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amongst the people that Mr. Beecher in his Harper Ferry Sermon, professes to lift up his hands in horror, exclaiming, “When the love of liberty is at so low an ebb that churches dread the sound; ministers shrink from the topic; book publishers dare not publish or republish a word on the subject of slavery, cut out every living word from school books, expurgate life passages from Humboldt, Spurgeon, and all foreign authors and teachers, and when great religious publication societies, endowed for the very purpose of speaking fearlessly the truths which interest would let perish, pervert their trust, and are dumb, first and chiefly, and articulate only in things that thousands of others could publish as well as they ; what chance is there that public sentiment in such a community will have any power with the South ?” And when contrasting the North with the South he gives, in the same sermon, deeper and blacker shades of guilt and shame to the North where he says, “We heap on the coloured people obloquy more atrocious than that which the master heaps on the slave. They love their property. We do not own them so we do not love them at all.” How black the picture of misery! How dangerous the elements contained within the Union! How both parties bave dug and charged mines, which by any current of events, or freak in the chapter of accidents might explode in disastrous ruin! To maintain that such a Union bas “health in it,” or is “ dear to the



lovers of freedom throughout the world,” is one of the most insulting mockeries and blasting burlesques that can be conceived. It outrages beyond possible endurance the common sense of creation. In 1861, the New England abolition chieftains said, “the only relief they could find in contemplating a thing so devilish and disgraceful, was to cherish the hope that God or some other power would ere long dash it in pieces like a potter’s vessel.”


Could the old puritans rise from the deail, they would not be able to recognise those who claim to be their descendants in America, so opposed have they become to themselves in principle and practice, and if required to give their opinions concerning them, they would put the deepest and broadest emphasis on the passage of Holy writ, which reads, “ children that are corrupters, a seed of evil doers.” In America the reaping time comes very quickly after the sowing time. This is being vividly realised in our unfortunate country at the present time. What seeds of calamity and ruin have been broadcast in our land, and now what a harvest of misery and shame. How stupidly ignorant, and obstinately and wilfully blind those must be who shut their eyes to the fact, “that there is a God who judgeth in the earth.” Some there are however who acknowledge God's retributive providences

so far as the South is concerned, but raise a shield to protect the more guilty North, whose guiding policy was expediency and necessity to promote the ends of unity, thereby prostituting the principles of liberty, social rights, common honesty, the sacred virtues of christianity, and the laws of the infinite God to the influence of the almighty dollar, and subjecting themselves to the direst displeasure of the Almighty, who has now come out of his place to make inquisition for blood. The above course is exceedingly wicked and foolish as well as prejudicial to society, since it creates animosity and strife, and produces feelings of alienation as well as those of rancorous malignity. But were there no means of averting so terrible a catastrophy, or mitigating the severity of the divine proceedure ?


Yes. These were the one to go to the right of Mason and Dixon's line; and the other to the left. There was plenty of land to be possessed, millions of acres inhabited only by Indians and buffaloes, where each might develope their resources, and fulfil their “manifest destiny," without encroaching upon each other's rights.

The objects sought to be attained by the Northern and Southern peeple were, as already shewn, antagonistical in their free trade and protectionist policies and theories. As an able writer in the

New York Tribune declared in 1854, "the Northern portion of the Union seeking for protection against the cheap labour system of Europe, and the Southern portion clinging to the British free trade system.”

Invidious comparisons were instituted, namely, that each bore each other on their “shoulders." The Southerns maintaining in a pamphlet called the “ Union past and present,” published at Charleston in 1850, “that the Northerns had the use of one hundred and forty millions of Southern capital; and the disbursement of twenty millions of Southern taxes ;" so that once separated from the North, the writer in the pamphlet referred to declares “Southern trade would revive and grow like a field of young corn when the long expected showers descend after a withering drought; their ports be crowded with shipping and their warehouses crammed with merchandise; also that the use and command of the above large capital would enable them to cut canals, make roads, tunnel mountains, and drive the iron horse through the remotest valleys till the desert should blossom like the rose.” The Northerns, in reply, according to the articles referred to in the New York Tribune, avowed that “North of Mason and Dixon's line of the Ohio ; and of thirty-six thirty, we have land sufficient for hundreds of millions of inhabitants. We need population, and the surest way to bring it is to afford to the people of Europe reason for believing that by coming here



they will be enabled to earn higher wages than they can obtain at home; and enjoy in greater perfection the advantages of freedom. Every person that comes here is worth to the community all he costs to raise ; and the average cost of the men, women, and children we import is certainly not less than a thousand dollars. Northern policy, even as it is now carried out, attracts nearly 400,000 emigrants annually, few or none of whom would come under

entire Southern policy; and to this vast immigration is to a great extent due the fact that in Illinois, the increase in the value of property in the year 1853 over that of 1852 was fifty-eight millions of dollars; or more than five times as much as the annual value of that portion of our trade with the Sonth. Had the Northern policy been fully carried out we should now be importing double our present rate, and every man so imported would be adding to the value of Southern products by consuming thrice, and perhaps five times as much cotton and sugar as he consumed at home. At the same time they would be adding to the value of Northern land and labour to the extent at least the sum we have named, or an amount of four hundred millions of dollars, being more than twenty dollars per head of the present population of the States we have assigned to a Northern Union. Adding this quantity to those already obtained, we feel disposed to place the loss of the North from the continuance of the Union at about forty dollars per head."

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