hour reduced the temperaothers, in their private rooms were affected in the The meteorlogical observations for the 28th and
ture to 41o-at midnight it had reached 220, at same manner. The shock continued during the space 29th of April were published in the Brooklyn Eve which point it continued for 11 hours, at 12 o'clock, of half a minute.-Cin. Gaz. March 2d.
ning Star, on the 29th of April and 5th of May. The Sunday noon, was at 23°, at 5 o'clock P. M. 25°, and The Journal of Commerce of March 14, 1846, con
rose one degree during the night, and was at 7 o'clock last published were first written.
this morning, 260, Saturday, to near 1 o'clock P.M., tains the following notice of an earthquake at Santo The following is a copy :
the East River was covered with so dense a fog that Tomas, on the 30th of January, 1846 :
* Monday morning 27th, 9 o'clock, 61°; half-past it was with difficulty the ferry boats crossed over, and “ Earth qunke.--A very violent shock of earthquake 9,64 ; 12, 65; 1, 66; 2, 68; 3, 69; 4, 67 ; 5, 65, 6, not without the aid of the shore bells. Thursday was felt at the Belgian Settlement of Santo Tomas, 62; 9,57 ; 10,55.
evening, about 5 o'clock, snow fell in a few sprinklinge on Friday Evening, Jan. 30th. It is described as being “ Tuesday morning 28th, 4 o'clock 470; 5; 48 ; 6, and was followed by rain during the night, in moderate like the discharge of a heavy piece of ordnance. 52 ; 7; 58 ; 8, 64; 2, 72 ; 3, 711 ; 4, 67 ; 5, 65; 6, quantity. Rain fell on Friday night also." The Journal of Commerce of April 1, 1846, con60; 7, 58; 9, 53; 10, 50.
A comparison of the respective accounts of the
“Wednesday morning 29th, 4 o'clock, 50°, 5, 50 ; tains the following account of an earthquake at Mays
earthquakes as stated above with the memorandums 6, 50; 7,50 ; 8,50; 9, 50. Thus we have another ville, Ky., on the 23d of March, 1846 : night in which the atmosphere has been stationary in
of the observations made here and published at the " Earthquake.-The Maysville (Ky.) Eagle of the
temperature. This morning rain fell in a gentle respective dates will be most convincing. 24th inst,, says ; At 45 minutes past 12 o'clock, on shower between 7 and 8 o'clock.
• We have a further illustration, as follows: On the Sunday night, an earthquake, preceded by a rumbling
“ Thursday morning 4 o'olock, April 30. The tem
28th of February at 11 o'clock A. M., a sudden and perature yesterday reached 57°, and vibrated consound as of distant thunder, was sensibly felt by all the inhabitants of this city who were awake at that
siderably, lowest point at 50, at which it now is. heavy blow was experienced at New Orleans, and hour. We learn from one gentleman, who was up, During the night it fell 20. In my communication
several vessels were injured by the wind. that there were two concussions, scarce five seconds
sent you yesterday I stated the fixedness of tempera
ture the previous night, and have now to notice the intervening, and that his house shook perceptibly. At
On the first of March, next day, the ship Oneida, the time of the shocks, there was a cloudy sky, but
profuse rain-storm which followed. It will be seen bound from Canton to New-York, encountered a terrino wind. A gentleman from the country, who resides by referring back to my published memorandas that
ble hurrieane off the south end of the Island of Mad. at an elevation of nearly 400 feet above the Maysville a storm followed the same state of the atmosphere
agascar, which hove the ship down on her beam ends. bottom says that the shocks at his house were severer
Dec. 23d, Jan. 31, February 28, March 23, and April than any that have occurred since the memorable 23d, (at the south,*) and now, yesterday the 28th,
The same day, and the day following, the sea was so earthquake of 1811, ’12." here."
much swollen and disturbed at St. Helena that several The Journal of Commerce of April 23, 1846, con
The meteorlogical observations to which we refer vessels were shipwrecked in the harbor, and much tains the following:
were made by the editor of this Gazette, and publish damage done to buildings on the shore. The same “ Earth quake in the West Indies.-By way of Ha
ed in the Brooklyn Star long before the accounts of day Nott's Island on the coast of North Carolina was vanna we have received advices from the town of the earthquakes reached here.
