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Lake Oneida is twelve leagues long by about one league wille. Its navigation is beautiful and practicable at all times, unless there be a strong contrary wind. It is best on the right of the lake which is the north side.
From Lake Oneida we enter the River Vilcrick,* which emplies into that Lake, & ascend nine leagues to Fort Bull. This river is ' full of sinuosities, narrow and sometimes embarrassed with tret's fallen from both banks. Its navigation is difficult when the water is low. It is, however, passable at all times with an ordinary batteau load of 14 to 1500 weight. When the waters of this stream are low, an ordinary batteau load cannot go by the river further than within a league of Fort Bull. It becomes necessary then to unload and make a Carrying place of the remainder by a road constructed to the Fort, or to send back the batteaux for the other half load.
Fort Bull. which was burnt in 1756 by a detachment under the orders of M. de Lery, 'was situated on the right bank of this River near its source on the height of land.
From Fort Bull to Fort Williams is estimated to be one league : and a quarter.' This is the Carrying place across the height of land. The English had constructed a road there over which all the carriages passed. They were obliged to bridge a portion of it, extending from Fort Bull to a small stream near which a fort had been begun though not finished; it was to be intermediate between the two Forts, having been located precisely on the Summit level.
Fort Williains was situated on the right bank of the River Mohawk or des Agniés, near the rise of that river on the height of land. It was abandoned and destroyed by the English after the capture of Chouegen.
Leaving Chouegen there is a road over which the English used to drive cattle & horses. This road follows the border of the Jeft bank of the River Chouegen. The Five Nations river is
. * Note in the Original.— The River of the Killed Fish (now Fish Creekj flows also into this Lake; the English used it formerly; they abandoned it because there was a Portage, and have preferred Vifcrick which they have cleared.
1 For locations of these Forts, seo ante pp. 509, 510 ; also Outline Map.".
passed at a fall near its entrance into the River Chouegen, after which the road proceeds along the edge of the right bank of the Five Nations' river to the Village of the Onnontagués whence it proceeds across the country to the village of the Caskarorins [Tuscaroras ?) and the Oneidas* whence we can go to Forts Bull and Williams; also to fort Kouary without being obliged to pass the said two forts. The path or road taken by M'de Belhêtre in his expedition against the village of the Palatines may be also used. He went from the mouth of the Famine River (now Sacketts Harbor ten leagues below Chouegen; ascended this river for the distance of four leagues, and leaving it on the left followed the path leading to Oneida Lake on his righi, and came to the. Summit level at Fort Williams.
The Country through which he passed is fine; there being but few mountains. The soil is soft only in the latter part of the season. He forded three rivers the waters of which were very · high during the four days that he was going from the River Famine
to Fort Williams, a distance estimated at 24 to 30 leagues. • From Fort Williams the Mohawk river is navigable. Batteaux carry the same load as in the river Vilcrick to the portage at the Little Falls, which is about two leagues below the village of the Palatines and Fort Kouari.
From Fort Williams to Fort Kouari,' situated on the right bank of the Mohawk river, is estimated to be 12 leagues. The road follows the right bank of the river which is the south side.
Leaving Fort Williams there is a road that unites with that by which horses and cattle pass from Fort Kouari and Chouagen. This road is bad for about four leagues after leaving Fort Williams. The Country is marshy. "Carriages (les trains) travel it in winter and during ihe summer, and it can be easily passed on horseback
' Note in the Original. --The road goes to the great Oneida Village, about two leagues from the Lake. A picket Fort with four bastions, had been constructed in this Village by the English. It was destroyed by the Oneidas in observance of their promise given at a council held between them & the Marquis de Vaudreuil. Each of its sides might have been one hundred paces. There is a second Oneida Village, called the little village, situated on the bank of the Lake. There is no fort in the latter.
I For location of Fort Kouari see ante p. 516.
at all times, though in some places there is a great deal of mud. After these four leagues, caits can easily go as far as Fort Kouari. Having traveled three leagues on this road which is five leagues from Fort Kouari, we come to the forks of two roads one of which, to the left, leads to the Palatines' village by fording the Mohawk river.
" Continuing along the high road, which is on the right bank of the River Mohawk, to go to Fort Kouari, a creek is met that must be forded. Here was a grist-mill that has been burnt. One league before reaching Fort Kouari another small stream is encountered over which there is a bridge. This stream is fordable almost at all seasons. There was, also, a saw-mill on this creek which has been burnt.
