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tion of emancipation ?-I think there was scarcely an outrage which could not be traced to a particular object: one was the attacking a proctor, another dispossessing of the land, attacking a former tenant, a party going at night to dispossess the tenant who had been put in, in order to have the possession restored to the former occupier. There is scarcely one which was not traceable to a particular object.

You could not trace any connexion between those outrages and the question of Catholic emancipation ?—No, in no case."-H. L. 1825, p. 304.

Robert Cassidy, Esq., resident in the Queen's County :

“Do you conceive that the disturbances to which you have alluded have anything of a religious character mixed up

with them ?- Decidedly not.

“When you say you consider there is nothing of a religious character mixed up with the present disturbances, do you mean to say that the Whitefeet are not associated together in hostility to Protestants ?-I think not; nor have I ever been able to learn that the hostility of the Whitefeet was more directed against the Protestant than the Catholic."-H. C. 1832. Nos. 5978. 5980.

The absence of any predominant religious motive in the Whiteboy combinations further appears from the fact, that Catholics, as well as Protestants, are the objects of attack, wherever they possess arms, but more especially when they transgress the rules with respect to land. It seems natural, that where the tenant is


the payment of rent should be disagreeable to him, whatever may be the religion of the landlord or agent who receives it.

"Do you find (Mr. Blackburne is asked) the resistance of the payment of rent for land, and the dispossession, apply equally in cases where he is a Protestant or a Roman Ca


tholic, or is it confined to any description of landlord ?— Not at all,'” is his answer.-H. C. 1824, p. 9.

Mr. Leslie Foster being asked

" Whether the Protestant middlemen find greater difficulty in enforcing their claims for rent than the Catholics ?”' answers,

Certainly not; the consideration of religion does not enter at all, I think, into these relations.”—H. L. 1825, p. 58.

For the same reason that a payment, if oppressive, when made to one man, is also oppressive if made to another man, the rules made by the Whiteboys, to protect themselves against destitution, are equally enforced against Catholics and Protestants. However strong the religious interest may be on other occasions, the feeling of self-preservation is still stronger; and the Whiteboy who might insult a Protestant clergyman, or break the windows of a Protestant church, would murder a Catholic farmer for taking land over another man's head, in the same way that Richelieu persecuted the Protestants at home in order to spread the true religion, but assisted them in Germany, in order to advance the more important territorial interests of his country.

The following testimonies show that the administrators of the Whiteboy code strike indiscriminately all transgressors of its rules, whatever may be their religious persuasion :

Major Powell.

“Were the outrages which were committed equally levelled against Catholics and Protestants ? — They were invariably directed against Catholics; I have never known an instance of a Protestant being affected in that county by the system. I beg to remark there are very few Protestants, except in the higher classes, in that district (County of Kilkenny).

“ How were the persons affected ?—Their houses were attacked." --H. L., 1824, p. 101.

Justin M.Carthy, Esq.

“ Were the attacks made equally on the property of Catholics and Protestants ?-In our country they were almost all made on the individual property occupied by Roman Catholics. In the part immediately adjoining me, the attacks were made principally upon the property held from a nobleman by a Roman Catnolic lady.

“ Were the attacks levelled against the Protestant clergy particularly ?-In some instances they were, with respect to tithe, and with respect to individuals who had taken tithe. In many instances there was a general notice against the payment of any tithe.

“ Was there any general notice against the payment of any rent?-Yes, there was.”-H. L., 1824, p. 207.

Rev. Nicholas O'Connor.

“Has this [the serving of threatening notices] been done indiscriminately on Catholic farmers as well as on Protestants ?I believe, if there is any preference given, the Catholics get more notices; the Whitefeet are most liberal people, for they make no distinction between Catholic and Protestant." H. C., 1832, No. 3195.

Mr. John Bray.

“ Do the Whitefeet and Blackfeet, in those nocturnal visits, make any distinction between Protestants and Catholics? They visit Protestant houses to take arms; but the Catholics have been more exposed to personal outrage.

“If a Catholic farmer breaks any of Captain Rock's laws, he is as likely to be visited as a Protestant ?-I rather think more so."-H.C., 1832, Nos. 3501-2.

John Dillon, Esq. “ Have the Catholic farmers been attacked by the White

feet ?_Yes, indiscriminately; more Roman Catholics have suffered than Protestants.

“ In proportion to the number, is that your opinion ?-I cannot answer that, unless I can recollect their proportionate numbers; but there appears to me to be no distinction made between them.”—H. C., 1832, Nos. 2365-6.

Mr. John Cahill.

“ Have you found these attacks have been made indiscriminately on the Catholics as well as the Protestants ?—They have much the same, I think, in my neighbourhood.

“ The Whitefeet do not appear, then, to have any predilection or hostility more to one religion than the other?-I should think not indeed; I found by experience, that, in fact, the Protestants were more spared than the Catholics; a good deal more.

“ How do you account for that? I cannot say; I found it so in my neighbourhood; I found that not one of them was abused; it was not the same with the Catholics; they were seriously abused.

Do you, then, consider that this disturbance or insurrection had anything whatever of a religious character about it?-I do not consider that it had the slightest."--H. C., 1832, Nos. 7441-4.

It might be conjectured, that the difference here stated arises from the feeling that there ought to be good brotherhood among Catholics, and therefore, if a Catholic transgresses, he ought to be more closely watched, and more severely punished : the more probable reason, however, is, that most of the small tenants who are concerned in dealings with land are Catholics, and therefore that they fall under the Whiteboy ban; in other words, that takers of land are threatened, not because they are Catholics, but Catholics are threatened because they are takers of land.

Major Warburton.

“ Were the outrages that were committed equally levelled against Catholics and Protestants ?—Equally, I think.

“ Were they levelled chiefly against landlords, or against persons who came to occupy tenements from which the previous tenants had been expelled ?-I think they were levelled against both ; that they were levelled against the parties acting under the arrangement with the landlord, and against the landlord for making the arrangements, in many cases that occurred.

“Were many of the outrages directed against the clergy, or against the collectors of tithes ?—Many of them against tithe proctors; there were not many of them against the clergy, I think."-H. L., 1824, p. 78.

Mr. Serjeant Lloyd.

“ Were the outrages levelled equally against Catholics and Protestants? - I heard of no distinction; I think where a Catholic endeavoured to redress himself by those means, by distraining or ejecting a tenant, he was just as much the object

. “ Where a Catholic tenant had taken a tenement from which another Catholic tenant had been ejected, was he equally the subject of attack ?- I think he was.”—H. L., 1824, p. 112.

Major Willcocks.

“ Should not you think that, naturally, the Catholic proprietor would have an influence over his Catholic tenantry?I think he would have an influence, if he chose to exercise it, to get them to do wrong; but I do not think he would have much influence over them, to get them to do right.

“ Then you think that the Catholic laity are at this moment without that natural influence over the Catholic tenantry which in a sound state of society they would have ?-I am of that opinion.

“ And in order to maintain any influence over their tenantry, they are obliged to use the intervention of the priest?- I think that if they wanted to have an influence over them, the priest

of their anger.

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