nearly inundated by the sea, and great damage done. Cuba. On the 23d ultimo, at half past 7 in the morn The account of the earthquake at Maysville, was || The wild fowl were killed in great numbers by the ing, after a calm, sultry night, low, rumbling sounds
published in the Maysville Eagle on the 24th of March, were heard- Suddenly the ground shook violently,
storm. The same day a tremendous snow storm was causing the greatest consternation, the people running and the meteorlogical observations made on Brooklyn experienced at Norfolk and also at Richmond, Va. into the street for safety. The first shock lasted one Heights, on the 22d, 23d and 24th of March, was pub The same day snow fell three inches deep at Saltville, or two minutes and after a lapse of five minutes, the
lished on the 25th of March in the Brooklyn Star, as Va. Here are the results of the earthquake at Cincin ground was again violently shaken. It was a solemn moment: in every direction the affrighted inhabitants follows:
natti, traversing almost half across the globe. might be seen on their knees, calling on God to save “Sunday morning 5 o'clock, 320; 7, 320 ; 8, 360;
It will be seen by the memorandums published in them, expecting each moment to be swallowed up. 9, 41°; 12, 47° ; 3, 53°; 5. 49o. Several slighter shocks were felt during the forenoon, “ Monday morning, 6 o'clock, 34°; 12, 500; 2,
the star, that on the night of Dec. 23d, the temperabut it is believed no lives were lost. Several build 50; 6, 420; 8, 40°; at which it continued through the ture was stationary, that that peculiar state was preings were thrown down, and very many cracked. In night, and varied from that but little during Tuesday.
ceded by a sudden fall of 3o. The same occurred the evening mass was said in all the churches for their On Monday afternoon clouds bordered the horizon at every point of the compass. indicative of what follow
on the 28th of April, and on the 28th of February the deliverance from death "
ed," which we now add, was a storm, in which the rise was 3o. The Journal of Commerce of May 15, 1846, con- || Packet Ship Henry Clay went on shore. tains the following:
Two of the earthquakes occurred on the 28th day The Brooklyn Star of March 2, 1846, contains our “There was a slight shock of an earthquake at
of the month-two on the 23d day of the month, and memorandum as follows: Santa Cruz (south side of Cuba) on the 28th of April.”
one on the 30th day of the month.
“At half-past 9, Saturday morning, the 28th, the By referring to our last Gazette, it will be seen that
temperature rose to 200, being 3° from 7 o'clock, and an earthquake took place at Memphis, Tennesee, on with this rise of temperature snow commenced falling; Extract from a Meteorlogical Record kept by the Edithe 23d of December, at half-past 9 o'clock in the at one o'clock 21°; 2 P. M., 200; four, 18°; nine
tor on Brooklyn Heights. evening; another at Santo Tomas near the equator,
o'clock, 16; and continued at that without change
Friday May 15, 1846.-4 o'clock A..M., 58 ; 5,58; 6, 60; 7. 62; on the 30th of January, hour not stated ; another at
8,65; 10, 70, 11, 71; 12, 72; 1, 73; 2, 72; 3, 76; 4, 68; 5, 66; 6,
62, black clouds in the south west-7, 62; 8, 61; 8, 60; 9,60 ; 10, Cicninnati, Ohio, on the 28th of February, at about * The 23d of April referred to above. Our record of that and
Saturday May 16, 4 o'clock A, M., 59; 5,59; 6, 59; 7,62; B, 66 ; 8 in the morning, and now we add another at Mays the preceding two days, published in the Brooklyn Star of April
9, 66; 10, 66; 11, 65; 12, 64; 1, 62; 11, 61, heavy rain ; 2, 61; 2, 24, is as follows:
10, 611; 2, 45, 604; 3, 61; 34, 631, wind and rain ; 3, 45, 62 4.62 1 ville, Ky., on the morning of the 23d March, at 15
" Tuesday 21st April, 5 o'clock, 49 deg. ; 7, 58; 8, 62; 9, 671
5, 60; 6, 60; 8, 58 ; 9,59; 10, 60. The rain continued with trifling minutes before 1 o'clock A.M.; and still another at
intermission from 30 minutes past 1 to 5 o'clock. 10,70; 11, 72; 12, 78; 1, 79; 2, 80; 3, 81, 34, 82; 4, 81; 5, 78; 7,
Sunday May 17, 5 o'clock A. M. 58 ; 6, 58 ; 7,59; 8, 59; 9,62; Cuba, on the 23d of March, at half-past 7 in the morn 73; during Tuesday night the temperature decreased 14 deg. being 10, 63; 11, 68: 12, 70; 1,72; 2, 74; 3, 74; 5, 71; 6, 67; 7, 63; 9, ing; and yet another in Cuba on the 28th of April at 59 at 4 o'clock on Wednesday morning. Wednesday morning
62: 10, 61; 11, 60.
Monday, May 18, 5 o'clock 60; 6, 62, 7, 68; 8, 75;-9, 72; 10,77; ult. 4 o'clock temperature 59 deg. 6, 57; 7, 59 ; 9,57; 10, 57; 11, 55
11, 78; 12, 80; 1, 81: 2 82; 230, 83 ; 2 45, 82; 3, 80, distant thunder ; 12, 56; 1, 56; 3, 55; 4, 54; 5, 54; 6,53 ; 7, 49. It continued a 3, 15, 76; beavy rain; 3 20, 754 : 3 30, 74; 3 45, 72; rain ceased; 4, Here then, we present from the columns of our that throughout the night, and was the same at 4, 5, and 6 o'clock
72; clear over head ; 4 4 76; clouds approaching; 4 30, 65; 4 50,
73, very black clouds causing great comparative darkness ; 4, 57, good friend Mr. Halleck, the account of six earth on Thursday morning, and at 7 rose to 51."
heavy rain; 5,69, heavy rain and vivid lightning ; 5, 5, very heavy
rain; 5 10, 67, heavy thunderbolt broke near by , 51, 67; rain, quakes which have occurred since he penned the edi.