Fort Kouari is situate on the right side of the Mohawk river, on a small hill on the edge of that river's bank. It is a large three story stone house with port holes (crénelée) at each story, and likewise in the basement for the purpose of cross firing. There are some small pieces above. The house is covered with plank and shingles. It was built as a store and depot for Choueguen. It is surrounded by a ditch at a distance of about 30 feet. This ditch is six feet deep and seven wide. The crown of the ditch inside is planted with palisades in an oblique form ; they are well jointed the one to the other. Behind these there is a parapet of earth so as to be able to fire over the palisades. The four angles of this parapet which is at the back of the ditch, form as it were four little bastions that reciprocally flank each other. On the West side, there is a house apart from the large one. It backs against the parapet of the palisades and serves as a barrack and guard house. There are two doors to the large building; the one at the North is a small swing door. It is used only in going to the river for water. At this side of the house there is no ditch ; only palisades fixed in boards set against the brow of the right bank of the river to support the earth. The large door of the house is on the South side; it is folding but not ironed. To go outside the palisades and ditch through this large door, you must leave the house to the left and turn to the Eastward where there is a passage. The ditch has not been excavated. The
earth serves as a bridge and road. There are paiisailes to the right and left, on both sides of the way the whole width of the ditch. Outside the ditch there is a folding gate. There is no other barrier nor chevaux-de-frise in front. The nearest house outside the fort is about 150 paces. Opposite this fort in the river is a small cultivated island which can be reached at low water by fording.
From Fort Kouari to that of Cannatchocary is four leagues. Some twenty houses are located at a distance one from another, within the space of one league of this road, which is through a fiat country. After making this league we go up a mountain that occupies two hours to ascend and descend. The country !hroughout the whole of this space is covered with wood. After ilescending, two houses somewhat distant one from the other are in the · league which is atill to be travelled to get to Cannatchocari.
The Inhabitants of this. Country are Palatines or Germans. They forin a Company with some who dwell above the Fail' on the other side of the River which is the left bank. This compar.y consists of about 80 men. The road from the one to the other of these two Forts is good for all sorts of carriages.
Fort Cannatchocari is situated at the side of the Mohawk river on the right bank. It is a square of four bastions of upright pickets joined together with lintels. They are fifteen feet high, about one foot square with port holes inserted from distance to distance with a stage all round to fire from.
This Fort is one hundred paces on each side. It is not surrounded by a ditch. There are some small pieces of cannon at each of its bastions, and a house at each curtain to serve as a store and barrack. Five or six families of Mohawk Indians reside outside the fort. .
From Fort Cannatchocari to Fort Hunter is about 12 leagues ; the road is pretty good; carriages pass over it; it continues along the banks of the Mohawk river. About a hundred houses, at a greater or less distance from one another are found within this length of road. There are some situated also about half a league
in the interior. The inhabitants of this section are Germans who compose a company of about 100 men each.
Fort Hunter is situated on the borders of the Mohawk river, and is of the same form as that of Cannatchocari, with the exception that it is twice as large. There is likewise a house at each curtain. The cannon at each bastion are from 7 to 9 pounders. The pickets of this Fort are higher than those of Cannatchocari. There is a church or temple in the middle of the Fort; in the interior of the fort are also some thirty cabins of Mohawk Indians, which is the most considerable village. This fort, like that of Cannatchocari, has no ditch ; there's only a large swing door at the entrance.
Leaving Fort Hunter a creek' is passed at the mouth of which that fort is located. It can be forded, and crossed in batteaux in summer and on the ice in winter. There are some houses outside under the protection of the Fort in which the country people seek shelter when they fear or learn that an Indian or French war party is in the field.
From Fort Hunter to Chenectedi or Corlar is seven leagues. The public carriage way continues along the right bank of the Mohawk river. About 20 to 30 houses are found within this distance separated the one from the other from about a quarter to half a league. The Inhabitants of this section are Dutch. They form a company with some other inhabitants of the left bank of the Mohawk river, about 100 men strong.
Chenectedi or Corlar, situated on the bank of the Mohawk river, is a village of about 300 houses. It is surrounded by upright pickets, flanked from distance to distance. Entering this village by the gate on the Fort Hunter side, there is a fort to the right which forms a species of citadel in the interior of the village itself. It is a square, flanked with four bastions or demi-bastions, and is constructed half of masonry and half of timbers piled one over the other above the masonry. It is capable of holding 2 or 300 men. There are some pieces of cannon as a battery on the rampart. It is not encircled by a ditch. The entrance is through a large swing gate raised like a drawbridge. By penetrating the
. 1 Schoharie Creek.