On Thursday a beavy storm set in and rain fell plentifully.
thunder, lightning; 51, 664,5 35, 66, 6, 66; 6 30, 66; 6 45, 66, beavy
We have no account of earthquakes on the 22d of April but the torial comment upon our notice of the Memphis
wind and great rain; 7,64; 75, 60; 7 15, 59, lightning; 8, 57; 9, peculiar state of the temperature gives abundant reason to suppose 57; 10, 55. earthquake. an earthqueke took place on that day near the equator. It may be Tuesday May 19, 4 o'clock 45; 6, 45; 7, 52; 8,54; 9, 57; 10,
56; 11, 56; 12, 58; 1, 59; 2, 60; 3, 60; 4, 61; 5, 60; 6, 58; 7, 56;. The regularity as to time, shows that these have that we may never hear of it, for bad that at Memphis, or Mays
3, 54; 9,53; 10, 52; 11, 51. been periodical, one each month, and near the close
ville, or Cincinnati, taken place in the wilderness, where no news Wednesday 20,4 o'clock, 46; 5, 46; 6, 48; 7, 54.
papers were printed, we probably should never have heard of the A careful examination of the above record will be found very in. of the month. Each followed by a storm, and each occurrence.
your lordships with some of the inconveniences arising legates; Sixteenth ward two delegates ; Seventeenth CORPORATION OF NEW-YORK.
from it. By this charter are granted all the Islands ward, three delegates ; Eighteenth ward, two delePapers Dd. No. 73. near and round his majesties garrison here, the soil
gates. of the East River, as far as low water mark and ex 03. Notice of such election shall be given, and the Gov. Montgomerie to the Board of Trade.
tending in length to the utmost limit of the Island same shall be provided in the manner now provided New York, May 6th, 1728. whereby His Majesties prerogative and interest may be by law in regard to charter elections in the city of My Lords.
in danger of suffering, and his ships stationed here New-York, and the name of each delegate voted for I thought it my duty to take the first opportunity of
under the necessity of becoming petitioners to the sball be written or printed upon each ballot, and the acquainting your Lordships, that after a tedious voyage
Corporation for a convenient place to carreen, or refit, ballot shall be endorsed “delegates to the conven. and being five months out of England, I arrived here for this charter having granted the Corporation, all the tion," and a separate box for the deposit of such on the 15th of last month. I that day published His
Islands as well near and round as before the fort ballots shall be kept by the inspectors of each Majesties Commission here and at Perth Amboy in
which lay commodious for the security and defence of election district in the several wards of the said New-Jersey, the week thereafter.
it, in case of any eruptions, was as I conceive lodging city. I have been so short a while in this country, that I
too great a power in them, in case of any necessity, The result of such election shall be ascertained dare not yet take upon me to give your Lordships a parand by so much lessening of the King's prerogative.
and certified in the manner now provided in the ticular account of the state of the province, nor of
"I must own, my Lords, that I was merely surprised
aci regulating charter elections in said city. the circumstances of the frontiers on the side of the into an assent to this act, it having been exhibited so
04. All the provisions of law for the purity of Indians. I shall hereafter be very punctual in all very early after my arrival (as your Lordships will my accounts and will always endeavor to put things perceive by the act itself) that I had not an opportu
elections in the city of New-York shall apply to the
election held under this act; and all false swearing at nity of being acquainted with the nature and design in so true a light that your Lordships may have reason
said election shall be deemed and punished as perof it, and from the general words of the title of it to depend upon what information I give you. Governour Burnet tells me that he has sent you a very little apprehended the nature of its extent.
jury. full account what was done in the assembly here which
"The act in general terms confirms the city all the 05. The delegates to be chosen under this act, he dissolved in November last, and in some time there grants to them at any time heretofore made without shall meet in the city of New York on the first Monafter issued writs for calling a new one, but they had either referring to any one grant in particular, or men day of July next, at the chamber of the board of not met when I arrived. Application was immediately tioning what the grants were that were designed to be aidermen, and shall then, or as soon after as may be made to me and the people of the best interest of the
confirmed by this act, so that your Lordships on view practicable, organize and adopt rules for their gov. province advised me to dissolve this new assembly,
of the act could not determine what rights, grants or ernment. They shall complete their business so that but I did not determine myself till I consulted with particular privileges were to be confirmed by the act any charter or amendinents adopted by them may be every member of the council singly, and with what and for ought appears some (if not many) of these submitted to the electors of the city and county of gentlemen of the province were then in town. They
grants or charters may be (and as I believe are) pre New-York, as in the next section provided, all unanimously, and even Gov. Burnet himself advised judicial to His Majesties' interests.
$ 6. The charter or amendments proposed by the ine, to call a new assembly, as the most probable way
" It were but lately my Lords that I came to any
convention organized under this act, shall be submitto compose differences, and reconcile all animosities; knowledge of the charter designed to be confirmed
ted to the electors of the city and county of NewIn compliance with all their advices, I dissolved the by this act, and that charter consisting of a vast number
York, at the election to be held in the said city on assembly by proclamation, and writs are preparing to of skins of parchment, and the vessel by rohom I now
the first Tuesday after the first Monday of Novemsummon a new one to meet after harvest. write being to sail in a day or two has rendered it im
ber, in the year 1846, and if adopted by a majority All I can yet inform your Lordships of, as to affairs probable for me by this opportunity to have sent to
of the votes cast on the question, shall be submitted in New Jersey, is that in December last, Governour your Lordships a copy of it, and without which your
to the legislature at the next session thereof for ap. Burnet met the assembly there which ended in Feb. Lordships could not judge of the act, the act being
proval, and if so approved shall become the charter, ruary; several laws were passed, of which he himself worded in general terms, but shall send it by the next
or a part of the charter of the said city of Ne-York ; will give you a particular account. As soon as I can ship, and now hope that what I have offered will justify
and in case the said convention shall prefer amend. have them from the secretary, I shall transmit them your Lordships to stop any proceedings at your board
ments and not a new charter, the said amendments to your Lordships, ingrossed, under the seal of
upon that act until I have this honor a second time to shall be subinitted to the eleetors of the city and the province. I hope your Lordships will be so good write further to your Lordship’s concerning it."
county of New York separate or in clauses relating to as to forgive the imperfect and indistinct accounts I
the same subject. The ballots to be used at the elechave given you; hereafter I hope to convince your
The Constitution of this State contains this provis
tion to be held under this section, shall be prepared Lordships that my whole business here shall be to do
in such form as said convention may direct, and a ion : what is for His Majesties service, and for the good of
“But nothing contained in this Constitution, shall
separate box for the deposit of such ballots shall be the provinces he has been pleased to entrust to my affect any grants of land within this State, made by
kept by the inspectors of each election district in the care. I shall alwyas strive to deserve your Lordships authority of the said King or his predecessors, or shall
several wards of the said city, and the result of such approbation, for I am, with great respect, My Lords,
election shall be ascertained and certified to in the annul any charters to bodies politic or corporate by Your Lordships' most obedient, him or them made, before that day, or shall effect any
same manner now provided in the act renulating And most humble servant, such grants or charters since made by this State."
elections for members of assembly. J. MONTGOMERIE. Sec. 14, Art. 7.
07. The expenses of the election for delegates to Endorsed,
The charters of the City of New-York were never be held under this act, and all expenses attending the Rec'd,
granted by the said King or his predecessors, nor was une
convention, shall be paid out of the treasury of the Reau, " June 20th, 1728.
it granted by this authority or sanctioned by him. city of New-York. The proceedings of the conven
Members of Common Councils of the City in the tion shall be filed in the office of the clerk of the Col. Cosby to the Board of Trade.
management of its public concerns are in every res county, when duly certified to by the presiding New-York, 18 Sept. 1732. pect like the “ Selectmen" of towns, or the Supervi. officer and secretary or secretaries of said convenMy Lords,
sors of counties-mere administrative officers, nothing
more-they have strictly speaking no legislative power I have the honor to acquaint your Lordships of my
08. The members of the convention shall have for the Constitution has vested that solely in the
power to provide for their own pay, which shall not arrival to this place; the assembly is now a sitting, so
Senate and Assembly, and these bodies cannot dele exceed one dollar and fifty cents per day for every soon as they are upp, I will not faile by the first ship
gate this power. that goes for Englaud to send all the acts in order to
day actually in session. be laid before you. I have just this moment received An Act to provide for the calling of a Convention
The Clerk of the Anti-Assessment Committee copied the act your Lordships' letter with a copy of Capt. Carring.
in relation to the Charter of the City of New
on the 13th of May, prior to the adjournment of the Legislature, ton's inclosed. I will immediately write to the Com
in the office of Secretary of State, but as his copy disagreed with
York. Passed May 9, 1846. missioners for the Indian affairs to consult with the
the Corporation copy, we wrote our friend, Mr. Sec. Campbell, Five Nations in order that they may interpose, and
The people of the State of New York, represented
who is one of the most faithful and worthy public officers in the will do every thing that I can in that affair. I am, || in Senate and Assembly, do enact as follows:
State, and received from him a letter, of which the following is a my Lords, with the greatest respect imaginable.
V 1. An election shall be held in the city of New
copy. York on the first Monday of June ensuing the passage Your Lordships' most obedient humble servant, of this act, for the selection of delegates to a county
“Secretary's office, Albany, May 19, 1846. W. COSBY. convention for forming a new, or revising and amend “Dear Sir,-Your letter of yesterday has been re
ceived. ing the present charter of the said city of NewExtract from a letter, written by GOVERNOR COSBY
The act entitled “ An act to provide for the York.
calling of a Convention in relation to the Charter of of the Province of New-York to the Government at
$ 2. Each of the wards of the said city of New the City of New-York,” passed May 9, 1846, by a Home, on the 29th of August 1733, in reference to the York shall be entitled to the following representation W two-third vote, contains nine sections. The last is as
in said convention, viz: First ward, one delegate ; New-York City CHARTER, called Montgomerie's
follows: Second ward, one delegate ; Third ward, one dele "09. This act shall take effect immediately." charter. gate; Fourth ward, two delegates; Fifth ward, two
“I sent a certified copy of the act to Mr. Valentine, “No. 10 is an act confirming the charter of the city delegates; Sixth ward, two delegates ; Seventh ward,
Clerk of the Common Council last Friday, which you of New York by Governour Montgomerie, My Lords, || two delegates; Eighth ward, three delegates ; Ninth
can examine. Yours, very respectfully, as to this act I would beg leave to observe that the ward, three delegates ; Tenth ward, two delegates ; Charter which was designed to be confirmed by this | Eleventh ward, three delegates; Twelfth ward, one
ARCHIBALD CAMPBELL, act having past away grants of a very extraordinary delegate; Thirteenth ward, two delegates; Four
Dep. Secty. State. nature that I thought it necessary for me to acquaint teenth ward, two delegates; Fifteenth ward, two de- | E. Meriam, Esq.
NO NEW VICTIMS OF TAXATION. or ward where the owner resides and not elsewhere. the value thereof in the same ratio as Commerce and The Finance Committee in the Senate of this State ||
The universal practice has been, it is believed, in ac trade are affected, -also hindering improvements and have reported AGAINST the application for a law to tax
cordance with this principle, with the entire acquies decreasing its population. The provision of one of the the merchandize in the hands of commission merchants
ence until this time of the whole people, from the said bills of the said Common Council, is, that persons the funds in the hands of Bankers belonging to per
organization of the government. It is now sought to doing business in said city and residing beyond its sons abroad in the city of New York and against tax
make New-York an exception in the application of this limits, shall be taxed in the said city and not elseing the citizens of other states and of other counties
uniform principle of taxation. And the only argu where in this State, or if they live without the boun· in this State who happen to transact business in the ment offered in favor of this position is, that while the daries of this state, such citizens must pay tax on city of New-York. The Report is an able document, owners reside out of the city, their business and prop their personal property in the state where they reside, it is from a very able Committee and accords with erty is within the city, and they enjoy the protection and also in the State where they do business, making the views expressed by the meeting held at the mer of the government without sharing in the burdens of a double tax. This provision involves principles which chant's Exchange in 1843.
its taxation. It might be inferred that the petition are of great importance, and if it is to become a law, The Corporation need not seek out new victims of ers supposed, that if they sought to make New York may lead to the passage of retalitary laws by other taxation—the remedy is elsewhere, and is in the stop an exception to the general rule, that the evil of which States and thus the harmony of the Union be disturbed, ping of the profligate expenditure of the public they complain was confined to that city. Whereas it very much to the injury of trade and Commerce as money---in ceasing to squander the money wrung out
is believed that it is a common circumstance that in well as to the detriment of the public welfare. The of the people by destructive taxation-stop the treas
dividuals possessing wealth, will employ their capital provision of the said bills which requires every inhabiury leaks—these are the remedies, We here give the consisting of personal property in one city or town, tant or person doing business in the city of NewSenate Report.
while they reside in another. The property, does York to make an inventory or schedule of the person
not in any case, if assessors do their duty, escape tax property belonging to him or held by him as agent STATE OF NEW-YORK.
ation. It will contribute its due proportion to the for others, and to return the same under oath to the No. 109.
discharge of the public burthens, though not always assessors within a limited time, is disapproved of,
in the locality where it is employed. Still it is not and considered inquisitorial, arbitrary and oppressive, IN SENATE March 27, 1846.
impossible, nor indeed improbable, that equal and ex and will in many cases be difficult and in some almost
act justice is done in this respect. There may be as impossible to comply with." REPORT
great an amount of personal property owned by res It is suggested that the present law of the State is
idents in the city of New-York, and employed in buOf the finance committee on the petition of Lewis
sufficiently ample in this particular, and that it affords siness elsewhere, and which is of course taxable in the the assessors as much opportunity or means of ascerSilbrand, and others, for the taxation of the personal
city of New York, as there is employed in the city and taining what persons are liable to be assessed for perproperty of non-residents of the city of New York.
owned by those who reside out of it. Mr. Porter, from the committee on finance, to whom
sonal property as is needed. By the present law, they
The principle of taxing personal property in the city are authorised to assess any and every inhabitant, for was referred the petition of Lewis Silbrand and others,
or town in which the owner resides, the committee personal property, as great in amount as they believe praying for the passage of a law that shall make all
believe to be sound and just in all respects. To adopt him to be worth; and if they cannot satisfy thempersonal property liable to taxation, whether the same
the other system, of taxing personal property where selves as to the amount, they can set down as large an is owned by non-resident citizens or otherwise,
it was employed in business, irrespective of the res amount as to compel the person thus assessed to reREPORTS:
idence of the owner would be exceedingly perplexing duce the same under oath, or otherwise pay the tax That the committee have had the said petition un and troublesome in practice, and inquisitorial in char on the said property. der consideration; that it alleges that it has been ascer acter, and cannot be required upon any principle of "It is said by public officers, as the remonstrants are tained that there is over ten millions in value of per justice or fairness. Personal property has no fixed lo informed. that many persons escape taxation on personal property in the city of New York, belonging to cality, except as connected with the habitation of the sonal property who are liable to taxation; this, it is merchants and others, who are doing business in that owner. It may appear reasonable to the petitioners, suggested, is the neglect of the assessors, and not the city, but who do not reside therein; and that this that since a large amount of personal property is em inadequacy of the present provisions of law. property is not taxed in that city, although its owners ployed in business in the city of New York, while the "The provision which authorises the imposing a tax derive equal benefits in the protection of their prop owners reside in the neighborhood of the city, that the upon the personal property, merchandize, produce, erty with those who are compelled to pay by tax the property should be taxable in the city. But if that funds, &c., &c., in the hand of an agent, is a new expense of the city government; that many persons principle is adopted in this instance, it must be made feature sought to be incorporated into the laws of the doing business in the city have become residents of universal; and then the personal property of those State, and made applicable to this city only, involving neighboring places, for the purpose of avoiding taxa who reside permamently in other States and in for principles of very great importance. Should this protion upon their personal property in the city, all of eign countries, if found in the city of New York by the vision become a law, the effect will be to drive busiwhich the petitioners deem a grievance which they assessors, would be subjected to taxation there. ness away from this city, as well as money funds, and claim should be redressed.
Even property sent there to be sold and awaiting a hereafter the interest on public and other pecuniary The petition is very numerously signed, and shows market, would in that view be properly set down in obligations will be made payable without the bounds that very many of the inhabitants of that city enter the assesssment roll ; although the proceeds of it may of the tax district." tain the opinion, that it is consistent with the general have been transmitted to the owner, before that roll
WHARF TAX. policy of our laws, to impose taxes for the purpose should be completed, and the owner assessed for it at
An extraordinary provision has made its appearance of meeting the expenses of the city and state govern the place of his residence.
in a bill introduced into the House of Assembly, proments, upon personal property found within the city, The committee discern no reason or argument for
viding for levying a wharf Tax, secretly, by inserting irrespective of the residence of the owner. It may departing from the uniform and established rule, that
a clause at the foot of a bill relating to other matters. not, therefore, be inappropriate at this time to refer connects the taxation of personal property with the
Such a system of legislation we are confident that the to the several statute provisions on this subject, to residence of the owner, and they recommend the
legislature will never give countenance to. show the scope and policy of the law on the subject adoption of the following resolution: of taxation in this respect. Resolved, That the prayer of the petitioners be
STATE OF NEW-YORK. In the first place in regard to real estate, it is pro denied.
ASSEMBLY, vided (1 R.S. 389, sec. 1,2,3.) that every person shall
April 10, 1846. be assessed in the town or ward where he resides TAX UPON NON-RESIDENTS.
No. 415. when the assessment is made for all lands then owned At a public meeting held at the Merchant's Ex- || AN ACT to amend an act concerning passengers in by him, within such town or ward, and occupied by change in the city of New-York, on the 6th of March,
vessels coming to the port of New York, passed him, or wholly unoccupied ; and if it shall be occu 1843, in relation to Taxes and Assessments, Pre
February 11, 1824 pied by another person than the owner, it may be as served Fish, Esq., was called to the Chair, as Presi
6. “and said Corporation shall have full power sessed in the name of the owner or occupant. But if dent of the meeting, and William B. Crosby, Peter
to regulate the rates of wharfage charged upon all it shall be unoccupied, and the owner does not reside Cooper, Peter Schermerhorn, Abraham Van Nest,
goods of vessels discharging in, at, or upon any wharf, in the townor ward, it shall be assessed in that town Abraham G. Thompson, George Griswold, Charles
pier, or slip in said city." or ward as the land of a non-resident. And sections H. Russell, Jonathan Goodhue, Peter Embury, Peter
If there is need for the passage of a law in relation 11 and 12 further provide that such lands shall be pla. I. Nevius, Peter Lorrilard, Jr. and John Haggerty as
to wharfage, let a bill with a proper Title be introced on the assessment roll, as the lands of non-res Vice Presidents.
duced, and not insert this extraordinary provision in idents, with some proper description to designate them. These gentlemen were of both political parties,
a bill of a title calculated to mislead the persons inThus it will be seen that in respect to real estate, The memorial of the meeting to the Legislature
terested. The Corporation have recently leased the the law requires that it shall be assessed in the town signed by all the persons above named, was presented
wharves, piers, &c., at public auction. A Remonor ward where it is situated, without regard to the in the senate of this State on the 11th of March, 1843,
strance will be sent to the Legislature against this residence of the owner. by the President of that Honorable Body, and is now
provision, in the mean time the members from the But in respect to personal property the 5th section on file in the Senate. This memorial contained the
country will take care that their butter, pork, ashes, of the same title provides that every person shall be following:
&c., are not thus indirectly taxed in the city of Newassessed in the town or ward where he resides when “ The Remonstrants represent that the Real Estate
York. the assessment is made, for all personal estate owned situate in the city of New-York the principal sea port of
The Flour and Produce pays a tax in the Storage by him. And section 9, which gives directions as to this great and growing state is valuable mostly in oon
and Commissions, for the Commission Merchant pays the form of the assessment roll, provides that the as sequence of the Commercial advantages which said
a tax and the store house is alsa taxed, and the vessel sessors shall set down in the fourth column the full city possessee; and whatever laws are or shall bo enact
pays wharfage. value of all the taxable personal property owned by such ed which impose restrictions or burdens upon trade
The Wharves, Piers, &c., are county property the person, after deducting the just debts owing by him. I and Commerce in said city alone and distinct from the
same as Bridges and Roads, and are paid for by a The statute is therefore equally explicit and clear, rest of the state is an indirect tax upon such real
County Tax. that all personal property shall be assessed in the town "estate, operating in a two-fold degree, depreciating || [NOTE:--The sleeper killed the bill.]
THE SALT DUTIES.
Committee of the Whole, on the bill in relation to
Mr. Hand said, that as a member of the Committee on Finance, he would try to give a few statistics, showing the reasons for and against the bill reported by the Committee, and other propositions now before the Senate; among which was one from his colleague, (Mr. Clark) to make the tolls equal on foreign and on our own salt; and another by his colleague, (Mr. Mitchell,) to put the duty at three cents per bushel instead of two as proposed by the committee on financeHe said it was well known that there are but three great sources for supplying us with salt; for although Pennsylvania made, perhaps three-fourths of a million of bushels, and Massachusetts nearly half a million, and a little was made in about 20 of the states, yet foreign importation, the Kanawha springs in Virginia, and the Salina Works, were the great fountains of supply. It is supposed the United States use now about 17 or 18 millions of bushels, of which last year we imported over 84 millions; the Salina Works made nearly four millions; and the Virginia Works, it is believed, made as much. The Hon. Abbot Lawrence, in a recent letter, has said our home manufacture is about ten millions of bushels, but he, (Mr. H.) doubted there being quite so much ; and not over one-fourth of a million were exported, and this year not probably over 100,000 bushels. It is an article of prime necessity and the localities of its manufacture were limited, though perhaps the amount that can be made at those localities is not
Of the nearly 7 millions imported in 1841, England (which exports about 12 millions bushels annually) furnished about 3 millions, British West Indies, about 1 millions, and Portugal over half a million, The amount used in the United States, is wonderful, and the demand fast increasing; and yet the price is decreasing; ten years ago it being betwen 40 and 50 cts. per bushel, and much less now as he should show. It has been said, that an adult uses about 16 lbs., annually, but it seems that in the United States, the total consumption is nearly a bushel to an inhabitant, and it is constantly applied to new uses as manure, &c. The importation of 8 millions last year, was valued in imposing the duty, at nearly $900,000, or a little over 10 cents per bushel ; and the duty imposed was over 70 per cent on the cost; amounting in all to over $680,000.
The committee on finance has reported a bill imposing a duty of 2 cents per bushel, and all drawbacks or bounty were to be abolished. These drawbacks or bounties were granted by the law of 1843 to encourage the manufacture of the article. It amounted to 7 cents and 6 mills at tide water per bushel, and ranged from 5 cents to as low as 4 mills in Ohio, Pennsylvania, Indiana, Buffalo and Oswego, being different in different places. The effect of this bounty was to increase the annual amount that came to tide water from about 5,000 bushels to 205,000 bushels in 3 years, and made a difference of nearly 170,000 bushels the first year. This year nearly 900,000 bushels have been brought to tide water, and nearly 2,000,000 have left the state the other way. This makes the question of duty very important. As the duty and tolls now are, the income on a barrel of salt brought to tide water is as follows: Duty on 5 bushels at 6 cents, (per 56 lb) 30 cents.
Can the business stand this change? A majority of | is the property of the State, and should it not contribthe committee thought so, so long as the present tariff ute a share ? On the other hand he would not emis kept on, though he (Mr. H.) had his own views as barrass the works. The amount annually paid by to the salt coming to tide water. That this state other States to our citizens for salt was large, and ma. property ought to contribute something to our present ny persons are employed. By fostering these works, burdens no one doubted. The receipts of the canals you keep up a brisk competition on the east and on the last year just about paid expenditures and interest on west, and it keeps down the foreign article.-the original cost. The tolls received on salt, however, This induced him to oppose the proposition to fell short of its proportion. The amount of tolls re place foreign salt upon the same footing. The tolls ceived was only about one-thirtieth of the whole tolls now may be too high on foreign salt, but if put on whereas the tonnage was about one-seventeenth. It par with our own manufacture, he feared it would demight be useful here to state the various sums imposed stroy our works, and consequently destroy competi. as duty at different times. He would put the tariff tion, and very much enhance the price of the article along side.
in a few years everywhere. Mr. H. said he had thus Duty.
thrown together the items of information he had reTo 1817, 3 cents.
1788, 6 cents. ceived. They might be, in some respects, incorrect, 1817 to 1834, 12 cents.
but if useful to the committee in forming correct 1834 to 1843, 6 cents.
opinions, he should be satisfied.” Since 1843, 6 cents and bounties. 1830, 15
In the last number of our Gazette several typograph1832, 10
ical errors occurred in overlooking the proof sheet in 1842, 8
the statement of analysis of the several specimens of These are imposed upon the bushel of 56 lbs. The salt. We correct these by recapitulating the stateduty, without the drawback, still remains at 6 cents. ments of analysis as follows: The tariff too was cut down to about 7 cents by the Salt made by solar evaporation at Geddes. operation of the “ compromise act," but that is not
Pare chloride of sodium,
992,50 important now.
Sulphate of lime,
Carbonate of lime and magnesia,
1,00 new plan, he would make an estimate of the cost &c. Take a barrel of boiled salt:
Chloride of calcium and magnesium, trace Duty at 2 cents, (as proposed,) 10 cents.
1000,00 5.13 Making
Salt made by boiling saturated brine.
989,44 Per barrel,
Chloride of calcium and magnesium, 1.64 (Not including barrel and packing.) Suppose we take the solar salt, of which there was
1000,00 made, he regretted to say, less than 400,000 bushels last year. It weighs probably from 70 to 75 lbs. A
Turk's Island Salt. bushel by measure runs thus :
Pure chloride of sodium,
984,04 Making (say,).
Sulphate of lime,
13,16* Duty 2 cents for 56 lbs.
1.2 Freight, (say,)
* And sulphate of magnesia. Cost at tide-water,
21.7 This 21. 7-10th cents does not include barrel, &c.,
Salt made at Saltville. but supposes it brought in bulk.
Chloride of sodium,
90,510 An estimate had been made of the cost of Turk's Sulpbate of lime,
9,314 Island salt, which weighed about as much. Take a Carbonate of do.
0,126 bushel by measure :
Chloride of calcium,
0,050 Cosť when shipped, (say,)
100,000 Freight, (say,)
The analysis of the brine at Syracuse compared Cost in New York,
with that at Saltville affords more accurate information A statement of cargo prices has been kindly furnish
than the analysis of the prepared salt of the two
establishments. ed by a friend, by which he found them for 12 months
Dr. Beck made an analysis of the Onondago brine past to average 31 cts. 8-10ths, for Turk's Island, and
in 1837, and C. B. Hayden, Esq., made an analysis Î.iverpool 24 1-2 cents. From this statement it could
of the Saltville brine in 1843. We have the brine of be seen that probably the business could stand the
both these salines in our cabinet, and also the salt, and proposed change, so long as the tariff remained as it now is, but if the 8 cents should be taken off by gov
a careful examination of all these, lead us to confide ernment, and foreign Salt admitted free, in all proba
in the correctness of the respective analysis. bility, the Salina Salt would no longer reach tide wa
1000 parts of Onondago brine from four different, ter. And besides the tariff, the tolls on foreign salt is
wells produced in water 856,49,100 average--the same 15 times as much as it will be on our own, which
quantity of the Saltville, Virginia, brine produced would always give ours the advantage west of Albany.
but 754,5.100 water. One cent duty would hardly do more than keep the
1000 parts of Saltville, Virginia, brine produced in works in repair, and many facilities on the canal are
chloride of sodium 240,52,100 and the brine of four now afforded, as wood toll-free, &c. He thought, at
wells at Onondago Salines average produce 136,48,100 any rate, that this duty of 2 cents, should be imposed
chloride of sodium. on salt not brought to tide-water. Perhaps one cent
1000 parts of Onondago brine produced in chloride would be enough on that, as the consumer there had
of calcium and magnesium 2,04,100 x 1000, and the a choice of markets. Gentlemen had complained of
Saltville brine but 0,08,100 x 1000 of chloride of calthe discrimination.
cium. But the difference is in facilities. If the consumer in the interior gets it at reasonable Extract of a letter from Thomas L. PRESTON, Esq. rates, is not that enough? Suppose the State, by re
of Virginia, one of the proprietors of the Salt Mines ceiving only one cent on a bashel in all, duty and toll, brings to tide water one million of bushels, when if
in Washington county in that state, written at Syracuse, tro are imposed, none will come, should the interior while on a visit to the Onondago Salines of our State, complain that the State saves this $10,000, and aids in
to the Editor.
“Syracuse, N. Y., April 20, 1846.
41.79 Drawback on reaching tide water, 38.00 Nett to the State for tolls and duty, 3.79
The proposed new duty and tolls would produce a very different result. On a barrel it would be as follows: Duty at 2 cents (per 56 lb)
10 cents. Tolle, (1 mill on 1000 lbs. per mile) 5.13
Received by the State,
15.13 Making a difference of 11.34 cents per barrel in favor of the State.